Krause's Food, Nutrition, and Diet Therapy

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1996-01-01
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Health Science div
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Universally recognized as the premier clinical text in nutrition, the 11th edition of Krause's Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy provides the theoretical knowledge and clinical information you need to understand basic nutrition, assess clients of varying ages and illnesses, plan dietary support that meets their unique needs, and promote good health and fitness. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Nutrition Basics
Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Excretion of Nutrientsp. 2
The Gastrointestinal Tractp. 3
Overview of Digestive and Absorptive Processesp. 4
The Small Intestine: Primary Site of Nutrient Absorptionp. 11
The Large Intestinep. 13
Summaryp. 19
Energyp. 21
Components of Energy Expenditurep. 22
Measurement of Energy Expenditurep. 25
Estimating Energy Requirementsp. 28
Calculating Food Energyp. 33
Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipidsp. 37
Carbohydratesp. 39
Fats and Lipidsp. 50
Amino Acids and Proteinp. 62
Macronutrient Use and Storage in the Fed Statep. 70
Macronutrient Catabolism in the Fasted Statep. 71
Summaryp. 73
Vitaminsp. 75
The Fat-Soluble Vitaminsp. 76
The Water-Soluble Vitaminsp. 93
Other Vitamin-Like Factorsp. 115
Mineralsp. 120
Characteristics of Mineralsp. 121
Macromineralsp. 122
Microminerals (Trace Elements)p. 134
Ultratrace Mineralsp. 150
Other Trace Elementsp. 158
Summaryp. 158
Water, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balancep. 164
Body Waterp. 165
Electrolytesp. 169
Acid-Base Balancep. 172
Acid-Base Disordersp. 174
Summaryp. 176
Nutrition in the Life Cycle
Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactationp. 182
Pregnancyp. 183
Lactationp. 201
Nutrition, Fertility, and Conceptionp. 209
Summaryp. 209
Nutrition During Infancyp. 214
Physiologic Developmentp. 215
Nutrient Requirementsp. 217
Milkp. 220
Foodp. 226
Feedingp. 226
Summaryp. 232
Nutrition for Low-Birth-Weight Infantsp. 234
Physiologic Developmentp. 235
Nutritional Requirements: Parenteral Feedingp. 237
Transition From Parenteral to Enteral Feedingp. 242
Nutritional Requirements: Enteral Feedingp. 243
Feeding Methodsp. 246
Selection of Enteral Feedingp. 248
Growth and Nutritional Assessmentsp. 250
Discharge Carep. 251
Neurodevelopmental Outcomep. 256
Summaryp. 257
Nutrition in Childhoodp. 259
Growth and Developmentp. 260
Nutrient Requirementsp. 262
Providing an Adequate Dietp. 268
Nutritional Concernsp. 275
Preventing Chronic Diseasep. 279
Summaryp. 280
Nutrition in Adolescencep. 284
Growth and Developmentp. 285
Nutrient Requirementsp. 288
Food Habitsp. 293
Special Situationsp. 295
Strategies for Improving Nutritional Well-Beingp. 299
Summaryp. 299
Nutrition in the Adult Yearsp. 302
Eating and the Food Environmentp. 303
Defensive Nutrition Paradigmp. 305
Gastrointestinal Integrityp. 308
Detoxification Systemsp. 310
Guidelines for a Defensive Nutrition Paradigmp. 311
Summaryp. 315
Nutrition in Agingp. 318
The Older Populationp. 319
Theories of Agingp. 319
Physiologic Changesp. 321
Multidisciplinary Assessmentp. 324
Nutrition Screeningp. 325
Nutrition Needsp. 326
Dietary Planningp. 331
Nutrition Issuesp. 331
Supportive Servicesp. 334
Nutrition Care
Nutrition in the Communityp. 340
Nutrition Practice in the Communityp. 342
Needs Assessment for Community-Based Nutrition Servicesp. 344
National Food and Nutrition Data Sourcesp. 345
National Nutrition Guidelines and Goalsp. 347
Food Assistance and Nutrition Programsp. 350
Food Safety: Laws, Regulations, and Issuesp. 354
Food Technologyp. 357
Agricultural Products and Concernsp. 358
Other Concerns About Food and Water Safetyp. 359
Summaryp. 361
Guidelines for Dietary Planningp. 363
Determining Nutrient Needsp. 364
Nutritional Status of Americansp. 367
National Guidelines for Diet Planningp. 371
Food Labelingp. 379
Cultural Aspects of Dietary Planningp. 382
Summaryp. 386
Introduction to Nutritional Genomicsp. 390
The Human Genome Projectp. 392
Genetic Fundamentalsp. 394
Genetics and Nutrition Therapyp. 401
Summaryp. 404
Dietary and Clinical Assessmentp. 407
Nutritional Imbalancep. 408
Nutritional Screeningp. 410
Nutritional Assessmentp. 412
Nutrition-Focused Physical Examinationp. 429
Classifying Malnutritionp. 430
Summaryp. 430
Laboratory Data in Nutrition Assessmentp. 436
Definition and Usefulness of Nutrition Laboratory Datap. 437
Assessment of Protein-Energy Statusp. 439
Laboratory Data for Nutritional Anemiasp. 442
Markers of Malabsorptionp. 446
Wellness Assessmentp. 446
Nutritional Interpretation of Routine Medical Laboratory Datap. 450
Summaryp. 453
Food-Drug Interactionsp. 455
Pharmacologic Aspects of Food-Drug Interactionsp. 456
Risk Factors for Food-Drug Interactionsp. 457
Effects of Food on Drug Therapyp. 459
Effects of Drugs on Food and Nutritionp. 462
Modification of Drug Action by Food and Nutrientsp. 463
Effects of Drugs on Nutritional Statusp. 464
Excipients and Food-Drug Interactionsp. 470
Medical Nutrition Therapyp. 472
Summaryp. 473
Integrative Medicine and Phytotherapyp. 475
Integrative Therapiesp. 476
Commonly Used Botanicalsp. 482
Guidelines for Working With Clients Who Use Botanicalsp. 491
Summaryp. 492
The Nutrition Care Processp. 496
Nutrition Care Process and Medical Nutrition Therapyp. 497
Nutritional Care Recordp. 501
Charting and Documentationp. 503
Influences on Nutritional Carep. 507
Nutritional Intervention and Diet Modificationp. 510
Nutritional Care for the Hospitalized Patientp. 511
Nutritional Care of the Terminally Ill or Hospice Patientp. 515
Discharge Planning and Home Carep. 515
Summaryp. 517
Counseling for Changep. 519
Counseling Techniquesp. 520
Stages of Changep. 520
Activities That Facilitate Behavior Changep. 521
Intervention Modelp. 523
Not-Ready-to-Change Counseling Sessionsp. 525
Ready-to-Change Counseling Sessionsp. 528
Resistance Behaviors and Potential Strategies to Modify Themp. 529
Summaryp. 530
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Supportp. 533
Rationale and Criteria for Appropriate Nutrition Supportp. 534
Enteral Nutritionp. 537
Parenteral Nutritionp. 544
Transitional Feedingp. 549
Pharmacologic Use of Nutrientsp. 550
Nutrition Support in Long-Term and Home Carep. 551
Ethical Issuesp. 552
Interdisciplinary Nutrition Support Servicesp. 552
Summaryp. 553
Nutrition for Health and Fitness
Nutrition for Weight Managementp. 558
Body Weight Componentsp. 559
Regulation of Body Weightp. 562
Weight Management Throughout Lifep. 564
Weight Imbalance: Overweight and Obesityp. 565
Management of Obesity in Adultsp. 570
Common Problems Encountered in Obesity Managementp. 585
Weight Management in Childrenp. 586
Weight Imbalance: Excessive Leannessp. 587
Nutrition in Eating Disordersp. 594
Diagnostic Criteriap. 595
Etiologyp. 599
Pathophysiologyp. 599
Nutritional Assessmentp. 601
Psychological Managementp. 607
Nutritional Carep. 609
Nutrition Educationp. 611
Prognosisp. 611
Summaryp. 612
Nutrition for Exercise and Sports Performancep. 616
Energy Productionp. 617
Fuels for Contracting Musclesp. 619
Nutritional Requirements of Exercisep. 620
Weight Managementp. 634
Other Considerationsp. 634
Ergogenic Aidsp. 635
Summaryp. 638
Nutrition and Bone Healthp. 642
Bone Structure and Bone Physiologyp. 643
Bone Mass and Bone Densityp. 647
Nutrition and Bonep. 650
Osteopenia and Osteoporosisp. 654
Summaryp. 663
Nutrition for Oral and Dental Healthp. 667
Nutritional Factors in Tooth Developmentp. 668
Dental Cariesp. 668
Fluoridep. 673
Preventive Carep. 675
Periodontal Diseasep. 676
Early Childhood Cariesp. 677
Tooth Loss and Denturesp. 678
Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseasep. 678
Polypharmacyp. 680
Summaryp. 680
Medical Nutrition Therapy
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disordersp. 686
Disorders of the Esophagusp. 687
Disorders of the Stomachp. 692
Summaryp. 702
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Disordersp. 705
Common Intestinal Problemsp. 706
Diseases of the Small Intestinep. 712
Intestinal Brush-Border Enzyme Deficienciesp. 718
Inflammatory Bowel Diseasesp. 721
Disorders of the Large Intestinep. 727
Intestinal Surgeryp. 730
Summaryp. 735
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Liver, Biliary System, and Exocrine Pancreas Disordersp. 738
Physiology and Functions of the Liverp. 739
Laboratory Assessment of Liver Functionp. 740
Diseases of the Liverp. 740
Liver Resection and Transplantationp. 755
Physiology and Functions of the Gallbladderp. 756
Diseases of the Gallbladderp. 757
Physiology and Functions of the Exocrine Pancreasp. 760
Diseases of the Exocrine Pancreasp. 761
Summaryp. 764
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Food Allergy and Food Intolerancep. 768
Immunologic Basisp. 769
Symptomsp. 770
Risk Factors for the Development of Food Allergyp. 772
Food Intolerancesp. 773
Diagnosisp. 776
Treatmentp. 781
Natural History of Food Allergyp. 784
Food Allergy in Infancyp. 787
Diet and Prevention of Allergic Diseasep. 788
Summaryp. 789
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Originp. 792
Pathophysiologyp. 794
Diagnostic and Screening Criteriap. 799
Management of Diabetes Mellitusp. 799
Diabetes and Age-Related Issuesp. 815
Implementing Nutrition Self-Managementp. 819
Acute Complicationsp. 825
Long-Term Complicationsp. 827
Preventing Diabetesp. 829
Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Originp. 830
Summaryp. 833
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Anemiap. 838
Iron-Related Blood Disordersp. 839
Megaloblastic Anemiasp. 847
Other Nutritional Anemiasp. 854
Nonnutritional Anemiasp. 856
Summaryp. 858
Medical Nutrition Therapy in Cardiovascular Diseasep. 860
Prevalence and Incidencep. 861
Mortalityp. 861
Pathophysiology and Etiologyp. 864
Prevention of Coronary Heart Diseasep. 866
Lipoprotein Assessmentp. 869
Genetic Hyperlipidemias: Classification and Diagnosisp. 877
Dietary Factorsp. 878
Treatmentp. 882
Summaryp. 896
Medical Nutrition Therapy in Hypertensionp. 900
Definition and Classificationp. 901
Prevalence and Incidencep. 901
Morbidity and Mortalityp. 902
Pathophysiologyp. 903
Primary Preventionp. 904
Medical Managementp. 912
Summaryp. 916
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Heart Failure and Transplantp. 919
Heart Failurep. 920
Cardiac Transplantationp. 932
Summaryp. 934
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Pulmonary Diseasep. 937
Relationships Between Nutrition and the Pulmonary Systemp. 938
Overview of Medical Nutrition Therapy in Pulmonary Diseasep. 941
Aspirationp. 942
Asthmap. 942
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasiap. 943
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseasep. 945
Cystic Fibrosisp. 948
Lung Cancerp. 955
Pneumoniap. 955
Respiratory Failurep. 955
Tuberculosisp. 956
Summaryp. 957
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Renal Disordersp. 961
Physiology and Function of the Kidneysp. 962
Renal Diseasep. 963
Glomerular Diseasesp. 964
Diseases of the Tubules and Interstitiump. 965
Progressive Nature of Renal Diseasep. 969
End-Stage Renal Diseasep. 970
Nephrolithiasis (Kidney Stones)p. 988
Summaryp. 994
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recoveryp. 997
Diagnosis and Medical Treatmentp. 998
Nutrition in the Etiology of Cancerp. 1000
Nutritional Implications of Cancerp. 1004
Nutritional Implications of Cancer Therapyp. 1008
Nutritional Care of Adults Diagnosed With Cancerp. 1014
Nutritional Care of Children Diagnosed With Cancerp. 1019
Complementary and Alternative Therapiesp. 1020
Summaryp. 1023
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Diseasep. 1027
Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Classificationp. 1028
Epidemiology and Trendsp. 1030
Manifestations and Stages of HIV Infectionp. 1033
Opportunistic Infections and Other Complicationsp. 1034
Medical Managementp. 1037
Women and HIVp. 1042
Pediatric Considerationsp. 1043
Relationship Between Malnutrition and AIDSp. 1044
Medical Nutrition Therapyp. 1046
Complications With a Nutrition Impactp. 1051
Complementary and Alternative Therapiesp. 1054
Summaryp. 1054
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Stress: Sepsis, Trauma, Burns, and Surgeryp. 1058
Metabolic Response to Stressp. 1059
Starvation Versus Stressp. 1062
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndromep. 1062
Head Injuryp. 1070
Major Burnsp. 1071
Surgeryp. 1076
Summaryp. 1078
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Neurologic Disordersp. 1081
Neurologic Disease Classificationp. 1082
Nervous System Wiring and Lesionsp. 1083
Medical Nutrition Therapyp. 1086
Problems With Procurement of Foodp. 1086
Neurologic Diseases Arising From Nutritional Deficiencies or Excessesp. 1092
Neurologic Diseases With Nonnutrition Etiologiesp. 1096
Summaryp. 1117
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Rheumatic Disordersp. 1121
Etiologyp. 1122
Pathophysiology of Inflammation in Rheumatic Diseasesp. 1123
Drugs Commonly Used to Reduce Inflammationp. 1123
Osteoarthritisp. 1124
Rheumatoid Arthritisp. 1126
Sjogren's Syndromep. 1133
Temporomandibular Joint Syndromep. 1134
Goutp. 1134
Sclerodermap. 1135
Systemic Lupus Erythematosusp. 1136
Chronic Fatigue Disorder Syndrome and Fibromyalgiap. 1137
Controversies and Unproven Remedies for Rheumatic Disordersp. 1138
Summaryp. 1138
Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Disordersp. 1143
Newborn Screeningp. 1144
Goals of Medical Nutrition Therapyp. 1144
Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolismp. 1144
Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolismp. 1157
Disorders of Urea Cycle Metabolismp. 1159
Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 1161
Glycogen Storage Diseasesp. 1162
Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidationp. 1163
Other Disordersp. 1164
Role of Nutritionist in Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Disordersp. 1164
Summaryp. 1166
General Abbreviationsp. 1171
Unit Abbreviationsp. 1172
Potential ICD-9-CM Codes for Nutrition Servicesp. 1173
Milliequivalents and Milligrams of Electrolytesp. 1176
Approximate Conversions to and From Metric Measuresp. 1176
Nutritional Physical Assessment
Birth to 36 Months: Boys Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentilesp. 1177
Birth to 36 Months: Boys Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for-Length Percentilesp. 1178
2 to 20 Years: Boys Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentilesp. 1179
Birth to 36 Months: Girls Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentilesp. 1180
Birth to 36 Months: Girls Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for-Length Percentilesp. 1181
2 to 20 Years: Girls Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentilesp. 1182
Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Femalesp. 1183
Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Malesp. 1183
Direct Methods for Measuring Height and Weightp. 1184
Indirect Methods for Measuring Heightp. 1184
Determination of Frame Sizep. 1185
Body Mass Index (BMI) Tablep. 1186
Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Yearsp. 1187
Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Girls, 2 to 20 Yearsp. 1188
Body Mass Index, Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Triceps Skinfold Thickness, and Arm Muscle Circumference for Men 50 Years of Age and Older Examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994)p. 1189
Body Mass Index, Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Triceps Skinfold Thickness, and Arm Muscle Circumference for Women 50 Years of Age and Older Examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994)p. 1190
Arm Anthropometry for Childrenp. 1191
Arm Anthropometry for Adultsp. 1192
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Height (cm) for Males of 2 to 74 Yearsp. 1193
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Height (cm) for Females of 2 to 74 Yearsp. 1194
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Age for Adult Males of Small, Medium, and Large Framesp. 1195
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Weight (kg) by Age for Adult Females of Small, Medium, and Large Framesp. 1196
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Triceps Skinfold Thickness (mm) by Age for Males and Females of 1 to 50 Yearsp. 1197
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm[superscript 2]) by Height (cm) for Boys and Girls of 2 to 17 Yearsp. 1198
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm[superscript 2]) by Age for Adult Males of Small, Medium, and Large Framesp. 1199
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Muscle Area (cm[superscript 2]) by Age for Adult Females of Small, Medium, and Large Framesp. 1200
Means, Standard Deviations, and Percentiles of Upper Arm Fat Area (cm[superscript 2]) by Age for Males and Females of 1 to 74 Yearsp. 1201
Nutrition-Focused Physical Assessmentp. 1202
Laboratory Tests, Drugs, and Dietary Supplements
A Guide to the Use of Laboratory Data in Nutritional Assessment and Monitoringp. 1206
Nutritional Implications of Selected Drugsp. 1220
Counseling Patients on Dietary Supplementsp. 1226
Enteral Formulas
Milk-Based Formulas or Products Designed to Be Mixed With Milkp. 1228
Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 0.5 kcal/mlp. 1228
Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 1 to 1.2 kcal/mlp. 1229
Whole-Protein, Lactose-Free Formulas With 1.5 and 2.0 kcal/mlp. 1231
Specially Designed Formulas: Clear Liquid, Fat Malabsorption, Glucose Intolerance, Hepatic, Immune-Support, Metabolic Stress, Pulmonary, Renalp. 1232
Defined Formulasp. 1235
Pediatric Specialized Formulasp. 1236
Modular Components for Enteral Feedingsp. 1237
Nutrient Tables
Fiber Content of Selected Foodsp. 1238
Caffeine Content of Foodsp. 1240
Nutritive Values for Alcoholic Beverages and Mixesp. 1241
Oxalate Content of Foodsp. 1242
Bioavailability of Oxalatep. 1243
Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Selected Foodsp. 1244
Carotenoid Content of Fruits and Vegetablesp. 1246
Vitamin D Content of Foodsp. 1249
Vitamin E Content of Foods as [alpha]-Tocopherol (mg)p. 1251
Vitamin K Content of Foodsp. 1253
Selenium Content of Foodsp. 1254
Menu Planning Lists
Caloric Expenditure Worksheet for Various Exercise Activities Based on Body Weightp. 1259
Exchange Lists for Meal Planningp. 1262
Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Selected Foodsp. 1271
National Dysphagia Dietsp. 1272
The Nutrition Care Processp. 1278
Percentage of Body Fat Based on Four Skinfold Measurementsp. 1282
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