The Jewel Ornament of Liberation

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  • Format: Trade Paper
  • Copyright: 1998-01-01
  • Publisher: Snow Lion
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The Jewel Ornament of Liberation is a master work of Tibetan Buddhism.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. 13
Acknowledgmentsp. 14
Translator's Introductionp. 15
Homagep. 44
Introductionp. 45
The Primary Causep. 47
Buddha-Naturep. 49
The Working Basisp. 57
The Precious Human Lifep. 59
The Contributory Causep. 67
The Spiritual Masterp. 69
The Methodp. 77
Impermanencep. 83
The Suffering of Samsarap. 95
Karma and its Resultp. 111
Loving-Kindness and Compassionp. 125
Refuge and Preceptsp. 137
Cultivation of Bodhicittap. 147
Training in Aspiration Bodhicittap. 173
Training in Action Bodhicittap. 179
The Perfection of Generosityp. 183
The Perfection of Moral Ethicsp. 195
The Perfection of Patiencep. 205
The Perfection of Perseverancep. 213
The Perfection of Meditative Concentrationp. 219
The Perfection of Wisdom Awarenessp. 233
The Aspects of the Five Pathsp. 257
The Ten Bodhisattva Bhumisp. 263
The Resultp. 279
Perfect Buddhahoodp. 281
The Activitiesp. 295
Activities of the Buddhap. 297
Dharma Lord Gampopap. 305
Stories Referred to in the Textp. 333
App. C: Outline of the Textp. 397
App. D: A Brief Biography of the Translatorp. 413
Titles of Works Quotedp. 417
Glossaryp. 427
Notesp. 437
Bibliographyp. 459
Indexp. 467
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.


Chapter One


We need to attain unsurpassable enlightenment by freeing ourselves from the confused state of samsara. But, is it possible for inferior persons like ourselves to achieve enlightenment even if we make the effort? Why wouldn't we attain enlightenment if we made the effort! All sentient beings, including ourselves, already possess the primary cause for enlightenment, the Essence of the Well-gone One. As is stated in the King of Meditative Absorption Sutra:

The Essence of the Well-gone One pervades all migrators.

The Small Parinirvana Sutra says:

All sentient beings have the Essence of the Thus-gone One.

Also, the Sutra of the Great Parinirvana says:

For example, as butter permeates milk, likewise the Essence of the Thus-gone One pervades all sentient beings.

And in the Ornament of Mahayana Sutra:

Even though suchness is not different for any being, One is called "Thus-gone One" when it is fully purified. Therefore, all beings are of its essence.

By what reasoning can it be shown that sentient beings have Buddha-nature? Because all sentient beings are pervaded by the emptiness of Dharmakaya, because there are no differentiations in the nature of suchness, and because all beings have a "family." For these three reasons, all sentient beings are of the Buddha-nature. The Unsurpassed Tantra says:

Because the perfect form of the Buddha radiates,

Because there are no distinctions within suchness, and

Because all are in a "family,"

All sentient beings are always of the Essence of


To explain the first reason: "all sentient beings are pervaded by the emptiness of Dharmakaya" means that the ultimate Buddhahood is Dharmakaya, Dharmakaya is all-pervading emptiness, and emptiness pervades all sentient beings. Therefore, all sentient beings are of the Buddha-nature.

Saying "there are no differentiations in the nature of suchness" means that the suchness of the Buddha is identical to the suchness of sentient beings. None is better or worse; none is bigger or smaller; none is higher or lower. So, because of that, all sentient beings are of the Buddha-nature.

"All beings have a 'family'" means that all sentient beings can be categorized into the five families of the Buddha. What are they? The summary:

The disconnected family, the indefinite family,

The Hearer family, the Solitary Realizer family, and

The Mahayana family--

These are the five families of the Buddha.

I. Disconnected Family. First, what does "disconnected family" mean? It refers to those who have six traits such as no concern for what others think, no modesty, no compassion, and so forth. The great Acharya Asanga said it this way:

Even if they see the suffering and faults of the vicious samsara,

they are not moved.

Even when they hear of all the great qualities of the Buddha,

they have no faith.

They have no modesty, no thought for what others may think,

no compassion at all, and

Do not experience even a single regret when they repeatedly

commit nonvirtuous actions.

Those who maintain these six attributes have no chance to

work toward enlightenment

This is also explained in the Ornament of Mahayana Sutra:

There are some who only commit nonvirtuous actions.

There are some who consistently destroy positive qualities.

There are some who lack the virtue which leads to liberation.

So, those who have no virtue do not possess the cause of


Generally, it is said that those who have these attributes constitute the disconnected family. They will wander in samsara for a long time, but this does not mean that they will never achieve enlightenment. If they made the effort, eventually even they would achieve enlightenment. Buddha said in the White Lotus of Great Compassion Sutra:

Ananda! If a sentient being who otherwise had no chance to

achieve enlightenment would visualize the Buddha in space and

offer a flower up to that image, the result would bring that being

to nirvana. Eventually that person would achieve enlightenment,

so, for him, nirvana is attainable.

II. Indefinite Family. The nature of the indefinite family depends on contributory conditions. If they attend a Hearer spiritual master, associate with Hearer friends, or study the different Hearer texts, then those persons will awaken in the Hearer family. They will study and follow that path and become part of the Hearer family. Likewise, if those persons meet with a Solitary Realizer or a Mahayana master, then respectively they will become part of the Solitary Realizer or Mahayana family.

III. Hearer Family. The family of Hearers consists of those who fear samsara and yearn to achieve nirvana, but who have little compassion. It has been said:

One who is afraid upon seeing the suffering of samsara

And yearns to achieve nirvana

But has little interest in benefitting sentient beings--

These three are the marks of the Hearer family.

IV. Solitary Realizer Family. The Solitary Realizer family includes those who possess the above three attributes and in addition are arrogant, keep their masters' identities secret, and prefer to stay in solitary places. It has been said:

Fear at the thought of samsara, yearning for nirvana,

Little compassion, arrogance,

Secretive about their teachers, and enjoying solitude--

A wise one should understand that these are the marks of the

Solitary Realizer family.

So these two families, the Hearers and the Solitary Realizers, engage in their respective vehicles and even though they achieve the results of their practices, these results are not the final nirvana. How do they abide when they achieve their fruits? They maintain unafflicted states of meditative concentration, but those states are based on the psychic imprint of ignorance. Since their meditative concentrations are unafflicted, they believe that they have achieved nirvana and remain that way.

If their states are not the final nirvana, then one might argue that the Buddha should not have taught these two paths. Is there a reason the Buddha should teach such paths? Yes. For example, suppose great merchants from this Jambudvipa are traveling the ocean searching for jewels. After many months at sea, in some desolate place, they become completely fired and exhausted and think, "There is no way to get the jewels now." When they feel discouraged and prepare to turn back, the merchant captain manifests a huge island through his miracle power and lets all his followers rest there. After a few days, when they are fully rested and relaxed, the captain says, "We have not achieved our goal. Now we should go farther to get our jewels."

Similarly, sentient beings without courage are frightened when they hear about the Buddha's wisdom. They believe attaining Buddhahood is a great hardship, and think, "I have no ability to do this." There are other people who are not interested in entering the path, or who enter the path but turn back. To counter these problems, Buddha presented these two paths, and allows them to rest in these states. As said in the White Lotus of Sublime Dharma Sutra:

Likewise, all the Hearers

Think that they achieved nirvana,

But they have not achieved the final nirvana

Revealed by the Buddha. They are only resting.

When these Hearers and Solitary Realizers are well rested in those states, Buddha understands this and encourages them to attain Buddhahood. How does Buddha encourage them? He awakens them through his body, speech, and wisdom mind.

"Through wisdom mind" means that light radiates through the Buddha's wisdom and touches the mental bodies of the Hearers and Solitary Realizers. As soon as the light reaches them, they arise from their unafflicted meditations. Then the Buddha appears physically in front of them. With his speech he says:

O you monks! You have not finished your deeds; you have not

finished all that you are supposed to do. Your experience of nirvana

is not the final nirvana. Now all you monks have to work

toward enlightenment. You should attain the realization of the


From the White Lotus of Sublime Dharma Sutra , in verse form:

You, monks, today I declare:

You have not achieved the final nirvana.

In order to achieve the primordial wisdom of the

Omniscient One,

You must cultivate great perseverance.

Through that, you will achieve the wisdom of the

Omniscient One.

Being motivated by the Buddha in this way, these Hearers and Solitary Realizers cultivate bodhicitta. They practice the bodhisattva's path for many limitless kalpas and eventually achieve enlightenment. The Gone to Lanka Sutra relates the same thing. Also, the White Lotus of Sublime Dharma Sutra says:

These Hearers have not achieved nirvana.

By thoroughly practicing the bodhisattva's path,

They will achieve Buddhahood.

V. Mahayana Family. What kind of family is the Mahayana? The summary:

Classification, definition, synonyms,

Reason it is superior to other families,

Causal characteristics, and marks--

These six comprise the Mahayana family.

A. Classification. This family has two classifications: the naturally abiding family and the perfectly workable family.

B. Definition. Second is the explanation of the respective "essences" of these individuals. The naturally abiding family has, from beginningless time, had the potential to develop all the Buddha's qualities through suchness. The perfectly workable family has the potential to achieve all the Buddha's qualities through the power of habituating themselves in root virtue. Thus, both have the chance to achieve enlightenment.

C. Synonyms. The synonyms of family are potential, seed, sphere-element, and natural mode of abiding.

D. Superiority. The Hearer and Solitary Realizer families are inferior by virtue of the fact that they fully purify their families by dispelling only the obscuration of afflicting emotions. The Mahayana is superior because it fully purifies its family by dispelling two obscurations--afflicting emotions and the subtle obscurations to enlightenment. Therefore, the Mahayana family is superior and unsurpassed.

E. Causal Characteristics. The causal characteristics of the family are described as "awakened" and "unawakened." The awakened family has achieved the fruit perfectly, and the signs are very obvious. The unawakened family has not achieved the fruit perfectly, and its mark is not obvious. What would cause this family to awaken? This family can awaken through freedom from unfavorable contributory causes and through the support of favorable conditions. If the opposites occur, then they cannot awaken.

There are four unfavorable conditions: being born in unfavorable circumstances, having no habitual tendency toward enlightenment, entering into wrong conditions, and being heavily shrouded by the obscurations. There are two favorable conditions: the outer condition of a teacher, and the inner condition of a mind with the proper desire for the precious Dharma and so forth.

F. Marks. The marks of this family are the signs which indicate the bodhisattva family. The Ten Noble Bhumis Sutra says:

The family of wise bodhisattvas

Can be recognized by its signs

Just as fire is known by its smoke

And water is known by water birds.

In that case, what kinds of marks are there? Their bodies and speech are naturally gentle without dependence on a remedy. Their minds are less deceitful, and have loving-kindness and clarity toward sentient beings. Thus, the Ten Noble Bhumis Sutra says:

No harshness or arrogance,

Avoiding all deceit and cunning,

Having a clear, loving attitude toward all sentient beings--

This is a bodhisattva.

In other words, in whatever preparatory actions a bodhisattva undertakes, he always cultivates compassion for all sentient beings, has a great inclination toward the Mahayana teachings, has no hesitation to endure hardships, and perfectly performs the root virtue of the perfections. Thus, the Ornament of Mahayana Sutra says:

Developing compassion at the preparation stage,

Devoted interest, patience,

Perfectly performing the virtues--

These are the signs of the Mahayana family.

Thus, of these five families, those who are in the Mahayana family are very close to the cause of enlightenment. The Hearer and Solitary Realizer families will eventually lead to Buddhahood, but the cause is farther away and it will take a long time. In the indefinite family, some are close and some will take a long time. The disconnected family is known by Buddha to wander in samsara for a long time, but this does not mean that they absolutely will not attain Buddhahood. They can attain Buddhahood, but it will take a very long time. Therefore, since all sentient beings belong to one of these families, all sentient beings are of the Buddha-nature.

Thus, by the above three reasons, it has been demonstrated that all sentient beings have the Buddha-nature. Furthermore, consider these examples: silver abiding in its ore, oil abiding in a mustard seed, and butter abiding in milk. From silver ore, we can produce silver; from mustard seed, we can produce oil; and from milk, we can produce butter. Likewise, sentient beings can become Buddhas.

This is the first chapter, dealing with

the primary cause, from

The Jewel Ornament of Liberation,

the Wish-fulfilling Gem of the Noble Teachings.


Excerpted from The Jewel Ornament of Liberation by Gampopa. Copyright 1998 by Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen. Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

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