9780190690816

Invitation to World Religions

by ; ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190690816

  • ISBN10:

    019069081X

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-07-02
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Featuring a unique, consistent, and modular chapter structure--"Teachings," "History," and "Way of Life"--and numerous pedagogical features, Invitation to World Religions, Third Edition, invites students to explore the world's great religions with respect and a sense of wonder. This chapter structure enables students to navigate each religion in a consistent and systematic way and to make comparisons between religions. The book describes the essential features of each religion and shows how they have responded to basic human needs and to the cultural contexts in which they developed. The authors also encourage students to develop an appreciation for what religious beliefs and practices actually mean to their adherents.

Author Biography


Jeffrey Brodd is Professor of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.

Layne Little is Lecturer of Religious Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.

Bradley Nystrom is Professor of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.

Robert Platzner is Professor of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.

Richard Shek is Professor of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.

Erin Stiles is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Nevada, Reno.

Table of Contents


*=New to this Edition
Preface
CHAPTER 1. AN INVITATION TO THE STUDY OF WORLD RELIGIONS
Approaching the Study of World Religions
Religion as a Subject of Academic Inquiry
What Religions Do
Religious Questions and Challenges
* Religion and Violence
Dimensions of Religions
Teachings
Historical Development
Way of Life
Religions in the Modern World
Modernization and Related Phenomena
The Changing Roles of Women in Religions
The Encounter of Religion and Science
An Academic Approach to the Study of Religions
Balance and Empathy
Comparative and Multidisciplinary Approaches
CHAPTER 2. INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS OF NORTH AMERICA
The Teachings of Native Religions
Creation and Origins
Life Lessons in Myths
The Importance of Balance: Humanity and the Natural World
Sacred Language and Sacred Time
* VOICES: An Interview with Brian Melendez
The History of North American Indigenous Religions
Conquest, Colonization, and Christianity
Resistance Movements
*GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: The World Turns to Standing Rock
Native Religions and Non-Native Practitioners
North American Indigenous Religions as a Way of Life
Healing
Women and Gender in Native American Religions
Rites of Passage
Rites of Renewal and Rites of Purification
CHAPTER 3. INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS OF AFRICA
The Teachings of Indigenous African Religions
Myths
Supernatural Beings: Gods and Spirits
VOICES: Interviews with Sammy Letoole and Festus Ogunbitan
Humanity and the Human Condition
The History of Indigenous African Religions
The Spread of Islam
Christianity and Colonialism
Reform and Resistance
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: African Religions in the Americas
Indigenous African Religions as a Way of Life
Communicating with the Spirit World
Using Supernatural Powers
Women in Indigenous African Religions
Life Cycle Rituals
CHAPTER 4. HINDUISM
The Teachings of Hinduism
Hindu Beliefs about Divine Reality
The Individual and the Quest for Liberation
Three Paths to Liberation
Vendanta: The Predominant School of Hindu Philosophy
The Individual and Society
VOICES: An Interview with Jayashree Venkatesan
Hindu Sacred Texts
The Sects of Hinduism
The History of Hinduism
The Indus Valley Civilization
Who Are the Aryans?
The Vedic Period
The Age of the Guptas
The Development of Bhakti
Tantra
Hindus and Muslims During the Mughal Dynasty
Colonial Critique and the Hindu Reformers
Gandhi and the Struggle for Indian Independence
Hindutva and Hindu Nationalism
* Hindu Nationalism and Violence
GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: From India to Iowa: Hinduism in the Heartland
The Future of Hinduism
Hinduism as a Way of Life
Temples and Icons
Forms of Worship
Rites of Passage
Pilgrimage
Women in Hinduism
Festivals and Holidays
Performance Traditions
CHAPTER 5. BUDDHISM
The Teachings of Buddhism
The Life of the Buddha
What Did the Buddha Teach?
VOICES: An Interview with Katherine Sei
The History of Buddhism
The Period of the Buddhist Councils
Theravada Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism
Vajrayana Buddhism
Buddhism in India
Buddhism Beyond India
The Western Transmission
* Buddhism and Sectarian Violence: Myanmar and Sri Lanka
Buddhists in the World Today
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: The Emergence of Western Buddhism
Buddhism as a Way of Life
Who Is a Buddhist?
The Buddha's Teachings on Ethics and "Skillful Means"
Meditation and the Cultivation of Mind
Mantra, Liturgical Ritual, and Chanting
Conversion and Ordination
Women in Buddhism
Sacred Places and Objects of Veneration
Holidays and Festivals
Funerary Rites
CHAPTER 6. JAINISM
The Teachings of Jainism
Mahavira, the Twenty-fourth and Last Tirthankara of This World Cycle
An Eternal Succession of Tirthankaras
Jainism and Hinduism
Ahimsa and Asceticism: Jainism's Ideals
Theory of the Universe
Liberation and Salvation
The History of Jainism
The Indian Historical Context
The Legacy of the Tirthankaras: Jainism through the Centuries
Jainism in Today's World
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Jains Beyond India
Jainism as a Way of Life
Digambaras and Shvetambaras
VOICES: An Interview with Girish Shah
The Ascetic Life
Jainism and Women
The Religious Life of the Jain Laity
CHAPTER 7. SIKHISM
The Teachings of Sikhism
The Life of Guru Nanak
Sikh Scripture
On God, the Human Condition, and Spiritual Liberation
Teachings of Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa
The History of Sikhism
Guru Nanak's Successors
Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa
Sikhs in Conflict and in Search of Nationhood
Sikhs in the Diaspora
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: A Century of Sikhs in America
Sikhism as a Way of Life
VOICES: An Interview with Onkar Singh
Daily Devotional Practices
Sikh Worship in the Gurdwara
Life-Cycle Rituals
Worship, Work, and Charity
Women and Sikhism
Sikh Identity
CHAPTER 8. CHINESE RELIGIONS: CONFUCIANISM AND DAOISM
The Teachings of Confucianism and Daoism
Ancient Chinese Religious Views
The Teachings of Confucius
Confucianism and Women
The Teachings of Daoism
Daoism and Women
The History of Confucianism and Daoism
The History of Confucianism
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Confucianism in Korea
The History of Daoism
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Daoism in Feng Shui and Martial Arts
Confucianism and Daoism as Ways of Life
Confucian Rituals
VOICES: An Interview with Jason Ch'ui-hsiao Tseng
Daoist Practices
CHAPTER 9. SHINTO
The Teachings of Shinto
The Meaning of Kami
Creation Myth in the Kojiki
VOICES: An Interview with Watanabe Minoru
The History of Shinto
Medieval Shinto
The Modern Period
* Ultranationalism, Imperialism, and Conflict
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Anime and Shinto
Shinto as a Way of Life
Fertility Rites
Rites of Purification, Presentation, Petition, and Participation
Religious Observances throughout the Year
Shinto in Japan Today
CHAPTER 10. ZOROASTRIANISM
The Teachings of Zoroastrianism
Monotheism and Dualism
The Divine Realm
Creation and the Nature of the World
Human Nature and Human Destiny
The History of Zoroastrianism
The Background of Zoroastrianism
Zarathustra
Zoroastrian Scriptures
Zoroastrianism Through the Centuries
Zoroastrianism in the Modern World
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Zoroastrianism in New York
Zoroastrianism as a Way of Life
Ritual Practices
VOICES: An Interview with Rustom Ghadiali
Women and Zoroastrianism
Holy Days and Rites of Passage
The Zoroastrian Community: Social and Ethical Responsibilities
CHAPTER 11. JUDAISM
The Teachings of Judaism
God
Torah
Covenant and Election
Israel
The Messiah and the Messianic Age
The Afterlife
Jewish Mysticism
The History of Judaism
Dispersion, Assimilation, and Collective Identity
The Biblical Period
The Second Temple Period
The Formative Age
The Conflict between Judaism and Christianity
The Age of Philosophy and Mysticism
The Modern Era
Reform Movements in Europe and the United States
The Shoah and the State of Israel
* Religious Violence and the Future of Zionism
The Future of Judaism in the Contemporary World
Women and Judaism
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Judaism in Indiz
Judaism as a Way of Life
The Major Festivals
VOICES: An Interview with Rabbi Brad Bloom
The Minor Festivals
The Sabbath
Life-Cycle Events
Other Sacred Practices
Prayer
CHAPTER 12. CHRISTIANITY
The Teachings of Christianity
The Life of Jesus
The Teachings of Jesus
Paul and the Mission to the Gentiles
God, Creation, and Original Humanity
God as Trinity
The Consequences of Sin
Grace and Salvation
The Church
VOICES: An Interview with Terrie M. and Father Art
Scripture
Tradition
"Last Things"
The Afterlife
Christianity and Other Religions: Points of Conflict
The History of Christianity
Christianity in the Roman World
The Church in the Middle Ages
The Reformation: Protestant Challenge and the Roman Catholic Reponse
Christianity in the Modern World
* Women in Christianity
Christianity Today and Tomorrow: Trends and Prospects
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: The Kimbanguist Church in Africa
Christianity as a Way of Life
Worship
Sacraments
Church Interiors: Sacred Space
Prayer
The Liturgical Year
Veneration of Saints
Social and Political Activism
CHAPTER 13. ISLAM
THE TEACHINGS OF ISLAM
Muhammad and the Revelations
The Holy Qur'an
The Teachings of the Qur'an
Commentary on the Qur'an
The Sunnah: The Example of the Prophet
The Five Pillars
THE HISTORY OF ISLAM
The Hijra and the Growth of the Muslim Community
The Crisis of Succession and the Rightly Guided Caliphs
The Umayyads and the Abbasids
Later Islamic Empires: The Ottomans, the Mughals, and the Safavids
Islam and Nationalism
Islamic Reform Movements
Varieties of Islam: Sunni and Shi'a
* Ismalm and Political Conflict Today
Muslims in North America
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: Muslims in the West
ISLAM AS A WAY OF LIFE
* VOICES: An Interview with Dola K. and Taslima S.
The Qur'an in Daily Life
What Is Jihad?
The Islamic Year and Holidays
The Shari'ah: Islamic Law
Sufism
Marriage and Family
Women and Islam
CHAPTER 14. NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS
What Is "New" About New Religious Movements?
Modernization, Globalization, and Secularization
Theoretical Models and Social Typologies
Alternative Christianities and their Offshoots
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
* GLOBAL SNAPSHOT: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Africa
Christian Science and New Thought
Adventism
Jehovah's Witnesses
The Family (Children of God)
The Unification Church
Rastafarianism
The Rediscovery of Eastern Religious Thought
The Theosophical Society
ISKCON: The International Society for Krishna Consciousness
The Osho Rajneesh Movement
Transcendental Meditation
* Falun Gong
* VOICES: An Interview with Dr. Xinyu David Zhang
* Aum Shinrikyo: A Cult of Violence
THE REVIVAL OF ESOTERIC AND NEO-AGAN THOUGHT
Eckankar
The Raelian Movement
The Church of Scientology
Wicca
The Emergence of Universalist Religious Thought
The Baha'i Faith
Unitarian Universalism
The New Atheism
Notes
Glossary
Credits
Index

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