Iron and Steel Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-08-16
  • Publisher: Archetype Pubns
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This book will be of interest to all who seek to further their understanding of iron artefacts, their corrosion, conservation and pigments based on iron compounds, which mankind has used for millennia. The authors take the reader through some of the latest observations on the occurrence and role of compounds of iron - from the hot water undersea vents where the presence of iron pyrites is thought to be vital to the emergence of life on Earth to the discovery of jarosite on the surface of Mars, possibly indicating the occurrence of water; from the pyrophoric surprises one can have when dealing with iron artefacts taken from beneath the sea to the use of a blue oxide of iron as a pigment in mediaeval wall paintings; from rusticles on the Titanic to the analysis of colouring matter on the Turin shroud.

Author Biography

David Scott is chair of the UCLA/Getty Program for Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation, California. Gerhard Eggert is Professor for Objects Conservation at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Kuumlet;nste, Stuttgart, Germany.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. vii
Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xi
Iron and steel: an introductionp. 1
Extraction of ironp. 1
Alloying elementsp. 2
Constituents of iron and steelsp. 3
Constituents of cast ironp. 10
Iron and iron alloysp. 12
Early steelp. 19
Damascening and pattern weldingp. 21
Making cast ironp. 25
Iron dowels in structures and buildingsp. 25
Making iron platep. 26
Patination, coloration and surface finish of ironp. 26
Iron oxides and hydroxidesp. 35
Goethitep. 35
Lepidocrocitep. 37
Akaganéite and schwertmannitep. 37
Feroxyhytep. 39
Ferrihydritep. 39
Bernalitep. 39
Haematitep. 40
Oxide-coated potteryp. 46
Magnetitep. 47
Maghemitep. 49
Wüstitep. 49
Use of ilmenitep. 50
Use of iron zinc oxidep. 50
Occurrence of iron oxides in blackened stone crustsp. 50
An introduction to Potential-pH diagramsp. 51
Iron carbonatesp. 53
Iron chloridesp. 57
Ferrous and ferric chloridep. 57
Iron oxychloridep. 58
Green rustsp. 59
Green rust on cast ironp. 61
Ferrous hydroxychloridep. 61
Iron sulphides and sulphatesp. 63
Origin of the iron sulphidesp. 65
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2)p. 66
Pyrite diseasep. 67
Iron sulphatesp. 69
Jarositesp. 70
Iron arsenatesp. 71
Iron phosphatesp. 73
Vivianitep. 73
Phosphates as corrosion inhibitorsp. 79
Iron silicatesp. 81
Green earthsp. 81
Aerinitep. 82
Iron slag constituentsp. 83
Iron carboxylates and cyanidesp. 87
Iron gall inksp. 88
Prussian bluep. 92
Iron salts in historic photographic processes: cyanotypesp. 93
Iron corrosion in the soilp. 95
Deterioration in the soilp. 96
Corrosion product determination in burial environmentsp. 96
Understanding the corrosion processp. 98
Sulphate-reducing bacteriap. 102
Degradation of wood and other organic materialsp. 104
Petrification and replacement of organic material in burial environmentsp. 104
Iron corrosion in the atmospherep. 107
Rate of atmospheric rustingp. 109
Modelling atmospheric corrosionp. 109
Atmospheric corrosion and sulphatesp. 116
Atmospheric corrosion and chloridesp. 116
Other atmospheric corrosion factorsp. 117
Effects of copper and other alloying elementsp. 117
Corrosion of weathering steelsp. 117
Deterioration of historic iron structuresp. 120
The iron pillar of New Delhip. 120
Iron corrosion in cement and concrete structuresp. 121
Iron corrosion in freshwater and marine environmentsp. 123
Introduction to the conservation of iron objectsp. 127
Morphological statesp. 128
Surface appearancep. 128
Methods of protectionp. 130
Conservation of iron from the soilp. 131
Historical and early conservation treatmentsp. 131
Early impregnation techniquesp. 132
Examination techniquesp. 132
Mechanical and chemical cleaningp. 134
Techniques based on reduction and heatingp. 135
Techniques based on aqueous extractionp. 138
Measuring chloride ion concentrationp. 141
Composite iron objectsp. 141
Storage strategiesp. 142
Conservation of exposed ironworkp. 145
Inorganic coatings for ironp. 145
Organic coatings for ironp. 146
Comparative studies of modern organic coatingsp. 147
Restoration of the Statue of Libertyp. 148
Preservation of the SS Great Britainp. 149
Historic iron railings, fences and building componentsp. 149
Conservation of painted iron surfacesp. 151
Corrosion inhibitorsp. 151
The behaviour of cast iron during a firep. 153
Iron staining and associated deteriorationp. 153
Conservation of iron from marine sitesp. 155
Electrochemistry and electrolytic reductionp. 155
Iron and polyethylene glycol (PEG)p. 157
Reconstruction of the form of totally corroded iron objectsp. 158
Submarinesp. 158
On-site packingp. 159
In-situ monitoringp. 159
Conservation and decision-makingp. 161
Assessing the efficacy of treatmentp. 161
Glossary of some technical terms and descriptionsp. 163
Bibliographyp. 167
Indexp. 189
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