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9781593453183

Juvenile Justice : An Introduction

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781593453183

  • ISBN10:

    1593453183

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: ANDERSON PUB CO

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Table of Contents

Introduction---The Definition and Extent of Delinquency
1(26)
Introduction
1(1)
Defining Delinquency
2(8)
Criminal Law Definitions
2(1)
Status Offense Definitions
3(1)
Social/Criminological Definitions
4(1)
What is a Juvenile?
5(5)
The Extent of Delinquency
10(15)
Official Measures of Delinquency
10(1)
Uniform Crime Reports
10(5)
Juvenile Court Statistics
15(1)
Juvenile Corrections Statistics
16(3)
Summary of Official Statistics
19(1)
Self-Report Measures of Delinquency
19(3)
Age Distribution
22(1)
Race Distribution
23(1)
Social Class Distribution
23(1)
Sex Distribution
23(1)
Critique of Self-Report Data
24(1)
Comparing the Delinquency Measures
24(1)
Summary
25(1)
Discussion Questions
26(1)
The History of Juvenile Justice
27(20)
Introduction
27(1)
Property and Person
27(4)
The Rise of Juvenile Institutions
31(4)
Houses of Refuge
32(1)
New Reformatories
33(1)
Institutions for Females
34(1)
The Establishment of the Juvenile Court
35(6)
The Growth of the Juvenile Court
35(2)
The Legal Philosophy of the Court
37(3)
Problems of the Court
40(1)
Benevolence or Self-Interest?
41(2)
Juvenile Justice from 1920 to the 1960s
43(1)
Changes Since the 1970s
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
Discussion Questions
45(2)
Explaining Delinquency---Biological and Psychological Approaches
47(28)
Introduction
47(1)
Theoretical Schools of Thought
48(4)
The Classical School
48(2)
The Positivistic School
50(1)
Neoclassicism and a Summary
51(1)
Biological and Sociobiological Theories
52(10)
Physical Appearance
52(1)
Lombroso's Atavism
52(1)
Somatotypes
53(2)
Genetic-Inheritance Studies
55(1)
Twin Studies
55(1)
Adoption Studies
56(1)
Biosocial Factors
57(1)
Endocrine/Hormone Influences
58(1)
Orthomolecular/Chemical Imbalances
59(1)
The Central Nervous System
60(1)
Implications for Juvenile Justice
61(1)
Psychological Explanations
62(10)
Psychoanalytic Explanations
62(3)
Developmental Approaches
65(1)
Interpersonal Maturity
65(1)
Moral Development
66(1)
Learning Theories
67(1)
Personality and Delinquency
68(2)
Mental Deficiency and Delinquency
70(2)
Implications for Juvenile Justice
72(1)
Summary
72(1)
Discussion Questions
73(2)
Sociological Explanations of Delinquency
75(30)
Introduction
75(1)
The Ecological Perspective
76(5)
Concentric Zones
77(1)
Shaw and McKay: Social Disorganization
78(1)
Social Areas
79(1)
Critique of the Ecological Approach
80(1)
Learning Theory
81(3)
Sutherland: Differential Association
81(2)
Modifications in Differential Association
83(1)
Subcultural Theories
84(4)
The Work of Cohen and Miller
84(2)
Sykes and Matza: Techniques of Neutralization
86(1)
Critique of the Subcultural Approach
87(1)
Routine Activities and Rational Choice
88(2)
Anomie and Strain
90(3)
The Form of Society and Anomie
90(1)
Merton: Modes of Adaptation
91(1)
General Strain Theory
92(1)
Assessing Strain Theory
93(1)
Social Control Theory
93(4)
Hirschi: Control Theory
93(2)
Reckless: Containment Theory
95(1)
Self-Control Theory
96(1)
The Labeling Perspective
97(4)
The Construction of Self-Image
97(1)
Lemert: Primary and Secondary Deviance
98(1)
Status Degradation
99(1)
The Impact of the Labeling Perspective
100(1)
The Integration and Elaboration of Theories
101(2)
The Impact of Theories on Juvenile Justice
103(1)
Summary
104(1)
Discussion Questions
104(1)
Gang Delinquency
105(34)
Introduction
105(1)
Gangs Defined
106(2)
Early Gang Research
108(2)
Thrasher's Gangs
108(1)
Bloch and Neiderhoffer: Gangs as a Natural Response
109(1)
Yablonsky: Near Groups
110(1)
The Extent of Gang Membership
110(4)
Characteristics of Gangs
114(7)
Age
114(1)
Social Class
115(1)
Race and Ethnicity
116(1)
Females and Gangs
117(1)
Organization and Size
118(1)
Gang Migration
119(1)
Summary
120(1)
Why Do Youths Join Gangs?
121(2)
Gang Behavior
123(6)
Do Gangs Cause Delinquency?
124(1)
Gang Behavior and Types of Gangs
125(1)
Drug Activity
126(1)
Gang Violence
126(1)
Firearms and Gang/Delinquent Behavior
127(1)
Explaining Gang Behavior
128(1)
Intervention with Gangs
129(7)
Detached Worker Programs
131(1)
Legal/Law Enforcement Efforts
132(1)
The G.R.E.A.T. Program
133(2)
A Planned Comprehenvis Response to Gangs
135(1)
Overview of Interventions
136(1)
Summary
136(1)
Discussion Questions
137(2)
Drugs and Delinquency
139(32)
Introduction
139(1)
Gauging the Extent of Drug Use
140(7)
Drug Use Among Adolescents
140(5)
The Extent of Drug Use Among Offenders
145(2)
A Summary of Youthful Drug Use
147(1)
The Drugs-Delinquency Connection
147(4)
Possible Relationships
147(2)
Research on the Drugs--Delinquency Relationship
149(1)
Delinquency Causes Drug Use
149(1)
Drug Use Causes Delinquency
150(1)
Reciprocity and Spuriousness
150(1)
Summarizing the Relationship
151(1)
Interventions
151(18)
Treatment Approaches
152(1)
Maintenance and Detoxification Programs
152(2)
Therapeutic/Residential Communities and Outpatient Programs
154(2)
Treatment Summary
156(1)
Prevention Approaches
156(2)
The ``Just Say No'' Campaign and Similar Programs
158(1)
Knowledge/Education Programs
159(1)
Affective Approaches
159(1)
Life Skills Training Approaches
160(1)
The D.A.R.E. Program
161(3)
Prevention Summary
164(1)
Alternative Responses to Drug Use
164(1)
Increased Enforcement
164(1)
Enforcement Coupled with Treatment
165(3)
Ready Availability of Drugs
168(1)
Summary: The Response of the Juvenile Justice System
169(1)
Discussion Questions
170(1)
Policing and Juveniles
171(30)
Introduction
171(1)
Statistics on Police Work with Juveniles
172(1)
The Police Role
172(11)
Community or Problem-Solving Policing
173(4)
Concerns about Community or Problem-Solving Policing
177(1)
``Broken Windows'' Policing
177(1)
Questions about ``Broken Windows'' Theory and Policing
178(2)
CompStat Policing
180(3)
Citizen Attitudes Toward Police
183(4)
Implications of the Attitudinal Research
186(1)
Three Recent Issues in Policing Concerning Juveniles
187(5)
Racial Profiling
187(2)
Juvenile Curfew Laws
189(2)
Assistance with Intensive Supervision of Probationers
191(1)
Police Effectiveness
192(1)
Police Use of Excessive Force (Brutality)
193(4)
Deadly Force
196(1)
Summary
197(2)
Discussion Questions
199(2)
The Juvenile Court Process
201(40)
Introduction
201(3)
Detention
204(6)
Detention Options
205(1)
Detention Decisionmaking
205(1)
Detention Programming
206(2)
Positive Programs
208(2)
Detention Workers
210(1)
Detention Alternatives
210(2)
Home Detention
211(1)
Bail
211(1)
The Intake Decision
212(8)
Informal Adjustment
212(1)
Teen Courts
213(1)
Drug Courts
213(1)
Other Programs
214(2)
The Prosecutor's Role
216(2)
Research on Intake Decisionmaking
218(2)
Processing Juveniles in Adult Criminal Court
220(4)
The Effectiveness of Transfer and Other Methods of Adult Court Processing
221(2)
Youth and Worker Attitudes
223(1)
Adjudication and Disposition
224(14)
Attorneys in Juvenile Court
225(3)
Plea Bargaining
228(1)
Attorney Effectiveness
228(3)
Jury Trials for Juveniles
231(1)
The Recent Emphasis on Punitiveness
232(2)
Dispositional Decisionmaking
234(4)
Summary
238(1)
Discussion Questions
239(2)
Due Process and Juveniles
241(32)
Introduction
241(1)
The Landmark Supreme Court Cases
241(4)
Kent v. United States
242(1)
In re Gault
243(1)
In re Winship
244(1)
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
244(1)
Additional Supreme Court Rulings
245(4)
Roper v. Simmons: A Ruling on the Death Penalty
245(1)
Breed v. Jones: A Ruling on Waiver
246(1)
Fare v. Michael C.: A Ruling on Interrogation
247(1)
Schall v. Martin: A Ruling on Preventive Detention
248(1)
Search and Seizure
249(11)
Rights in School
260(5)
Corporal Punishment
250(3)
Freedom of Speech for Students
253(9)
Student Searches
262(3)
Rights at Home and in the Community
265(5)
The Constitutionality of Curfews
265(1)
The Legal Drinking Age
266(4)
Summary
270(1)
Discussion Questions
271(2)
Institutional/Residential Interventions
273(22)
Introduction
273(1)
Institutional Corrections for Juveniles
273(1)
State Training Schools
274(7)
Description
274(1)
Training School Programs for Residents
275(3)
Other Placements
278(1)
Boot Camps
278(3)
Program Effectiveness
281(2)
Reviews of Multiple Studies
281(1)
Conclusions about Program Effectiveness
282(1)
Institutional Life
283(7)
Victimization
283(4)
Racial Tension
287(1)
The Inmate Code
288(1)
Deprivation of Heterosexual Contact
288(2)
New Directions in Institutional Interventions
290(3)
Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders
290(1)
Deinstitutionalization (Closing Training Schools)
290(1)
Blended Sentencing
291(1)
Wilderness Programs
292(1)
Summary
293(1)
Discussion Questions
294(1)
Juvenile Probation/Community Corrections
295(24)
Introduction
295(1)
Probation
295(3)
Social History (Predisposition) Investigations
296(1)
Probation Supervision
297(1)
Aftercare
298(1)
Supervision and Counseling
298(2)
Current Trends in Community Supervision
300(8)
The Balanced Approach
300(2)
The Punitive Model: Attack (Tough) Probation
302(2)
Renewed Emphasis on Status Offenses
304(1)
Restorative Justice
304(1)
Peacemaking
305(1)
Community Justice
305(2)
Current Trends: What Does the Future Hold?
307(1)
Effectiveness of Juvenile Probation and Related Sanctions
308(1)
Effective and Ineffective Treatment Interventions with Offenders
309(5)
Additional Factors Related to Effectiveness
312(2)
Continuing Concerns in Community Corrections
314(3)
Goal Confusion
314(1)
Restitution
315(1)
Community Service
316(1)
Summary
317(1)
Discussion Questions
318(1)
Restorative Justice
319(24)
Introduction
319(1)
Background of Restorative Justice
320(6)
Precursors to Restorative Justice
322(1)
Dispute Resolution
323(2)
The Theoretical Basis of Restorative Practices
325(1)
Types of Restorative Justice
326(9)
Victim--Offender Mediation
330(1)
Family Group Conferencing
331(2)
Neighborhood Reparative Boards
333(1)
Peacemaking and Sentencing Circles
333(1)
Summary
334(1)
The Impact of Restorative Justice
335(5)
Satisfaction, Fairness, and Compliance
335(1)
Recidivism
336(1)
Problems and Issues with Restorative Justice
337(3)
Summary
340(1)
Discussion Questions
341(2)
The Victimization of Juveniles
343(26)
Introduction
343(1)
The Extent of Victimization
344(7)
General Victimization
344(5)
Child Abuse and Neglect
349(2)
Explaining Juvenile Victimization
351(3)
From Victim-Blaming to Lifestyle
351(2)
Explanations of Child Abuse and Neglect
353(1)
Responses to Victimization
354(6)
Immediate Responses
355(1)
Fear of Crime as a Response
355(1)
Avoidance
356(1)
Resorting to Weapons
357(1)
Grouping Together to Respond
358(1)
Peer Mediation and Other Responses to Victimization
358(1)
Summary of Victimization Responses
359(1)
The Role of Formal Social Control Agencies
360(6)
Child Protective Services
360(1)
The Juvenile Court
361(3)
The Criminal Court
364(1)
Domestic Relations Court
365(1)
Restorative Justice
366(1)
Summary: The Need to Recognize the Victim
366(1)
Discussion Questions
367(2)
Future Directions in Juvenile Justice
369(36)
Introduction
369(1)
Proposals for Reforming Juvenile Court
370(10)
Rehabilitating the Rehabilitative Parens Patriae Court
370(1)
A Critic of the Rehabilitative Juvenile Court
371(1)
A Criminalized Juvenile Court
372(1)
Abolishing Juvenile Court
373(3)
Creating a New Juvenile Court
376(1)
A ``Youth Justice System'' within Adult Criminal Court
377(1)
A Restorative Justice Juvenile Court
378(1)
Zimring's Caution
379(1)
Summary
379(1)
Broader Issues
380(11)
Race and Juvenile Court
380(1)
The Need to Rebuild Community
381(2)
The Role of the Family
383(1)
Character Education
384(1)
Social Support for Families
385(1)
The Political Economy and Juvenile Court
386(2)
Reintroducing the Spiritual Dimension into Corrections
388(3)
Capital Punishment for Juveniles
391(5)
Jurisdiction over Status Offenses
396(5)
Arguments for Ending Jurisdiction
397(2)
Arguments for Continuing Jurisdiction
399(2)
Summary and Conclusion
401(2)
Discussion Questions
403(2)
References 405(52)
Glossary 457(16)
Subject Index 473(16)
Name Index 489

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