9780198566120

Island Biogeography Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780198566120

  • ISBN10:

    0198566123

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-02-08
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Island biogeography is the study of the distribution and dynamics of species in island environments. Due to their isolation from more widespread continental species, islands are ideal places for unique species to evolve, but they are also places of concentrated extinction. Not surprisingly, they are widely studied by ecologists, conservationists and evolutionary biologists alike. There is no other recent textbook devoted solely to island biogeography, and a synthesis of the many recent advances is now overdue. This second edition builds on the success and reputation of the first, documenting the recent advances in this exciting field and explaining how islands have been used as natural laboratories in developing and testing ecological and evolutionary theories. In addition, the book describes the main processes of island formation, development and eventual demise, and explains the relevance of island environmental history to island biogeography. The authors demonstrate the huge significance of islands as hotspots of biodiversity, and as places from which disproportionate numbers of species have been extinguished by human action in historical time. Many island species are today threatened with extinction, and this work examines both the chief threats to their persistence and some of the mitigation measures that can be put in play with conservation strategies tailored to islands.

Author Biography


Robert J. Whittaker is Professor of Biogeography at the Oxford University Centre for the Environment
Jose Maria Fernandez-Palacios is Professor of Ecology at the La Laguna University, Tenerife

Table of Contents

Preface and acknowledgementsp. v
Islands as Natural Laboratoriesp. 1
The natural laboratory paradigmp. 3
Island environmentsp. 10
Types of islandsp. 10
Modes of originp. 12
Plate boundary islandsp. 16
Islands in intraplate locationsp. 20
Environmental changes over long timescalesp. 22
Changes in relative sea level-reefs, atolls, and guyotsp. 22
Eustatic changes in sea levelp. 24
Climate change on islandsp. 26
The developmental history of the Canaries, Hawaii, and Jamaicap. 27
The physical environment of islandsp. 32
Topographic characteristicsp. 32
Climatic characteristicsp. 34
Water resourcesp. 36
Tracks in the oceanp. 37
Natural disturbance on islandsp. 38
Magnitude and frequencyp. 40
Disturbance from volcanism and mega-landslidesp. 41
Summaryp. 45
The biogeography of island life: biodiversity hotspots in contextp. 46
Introduction: the global significance of island biodiversityp. 46
Species povertyp. 49
Disharmony, filters, and regional biogeographyp. 50
Filtering effects, dispersal limits, and disharmonyp. 50
Biogeographical regionalism and the vicariance/dispersalism debatep. 52
Macaronesia-the biogeographical affinities of the Happy Islandsp. 60
Endemismp. 63
Neo- and palaeoendemismp. 63
Endemic plantsp. 65
Endemic animalsp. 67
Cryptic and extinct island endemics: a cautionary notep. 71
Summaryp. 73
Island Ecologyp. 75
Species numbers games: the macroecology of island biotasp. 77
The development of the equilibrium theory of island biogeographyp. 79
Island species-area relationships (ISARs)p. 81
Species abundance distributionsp. 82
The distance effectp. 83
Turnover, the core model (EMIB), and its immediate derivativesp. 84
Competing explanations for systematic variation in island species-area relationshipsp. 87
Island species numbers and ISARs: what have we learnt?p. 89
Area and habitat diversityp. 89
Area is not always the first variable in the modelp. 90
Distance and species numbersp. 91
Species-area relationships in remote archipelagosp. 92
Scale effects and the shape of species-area relationshipsp. 93
Species-energy theory-a step towards a more complete island species richness model?p. 97
Turnoverp. 99
Pseudoturnover and cryptoturnoverp. 100
When is an island in equilibrium?p. 101
The rescue effect and the effect of island area on immigration ratep. 102
The path to equilibriump. 103
What causes extinctions?p. 104
Summaryp. 106
Community assembly and dynamicsp. 107
Island assembly theoryp. 107
Assembly rulesp. 108
Incidence functions and trampsp. 108
The dynamics of island assemblyp. 110
Chequerboard distributionsp. 111
Combination and compatibility-assembly rules for cuckoo-dovesp. 111
Criticisms, 'null' models, and responsesp. 113
Exploring incidence functionsp. 118
Linking island assembly patterns to habitat factorsp. 122
Anthropogenic experiments in island assembly: evidence of competitive effects?p. 125
Nestednessp. 126
Successional island ecology: first elementsp. 129
Krakatau-succession, dispersal structure, and hierarchiesp. 131
Backgroundp. 131
Community successionp. 131
A dispersal-structured model of island recolonizationp. 134
Colonization and turnover-the dynamics of species listsp. 136
The degree of organization in the Krakatau assembly processp. 141
Concluding observationsp. 143
Summaryp. 143
Scale and island ecological theory: towards a new synthesisp. 145
Limitations of the dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography: a reappraisalp. 145
Scale and the dynamics of island biotasp. 147
Residency and hierarchical interdependency: further illustrations from Krakataup. 148
Forms of equilibria and non-equilibriap. 150
Temporal variation in island carrying capacitiesp. 156
The prevalence and implications of intense disturbance eventsp. 156
Variation in species number in the short and medium termp. 157
Long term non-equilibrium systemsp. 158
Implications for endemics?p. 159
Future directionsp. 161
Summaryp. 164
Island Evolutionp. 165
Arrival and changep. 167
Founder effects, genetic drift, and bottlenecksp. 167
Implications of repeated founding eventsp. 170
After the founding event: ecological responses to empty niche spacep. 172
Ecological releasep. 173
Density compensationp. 174
Character displacementp. 176
Sex on islandsp. 177
Dioecy and outcrossingp. 177
Loss of flower attractivenessp. 178
Anemophilyp. 178
Parthenogenesisp. 178
Hybridizationp. 179
Peculiarities of pollination and dispersal networks on islandsp. 179
The emergence of endemic super-generalistsp. 180
Unusual pollinatorsp. 181
Unusual dispersal agentsp. 181
Niche shifts and syndromesp. 181
The loss of dispersal powersp. 182
The development of woodiness in herbaceous plant lineagesp. 184
Size shifts in island species and the island rulep. 186
Changes in fecundity and behaviourp. 190
The island syndrome in rodentsp. 192
Summaryp. 194
Speciation and the island conditionp. 195
The species concept and its place in phylogenyp. 195
The geographical context of speciation eventsp. 199
Distributional contextp. 199
Locational and historical context-island or mainland change?p. 201
Mechanisms of speciationp. 202
Allopatric or geographical speciationp. 202
Competitive speciationp. 204
Polyploidyp. 205
Lineage structurep. 206
Summaryp. 207
Emergent models of island evolutionp. 208
Anagenesis: speciation with little or no radiationp. 208
The taxon cyclep. 209
Melanesian antsp. 209
Caribbean birdsp. 211
Caribbean anolcsp. 215
Evaluationp. 217
Adaptive radiationp. 217
Darwin's finches and the Hawaiian honeycreeper-finchesp. 219
Hawaiian crickets and drosophilidsp. 225
Adaptive radiation in plantsp. 228
From valley isolates to island-hopping radiations 230 Non-adaptive radiationp. 230
Speciation within an archipelagop. 230
Island-hopping allopatric radiations: do clades respond to islands or to habitats?p. 233
Island-hopping on the grand scalep. 237
Observations on the forcing factors of island evolutionp. 238
Variation in insidar endemism between taxap. 240
Biogeographical hierarchies and island evolutionary modelsp. 245
Summaryp. 247
Islands and Conservationp. 249
Island theory and conservationp. 251
Islands and conservationp. 251
Habitats as islandsp. 252
Minimum viable popidations and minimum viable areasp. 253
How many individuals are needed?p. 253
How big an area?p. 257
Applications of incidence functionsp. 257
Metapopulation dynamicsp. 259
The core-sink model variantp. 261
Deterministic extinction and colonization within metapopulationsp. 262
Value of the metapopulation conceptp. 263
Reserve configuration-the 'Single Large or Several Small' (SLOSS) debatep. 263
Dealing with the leftoversp. 266
Trophic level, scale, and system extentp. 266
Physical changes and the hyperdynamism of fragment systemsp. 268
Relaxation and turnover-the evidencep. 269
Succession in fragmented landscapesp. 274
The implications of nestednessp. 275
Edge effectsp. 276
Landscape effects, isolation, and corridorsp. 278
The benefits of wildlife corridorsp. 278
The benefits of isolationp. 279
Corridors or isolation?p. 281
Reserve systems in the landscapep. 281
Species that don't stay putp. 282
Does conservation biology need island theory?p. 283
A non-equilibrium world?p. 283
Ecological hierarchies and fragmented landscapesp. 285
Climate change and reserve systemsp. 286
Concluding remarks: from island biogeography to countryside biogeography?p. 287
Summaryp. 288
Anthropogenic losses and threats to island ecosystemsp. 290
Current extinctions in contextp. 290
Stochastic versus deterministic extinctionsp. 291
The scale of island losses globallyp. 292
The agencies of destructionp. 295
Predation by humansp. 295
Introduced speciesp. 295
Diseasep. 300
Habitat degradation and lossp. 302
Trends in the causes of declinep. 302
A record of passage-patterns of loss across island taxap. 305
Pacific Ocean birds and the Easter Island enigmap. 307
Indian Ocean birdsp. 312
Reptilesp. 313
Caribbean land mammalsp. 314
Island snailsp. 315
Plants in perilp. 316
How fragile and invasible are island ecosystems?p. 320
Summaryp. 322
Island remedies: the conservation of island ecosystemsp. 323
Contemporary problems on islandsp. 323
Maldives: in peril because of climatic changep. 323
Okino-Tori-Shima: the strategic economic importance of a rocky outcropp. 324
Nauru: the destruction of an islandp. 324
The Canaries: unsustainable development in a natural paradisep. 325
Contemporary problems in the Galapagos: a threatened evolutionary showcasep. 328
Some conservation responsesp. 329
Biological control-a dangerous weapon?p. 331
Translocation and release programmesp. 331
Protected area and species protection systems: the Canarian examplep. 333
Sustainable development on islands: constraints and remediesp. 336
Summaryp. 340
Glossaryp. 342
Referencesp. 351
Indexp. 383
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