Juvenile Delinquency : A Sociological Approach

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Taking a sociological approach, this text discusses delinquency as it relates to and emerges from the youth's family, neighborhood, school, peer group, social class, and overall cultural and social environment.The authors incorporate contributions from psychologists, social workers, criminologists, and other specialists who have sought to understand, explain, control, and prevent juvenile delinquency.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxii
Conformity, Deviance, and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 1
Introduction: The Sociological Perspective and Focus on Juvenile Delinquencyp. 1
Juvenile Delinquency: The Act, the Actor, and the Audiencep. 3
Reading Objectivesp. 3
Introductionp. 3
What Is Juvenile Delinquency?p. 4
Who Is a Juvenile?p. 4
What Is Delinquency?p. 6
The Legal Definitionp. 8
The Role Definitionp. 12
Controversial Issue: "Child or Adult?"p. 13
The Societal Response Definitionp. 17
An Integrated Definition of Delinquencyp. 19
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Cultural and Legal Definitions of "Child" and "Juvenile Offender" in Other Nationsp. 20
Summaryp. 22
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 23
Referencesp. 24
A Sociological Overview: Society, Norms, Conformity, and Deviant Behaviorp. 25
Reading Objectivesp. 25
Introductionp. 25
The Sociological Perspectivep. 26
The Social Nature of Humansp. 27
The Social Imperativep. 27
Social Interactionp. 28
Social Interdependencep. 29
Social Organizationp. 30
Normsp. 31
Sources of Normsp. 31
Social Consensusp. 31
Social Conflictp. 32
Folkways and Moresp. 33
Folkwaysp. 33
Moresp. 33
Normative Behavior: Conformityp. 35
Deviant Behavior: Nonconformityp. 36
Negative Aspects of Deviancep. 38
Cross-Cultural Focus: Conformity, Deviance, and Delinquency among Native Americansp. 39
Positive Aspects of Deviancep. 42
Juvenile Delinquencyp. 44
Concept Application: "Deviance or Conformity?"p. 46
Summaryp. 48
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 49
Referencesp. 49
The Dimensions of the Delinquency Problemp. 51
Reading Objectivesp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Juvenile Delinquency Datap. 52
Validity and Reliabilityp. 52
Official Sources of Delinquency Informationp. 54
FBI Uniform Crime Reportsp. 54
Juvenile Court Statisticsp. 63
Methodologyp. 64
Findingsp. 65
The Composite Delinquent Profile: Typical or Stereotypical?p. 67
Limitations of Official Delinquency Datap. 69
Unofficial Sources of Delinquency Informationp. 71
Self-Report Studiesp. 71
Concept Application: "Undetected and Unreported Delinquency: The Missing Statistics"p. 72
Victimization Surveysp. 76
Controversial Issue: Juvenile Violence: Guns and the U.S. Constitutionp. 77
The Magnitude and Trends of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 79
Addendum: A Balanced Perspective on Youthp. 81
Cross-Cultural Focus: Juvenile Delinquency in Russiap. 82
Summaryp. 83
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 84
Referencesp. 85
Causes of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 89
Introduction: Theory and the Etiology of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 89
Biological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 92
Reading Objectivesp. 92
Introductionp. 92
The Link between Biology and Behavior: Myths and Folklorep. 92
The Classical School of Criminological Thoughtp. 92
The Positive School of Criminologyp. 92
Twentieth-Century Constitutional Typologiesp. 96
The Continuing Search for the Biological Connectionp. 98
Concept Application: "An Ugly Girl"p. 98
Genderp. 99
Race and Ethnicityp. 101
Agep. 102
Genetic Crime Causation: The XYY Hypothesisp. 104
Diet and Deviant Behaviorp. 106
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Study of Twins and Adopted Children in Scandinaviap. 106
Brain Malfunctionsp. 109
Sociobiological Explanationsp. 111
Controversial Issue: Heredity Versus Environment in Deviant and Delinquent Behaviorp. 112
Summaryp. 113
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 115
Referencesp. 115
Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 119
Reading Objectivesp. 119
Introductionp. 119
The Psychogenic Approachp. 120
The Discovery of the Unconsciousp. 122
The Formation of Personalityp. 122
Freudian Theory as an Explanation of Crime and Delinquencyp. 123
Psychoanalysisp. 124
Projective Testsp. 124
The Rorschach Ink-Blot Testp. 125
Projective Tests and Homicidal Childrenp. 125
Delinquent Acts as Symptomsp. 126
Conduct Disordersp. 127
Other Psychogenic Explanations of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 128
Early Theories of Feeblemindednessp. 128
Controversial Issues: The Debate over Television Violence, Childhood Personality Development, and Criminal Behaviorp. 129
Neurological Abnormalitiesp. 131
The Flawed Personalityp. 134
Adolescent Identity Crisisp. 136
Insufficient Moral Developmentp. 138
Predictors of Youth Violencep. 140
Criticisms and Limitations of the Psychogenic Approachp. 141
Critique of Theoretical Assumptions and Conceptsp. 141
Critique of Research Methodologyp. 141
Critique of Psychogenic Applications to Crime and Delinquencyp. 142
Concept Application: The Psychological and Social Impacts on Victims of Crime and Delinquencyp. 143
Summaryp. 144
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 145
Referencesp. 146
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Strain and Cultural Transmission Theoriesp. 149
Reading Objectivesp. 149
Introductionp. 149
Theoryp. 150
Social Strain Theoriesp. 151
Durkheim's Concept of Anomiep. 151
Merton's Theory of Anomiep. 152
Cohen's "Delinquent Boys"p. 155
Cloward and Ohlin's "Delinquency and Opportunity"p. 155
Contributions of Social Strain Theoriesp. 158
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Strain Theoriesp. 159
Agnew's General Strain Theoryp. 160
Controversial Issue: Social Structure as a Proposed Cause of Urban Crime and Delinquencyp. 161
Cultural Transmission Theoriesp. 162
Sellin's Theory of Culture Conflictp. 163
Burgess' Concentric Zone Theoryp. 163
Shaw and McKay's "High Delinquency Areas"p. 165
Miller's Focus on Lower Class Culturep. 165
Contributions of Cultural Transmission Theoriesp. 167
Criticisms and Limitations of Cultural Transmission Theoriesp. 168
Concept Application: Searching for Causal Explanations of Contemporary School Shootingsp. 170
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 172
Referencesp. 172
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Social Learning and Social Control Theoriesp. 174
Reading Objectivesp. 174
Introductionp. 174
Social Learning Theoriesp. 176
Sutherland and Cressey's Theory of Differential Associtionp. 176
Glaser's Concept of Differential Identificationp. 177
Akers's Theory of Differential Reinforcementp. 179
Contributions of Social Learning Theoriesp. 179
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Learning Theoriesp. 180
Concept Application: Grand Theft-Autop. 181
Social Control Theoriesp. 184
Reckless' Containment Theoryp. 185
Sykes and Matza's Techniques of Neutralizationp. 186
Hirschi's Social Bond Theoryp. 189
Contributions of Social Control Theoriesp. 190
Controversial Issue: Religiosity and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 192
Criticisms and Limitations of Social Control Theoriesp. 194
Cross-Cultural Focus: Criminality among the Children of Immigrants in Western Europep. 195
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 196
Referencesp. 196
Sociological Explanations of Juvenile Delinquency: Labeling and Radical Theoriesp. 199
Reading Objectivesp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Labeling Theoriesp. 200
Early Contributions to Labeling Theoryp. 201
Tannenbaum's Concept of "Tagging"p. 201
Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviancep. 202
Becker's Developmental Career Modelp. 203
Contributions of Labeling Theoryp. 204
Criticisms and Limitations of Labeling Theoryp. 206
Radical Theoriesp. 207
The Marxian Heritagep. 209
Quinney's Social Reality of Crime and Delinquencyp. 209
Greenberg's Focus on Adolescent Frustrationp. 210
Schwendingers's Instrumental Theoryp. 211
Contributions of Radical Theoriesp. 213
Criticisms and Limitations of Radical Theoriesp. 214
Concept Application: Power Control Theory: Females in a Male Worldp. 216
An Overview of the Sociological Explanationsp. 218
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 218
Referencesp. 219
The Future for Causal Explanations of Delinquency: The Ongoing Process of Theory Buildingp. 221
Reading Objectivesp. 221
Introduction: A Review of Past Theory Building for Explaining Juvenile Delinquencyp. 221
A Renewed Examination of Delinquency Motivation: "Crime Is Fun!"p. 222
Making Decisions for Delinquency: Rational Choice Theoryp. 225
Concept Application: The Jackass Scrapbooksp. 225
The Punishment Response: Deterrence Theoryp. 227
Evaluation of Rational Choice and Deterrence Theoriesp. 228
Back to the Future: The Prospects and Direction for New Theory Buildingp. 229
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 232
Referencesp. 232
Juvenile Delinquency in a Social Contextp. 235
Introduction: Collective Behavior and Social Groupingsp. 235
The Family and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 237
Reading Objectivesp. 237
Introductionp. 237
The Changing Role of the Familyp. 237
Increasing Importance of the Nuclear Family and the Creation of "Adolescence"p. 239
The Family as an Agent of Socializationp. 240
Working Mothers and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 241
Controversial Issue: Latchkey Children: Independence or Neglect?p. 243
Other Family Variables and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 245
Social Classp. 245
Family Size and Birth Orderp. 246
Family Interactionp. 248
Parental Disciplinep. 249
Single-Parent Families and Delinquencyp. 252
The Family and Delinquency Preventionp. 255
Concept Application: The Role of the Family in Preventing Delinquencyp. 256
Summaryp. 258
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 259
Referencesp. 260
Schools and Delinquencyp. 265
Reading Objectivesp. 265
Introductionp. 265
The School as an Arenap. 265
Schools and the Socialization Processp. 266
Juvenile Delinquency and the School Experiencep. 268
Schools as a Screening Devicep. 269
Cross-Cultural Focus: Self-Concept and Delinquency among Chinese Schoolchildrenp. 271
Schools as "Combat Zones"p. 275
Controversial Issue: "Dealing with the Problem of Truancy"p. 276
Vandalism and Destructionp. 278
Violence and Personal Attacksp. 279
Concept Application: Bullying and School Violencep. 282
School Safety and "Zero Tolerance"p. 284
School as Bureaucracyp. 286
Schools and Delinquency Preventionp. 286
Summaryp. 289
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 290
Referencesp. 290
The Youth Subculturep. 295
Reading Objectivesp. 295
Introductionp. 295
Culture, Subcultures, and Counterculturesp. 296
The Creation of a Youth Subculturep. 296
Cross-Cultural Focus: Japanese Youth Subculture, Skinheads, and Counterculturep. 298
Role of the Youth Subculturep. 299
Distinctive Elements of the Youth Subculturep. 301
Youth Valuesp. 301
Concept Application: The American Youth Subculture: Youth Values in the 21st Centuryp. 302
Dress, Grooming, and Fadsp. 304
Tatoosp. 306
Mass Mediap. 307
Languagep. 308
Controversial Issue: Censoring Rock Musicp. 309
The Youth Subculture and Juvenile Delinquencyp. 311
Juvenile Runawaysp. 311
Juvenile Prostitutionp. 313
Juveniles and Drugsp. 315
Juveniles and Sexp. 317
Youth Countercultures and Delinquencyp. 319
Teenage Satanic Groupsp. 319
Youth Hate Groupsp. 320
The Youth Subculture and Delinquency Preventionp. 322
Summaryp. 323
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 324
Referencesp. 325
Juvenile Gangs and Delinquent Behaviorp. 330
Reading Objectivesp. 330
Introductionp. 330
Predatory Youths: A National Alarmp. 330
The Solitary Delinquentp. 331
Group Delinquencyp. 333
The Play Groupp. 333
The Juvenile Ganp. 335
What Is a Gang?p. 335
History of Youth Gangsp. 337
Contemporary Youth Gangs in the United Statesp. 338
Number of Gangs and Membersp. 338
Localep. 339
The Motives for Gang Membershipp. 341
Concept Application: The Profit Motive: Group Shoplifting and "The Swarm"p. 342
Initiation Ritualsp. 343
Gang Organizationp. 345
The Near Groupp. 345
Gang Graffiti, Slanguage, and Symbolsp. 346
Composition of Gang Membershipp. 349
Social Classp. 349
Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangsp. 350
Female Participation in Delinquent Gangsp. 352
Gang Violencep. 355
Concept Application: "The Weapon of Choice: The Dogs of War"p. 356
Drug Franchises and Gang Warfarep. 358
Gang Rapep. 359
Dyads and Triadsp. 360
Explanatory Theories of Gang Formation and Behavior: A Summary and Synthesisp. 360
Cross-Cultural Focus: Urban Youth Gangs in Russiap. 363
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 365
Referencesp. 366
Social Control: The Juvenile Justice Systemp. 371
Introduction: Elements of Social Controlp. 371
Juveniles and the Policep. 373
Reading Objectivesp. 373
Introductionp. 373
Juvenile Encounters with Policep. 373
Policing Juvenilesp. 375
Law Enforcement Rolep. 376
Crime Prevention Rolep. 377
Cross-Cultural Focus: Policing Juveniles in Great Britainp. 377
Police Discretion in Handling Juvenilesp. 380
Legal Factorsp. 382
Extralegal Factorsp. 384
Police and Due Processp. 388
Police, Community Policing, and Delinquency Preventionp. 391
Controversial Issue: Targeting Serious Habitual Offenders: Delinquency Prevention or Police Harassment?p. 392
Summaryp. 394
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 395
Referencesp. 396
Juvenile Courtp. 399
Reading Objectivesp. 399
Introductionp. 399
Historical Background of the Juvenile Courtp. 400
Cross-Cultural Focus: Development of the Juvenile Court in Canadap. 401
The Child Savers Movementp. 402
The Juvenile Courtp. 403
The Juvenile Court and Due Processp. 405
Juvenile Court Proceduresp. 408
Intakep. 409
Adjudicationp. 411
Dispositionp. 412
The Role of Attorneys in Juvenile Courtp. 414
The District Attorneyp. 414
The Defense Attorneyp. 416
Controversial Issue: The Use of Attorneys in the Juvenile Courtp. 416
Criticisms of the Juvenile Courtp. 418
The Multifaceted JuveniLe Courtp. 420
The Future of the Juvenile Courtp. 422
Summaryp. 423
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 424
Referencesp. 424
Supreme Court Rulings Citedp. 426
Juvenile Correctionsp. 427
Reading Objectivesp. 427
Introductionp. 427
Social Control and Deterrence Theoryp. 428
Voluntary Social Controlp. 428
Cross-Cultural Focus: The Caning of an American Youth in Singapore: Justice or Abuse?p. 429
Informal Social Controlp. 430
Formal Social Controlp. 433
Juvenile Probationp. 433
Restitution and "Restorative Justice"p. 435
Juvenile Placementp. 436
Juvenile Aftercarep. 438
Controversial Issue: Institutionalization versus Community Treatmentp. 439
Waiver: Remanding Juveniles to Adult Courtsp. 440
Juveniles in Adult Jails and Prisonsp. 443
Capital Punishment for Juveniles and Roper v. Simmonsp. 444
Controversial Issue: Should Juveniles Be Held in Adult Jails and Prisons?p. 445
Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversionp. 449
House Arrestp. 451
Youth Service Bureausp. 451
Scared Straight!p. 452
S.H.A.P.E.U.P.p. 453
VisionQuestp. 454
Juvenile Boot Campsp. 454
Other Diversion Programsp. 456
Evaluation of Deinstitutionalization, Community Corrections, and Diversionp. 456
Summaryp. 457
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 458
Referencesp. 459
Strategies for Dealing with Juvenile Delinquencyp. 463
Introduction: Approaching Treatment and Prevention in a Social Contextp. 463
Treatment and Prevention Strategiesp. 465
Reading Objectivesp. 465
Introductionp. 465
Treatment Ideology and Delinquency Treatment Programsp. 466
Controversial Issue: Applying the Medical Model in the Treatment of Delinquencyp. 467
Behavior Modificationp. 468
Reality Therapyp. 469
Group and Individual Counseling and Therapyp. 470
Prevention Ideology and Delinquency Prevention Programsp. 472
Early Identificationp. 472
Predelinquents and Early Interventionp. 473
Sociological Approaches to Delinquency Treatment and Preventionp. 474
Cross-Cultural Focus: Delinquency Prevention in Japanp. 475
The Chicago Area Projectp. 476
The Mid-City Projectp. 477
Mobilization for Youthp. 477
Minnesota Youth Advocate Program/Urban Leaguep. 478
Neighborhood Youth Corps and Job Trainingp. 478
The Highfields Projectp. 479
The Provo Experimentp. 480
The Millcreek Youth Correctional Facilityp. 481
The Paint Creek Youth Centerp. 481
Project New Pridep. 481
Mentoring Programsp. 482
Other Programsp. 482
Mobilizing the Community to Prevent Delinquencyp. 484
Crimestoppers and Hotlinesp. 484
Neighborhood Watch and Youth Crime Watchp. 485
Guardian Angelsp. 485
S.H.O.D.I.p. 487
Gang Intervention and Prevention Programsp. 487
Evaluation of Delinquency Treatment and Prevention Strategiesp. 488
Summaryp. 488
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 489
Referencesp. 490
Rethinking the Delinquency Problemp. 493
Reading Objectivesp. 493
Introductionp. 493
The Social Nature of Juvenile Delinquencyp. 494
Eliminating the Marginal Status of Juvenilesp. 496
Rites of Passagep. 497
Meaningful Social Participationp. 500
Concept Application: Meaningful Social Participation for Youthsp. 502
Standardization or Elimination of Juvenile Codesp. 503
Decriminalization of Status Offensesp. 505
Revision of the Juvenile Courtp. 506
Limited Jurisdictionp. 506
Due Processp. 507
Professional Judges and Court Personnelp. 508
Dispositional Alternativesp. 508
Other Revisionsp. 508
Controversial Issue: Should Juvenile Courts Be Abolished?p. 510
Modification of Juvenile Correctionsp. 511
Strengthening the Familyp. 514
Changing the Educational Systemp. 515
Redefining Juvenile Delinquencyp. 517
Summaryp. 519
Concept Integration: Questions and Topics for Study and Discussionp. 521
Referencesp. 521
Glossaryp. 524
Name Indexp. 543
Subject Indexp. 551
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