Issues in Aging

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-10-18
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Opportunities and Optimism in Aging Issues in Aging, 3rdeditiontakes an optimistic view of aging and human potential in later life. This book presents the most up-to-date facts on aging today, the issues raised by these facts, and the societal and individual responses that will create a successfulold age for us all. Mark Novak presents the full picture of aging- exhibiting both the problems and the opportunities that accompany older age. The text illustrates how generations are dependent on one another and how social conditions affect both the individual and social institutions. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Understand how large-scale social issues social attitudes, the study of aging, and demographic issues affect individuals and social institutions Identify the political responses to aging and how individuals can create a better old age for themselves and the people they know Separate the myths from the realities of aging Recognize the human side of aging Trace the transformation of pension plans, health, and opportunities for personal expression and social engagement to the new ecology of aging today Note:MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit:www.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with Pearson eText (at no additional cost). ValuePack ISBN-10: 020586368X / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205863686

Table of Contents







Chapter 1:   Aging Today 

Chapter 2:   Theories and Methods  

Chapter 3:   Demography  

Chapter 4:   Personal Health and Well-Being  

Chapter 5:   The Life Course 

Chapter 6:   Race and Ethnicity  

Chapter 7:   The Health Care System  

Chapter 8:   Finances and Economics  

Chapter 9:   Retirement and Work  

Chapter 10: Housing and Transportation 

Chapter 11: Leisure, Recreation, and Education  

Chapter 12: Family Life and Social Support  

Chapter 13: Social Support  

Chapter 14: Death and Dying  

Chapter 15: Politics and Policies  




Chapter 1: Aging Today 

Why Study Aging?  


Culture as A Source of Ageism  

The Media as a Source of Ageism 

Lack of Knowledge as a Source of Ageism  

Some Facts on Aging Today  

Victimization by Fraud  

Effects of Victimization  

Fear of Crime 

The Ageless Self: Another Form of Ageism  

Responses to Ageism  

Change on the Horizon

The Media  

The Senior Market: A New Image of Aging  

Education Programs  

Intergenerational Programs  

Legislation and Social Action 



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult 


Chapter 2: Theories and Methods  

The Study of Aging: Past and Present

Early Developments in Research

Gerontology Research Today

Is Gerontology A Discipline?

Theories of Aging  

Two Levels of Theories  

Three Theoretical Perspectives  

Interpretive Perspective  

Critique of the Interpretive Perspective

Functionalist Perspective  

Age Stratification Theory: An Example of the Functionalist Perspective 

Individual Aging 

Societal Change 

Critique of the Functionalist Perspective  

Conflict Perspective  

Critique of the Conflict Perspective  

New Developments in Theory

Experimental Designs  

Cross-Sectional Designs  

Longitudinal Designs  

Quantitative and Qualitative Methods  

The Humanities  

Information Literacy: The Challenge of the Internet  

Ethical Issues in Research  

The Future of Gerontological Theory and Methods  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 3: De mography  

The Challenge of Population Aging 

What Is Population Aging  

The Demographic Transition

Three Types of Societies and Population Aging  

The Less Developed Nations  

China: A Case study of Population Aging in a Developing Nation 

The Least Developed Nations 

Ghana: A Case Study of Population Aging in a Least Developed Nation 

Summary of Aging in Developing and Least Developed Nations  

The developed nations 

Japan: A Case Study of Population Aging in a Developed Nation  

Population Aging in the United States  

Increased Numbers of Older People  

Increased Proportion of Older People  

The Causes of Population change 


Death Rates 

Birth Rates 

The Challenges of an Aging Population 

The Aging of the Older Population 

Ethnic and Racial Variations 

Regional Distribution 




Interstate Migration 

Amenity Migration 


Moderate Disability 

Major Chronic Disability 

Urban–Rural Distribution  

Changes in the Sex Ratio 

The Impact of Population Aging 

Support (or Dependency Ratios)

Critique of Dependency Ratios



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 4: Personal Health and Well-Being  

Biological Aging  

Theories of Biological Aging  

Programmed Theories  

Programmed Senescence  

Endocrine and Immunological Theory

Error Theories

Somatic Mutation Theory

Cross-Linking Theory

Free Radicals Theory

Other Theories  

The Effects of Aging on Body Systems 

Musculoskeletal System  

Sensory Changes  

Taste, Smell, and Touch 



Personal Health and Illness 

Changes in Health Status 

Limits on Activity Due to Physical Decline  

Coping with Physical Change

Improvements in Technology 

Improvements in the Environment  

Improvements in Self-Care 

Improvements in Lifestyle  

Compression of Morbidity Hypothesis 

Successful Aging  

Rowe and Kahn’s Model of Successful Aging 

The SOC Model of Successful Aging  

A Life Course Model of Successful Aging  

Anti-Aging Medicine and Science  

Social Inequality and Personal Health  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 5: The Life course 

Memory and Intelligence 

Experience and Mental Function in Later Life: The Study of Reading

Summary of Memory Research


New Models of Mental Ability in Later Life  

The Study of Wisdom in Later Life


Personality Development and the Self  

Self-Development in Later Life 

Spirituality: The Search for Meaning in Later Life

Social Psychological Change 

Disengagement Theory  

Activity Theory 

Continuity Theory  

The Life Course Perspective  

The Structure of the Life Course  

Life Events  

Psychological disorders: abnormal aging 

Organic Disorders: Cognitive Impairment in Later Life 

Functional Disorders 


Social Breakdown and Reconstruction  



Discussion Questions 

Suggested Reading 

Websites to Consult 


Chapter 6: Race and Ethnicity  

Who Are the Minority Elderly?  

Why Study Minority Aging?  

Demographic Characteristics of Dominant and Minority Group Elders 

Whites: The Dominant Group Older Population  

The Minority Older Population 

Diversity of the Minority Population 

Aging of the Minority Population 

Three Theories on Minority Group Aging 

Multiple Jeopardy  

Critique of Multiple Jeopardy Theory  


The Life Course Perspective  

Institutional Completeness: An Example of Life Course Differences  

Structured Inequality and Personal History 

The Impact of Minority Group Membership on Aging 

A Look at Four Minority Groups  

African Americans  

Hispanic Americans  

Asian Americans  

American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIAN) 

Responses to Minority Group Aging  

Future Issues  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 7: The Health Care System  

Three Models of Health Care  

The Medical Model  

The Social Model  

The Health Promotion Model  

The U.S. Health Care System Today  



Employer-Sponsored Health Care Plans  

Medigap and Long-Term Care Insurance  

The Health Care System and the Cost of Care  

Long-term Care: A Response to Older People’s Needs  

Institutional Care  

Community-Based Services 

Managed Care: Alternative Delivery Methods  

Disease Prevention and Health Promotion  

Beyond Fitness and Personal Health Promotion  

Future Issues in Health Care 






Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 8: Finances and Economics  

Historical Development of the U.S. Pension System  

The U.S. Retirement Income System Today  

Level One: Social Security  

Level Two: Employment Pensions  

Level Three: Personal Assets and Other Income  

The Impact of the Retirement Income System on Older People’s Incomes  

Inequality in Later Life  

Age Differences and Income  

Gender and Income  

Marital Status and Income  

Minority Status and Income  

Pension Reform  

Social Security Reform  

Supplemental Security Income Reform  

Private Pension Reform  

The Future  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 9: Retirement and Work  

The Social Origins of Retirement  

Retirement in the United States Today  

Women and Retirement  

Minorities and Retirement  

Alternatives to Retirement  

Early Retirement  

Partial Retirement  

Second Careers  

Personal Responses to Retirement  

Social Structures and Retirement  

The Dual Economy  

Displaced Workers  

The Future of Retirement 



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading 

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 10: Housing and Transportation 

Living Arrangements  

An Ecological Model of Housing  

Housing Options  

Single-Family Homes  

Apartment Living  

Congregate Housing and Assisted (Apartment) Living  

Subsidized Housing 

Single Room Occupancy (SRO)  

Supportive Housing  

Accessory Dwelling Units  

Home Sharing  

Retirement Communities  

Continuing Care Retirement Communities  

Low-Income, Rural, and Minority Housing  


The Future of Housing  


Public Transportation  

Private Transportation  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 11: Leisure, Recreation, and Education  


Age and Leisure  

Gender and Leisure 

Minority Status and Leisure 

Leisure Education  

New Activities in Old Age  

Outdoor Recreation  

Fitness, Health, and Well-Being  

Senior Centers  


Formal Higher Education  

Informal Educational Options  


Lifelong Learning Institutes 

The Future of Education for Older People  

Community Service and Volunteer Work  

Volunteer Opportunities  



Discussion Questions 

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 12: Family Life and Social Support  

Marriage and Widowhood  

Marital Status  




The Future of the Family



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 13: Social Support  

What is Informal Social Support?

Family Life and Family Supports  

Informal Supports for Older People 

The Role of Formal Supports  

Supports for Childless Older People  

Minority Differences in Social Support  

Websites to Consult 


Gender Roles and the Challenge of Caregiving 

The Future of Informal Support

Eldercare and the Workplace  

Older People as Family Supporters  

 Elder Abuse

The Future of Social Supports


Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 14: Death and Dying  

Death and Society 

Death in Old Age  

The Experience of Dying 

Institutional Death  

Changes in the Treatment of the Dying 

Stages of Death and Dying  

Hospice Care  

Palliative Care 

Ethical Issues  

Advance Directives  

Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide 

Mourning and Grief  



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading  

Websites to Consult  


Chapter 15: Politics and Policies  


Participation Trends among Older Voters  

Will Older People Form a Voting Bloc?  

Holding Political Office  


The American Association of Retired Persons  

The Limits of Advocacy  

The Medicare Modernization Act (MMA)  


Government and Aging Policy  

The Older Americans Act  

Generational Equity 

Civic Engagement 

The Future of Aging, Politics, and Policy 



Discussion Questions  

Suggested Reading 

Websites to Consult 


Works Consulted  

Glossary of Terms  



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