Lab Manual for General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-04-08
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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KEY BENEFIT: This lab manual contains 42 experiments for the standard course sequence of topics in general, organic, and biological chemistry. KEY TOPICS: DRY LABS: Conversion Factors in Calculations; Atomic Structure; Compounds and Their Formulas; Properties of Organic Compounds; Structures of Alkanes; Types of Carbohydrates. GENERAL CHEMISTRY: Measurement and Significant Figures; Density and Specific Gravity; Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties; Nuclear Radiation; Energy and Specific Heat; Energy and States of Matter; Chemical Reactions and Equations; Reaction Rates and Equilibrium; Moles and Chemical Formulas; Gas Laws; Partial Pressures of Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide; Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration; Soluble and Insoluble Salts; Testing for Cations and Anions; Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions; Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers; Acid-Base Titration. ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY: Reactions of Hydrocarbons; Alcohols and Phenols; Aldehydes and Ketones; Tests for Carbohydrates; Carboxylic Acids and Esters; Aspirin and Other Analgesics; Lipids; Glycerophospholipids and Steroids; Saponification and Soaps; Amines and Amides; Synthesis of Acetaminophen; Plastics and Polymerization; Amino Acids; Peptides and Proteins; Enzymes; Vitamins; DNA Components and Extraction; Digestion of Foodstuffs; Analysis of Urine. A useful lab guide for anyone interested in learning more about chemistry.

Author Biography

Karen Timberlake is professor emeritus of chemistry at Los Angeles Valley College, where she taught chemistry for allied health and preparatory chemistry for 36 years. She received her bachelor’s degree in chemistry from the University of Washington and her Master’s degree in biochemistry from the University of California at Los Angeles.

Professor Timberlake has been writing chemistry textbooks for 30 years. During that time, her name has become associated with the strategic use of pedagogical tools that promote student success in chemistry and the application of chemistry to real-life situations. More than one million students have learned chemistry using texts, laboratory manuals, and study guides written by Karen Timberlake. In addition to Basic Chemistry, she is also the author of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Structures of Life, Second Edition and Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Ninth Edition with the accompanying Study Guide with Solutions for Selected Problems, Laboratory Manual, and Essentials Laboratory Manual.

Professor Timberlake belongs to numerous science and educational organizations including the American Chemical Society (ACS) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). In 1987, she was the Western Regional Winner of Excellence in College Chemistry Teaching Award given by the Chemical Manufacturers Association. In 2004, she received the McGuffey Award in Physical Sciences by the Textbook Author Association, awarded for textbooks whose excellence has been demonstrated over time. In 2006, she also received the Texty “Textbook” Excellence Award from the Textbook Authors Association for the first edition of Basic Chemistry. She has participated in education grants for science teaching including the Los Angeles Collaborative for Teaching Excellence (LACTE) and a Title III grant at her college. She often speaks at conferences and educational meetings on the use of student-centered teaching methods in chemistry to promote the learning success of students.

Table of Contents


D-1     Conversion Factors in Calculations                     
A. Rounding Off
B. Significant Figures in Calculations
C. Conversion Factors for Length
D. Conversion Factors for Volume
E. Conversion Factors for Mass
F. Percent by Mass
G. Converting Temperature

D-2     Atomic Structure                                 
A. Physical Properties of Elements
B. Periodic Table
C. Subatomic Particles
D. Isotopes

D-3     Compounds and Their Formulas                         
A. Electron-Dot Structures
B. Ionic Compounds and Formulas
C. Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals
D. Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
E. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds
F. Electron Dot Structure and Molecular Shape

D-4     Properties of Organic Compounds                         
A. Color, Odor, and Physical State    
B. Solubility
C. Combustion
D. Functional Groups
D-5      Structures of Alkanes                           
A. Structures of Alkanes
B. Constitutional Isomers
C. Cycloalkanes
D. Haloalkanes

D-6     Types of Carbohydrates                           
A. Monosaccharides
B. Disaccharides
C. Polysaccharides


1     Measurement and Significant Figures                         
A. Measuring Length
B. Measuring Volume
C. Measuring Mass
2     Density and Specific Gravity                       
A. Density of a Solid
B. Density of a Liquid
C. Specific Gravity
D. Graphing Mass and Volume

3     Electronic Configuration and Periodic Properties            
A. Flame Tests
B. Electron Configuration
C. Graphing A Periodic Property: Atomic Radius
4     Nuclear Radiation                                
A. Background Count
B. Radiation from Radioactive Sources 
C. Effect of Shielding, Time, and Distance
5     Energy and Specific Heat                            
A. Specific Heat of A Metal
B. Measuring the Caloric Value of a Food 
C. Food Calories
6     Energy and States of Matter                        
A. A Heating Curve for Water
B. Graphing a Cooling Curve
C. Energy in Changes of State
7     Chemical Reactions and Equations                         
A. Magnesium and Oxygen
B. Zinc and Copper (II) Sulfate 
C. Metals and HCl
D. Reactions of Ionic Compounds
E. Sodium Carbonate and HCl
8     Reaction Rates and Equilibrium                       
A. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
B. Rates of Reactions
C. Reversible Reactions
D. Iron (III)-thiocyanate Equilibrium 
9     Moles and Chemical Formulas                        
A. Finding the Simplest Formula
B. Formula of a Hydrate
10     Gas Laws                                   
A. Boyle’s Law
B. Charles’ Law
11     Partial Pressures of Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide         
A. Partial Pressures of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Air
B, C. Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere and Expired Air
12     Solutions, Electrolytes, and Concentration                
A. Polarity of Solutes and Solvents
B. Electrolytes and Conductivity
C. Electrolytes in Body Fluids
D. Concentration of a Sodium Chloride Solution
13     Soluble and Insoluble Salts                             
A. Soluble and Insoluble Salts
B. Solubility of KNO3
C. Testing the hardness of Water
D. Purification of Water
14     Testing for Cations and Anions                        
A. Tests for Positive Ions (Cations)
B. Tests for Negative Ions (Anions)
C. Writing the Formulas of Your Unknown Salt
D. Testing Consumer Products for Some Cations and Anions
15     Solutions, Colloids, and Suspensions                    
A. Identification Tests
B. Osmosis and Dialysis
C. Filtration
16     Acids, Bases, pH and Buffers                       
A. pH Color Using Red Cabbage Indicator
B. Measuring pH
C. Effect of Buffers on Ph
17     Acid-Base Titration                                
A. Acetic Acid in Vinegar
B. Titration of an Antacid
18     Reactions of Hydrocarbons                            
A. Types of Hydrocarbons
B. Combustion
C. Bromine Test
D. Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) Test
E. Identification of Unknown
19     Alcohols and Phenols                            
A. Structures of Alcohols and Phenol
B. Properties of Alcohols and Phenol
C. Oxidation of Alcohols
D. Ferric Chloride Test
E. Identification of Unknown
20     Aldehydes and Ketones                            
A. Structures of Some Aldehydes and Ketones
B. Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
C. Iodoform Test for Methyl Ketones
D. Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
E. Identification of an Unknown
21    Tests for Carbohydrates                            
A. Benedict’s Test for Reducing Sugars
B. Seliwanoff’s Test for Ketoses
C. Fermentation Test
D. Iodine Test for Polysaccharides
E. Hydrolysis of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
F. Testing Foods for Carbohydrates
22    Carboxylic Acids and Esters                        
A. Carboxylic Acids and Their Salts
B. Esters
C. Basic Hydrolysis of Esters
23    Aspirin and Other Analgesics                        
A. Preparation of Aspirin
B. Testing Aspirin Products
C. Analysis of Analgesics
24    Lipids                                        
A. Triacylglycerols
B. Physical Properties of Lipids and Fatty Acids
C. Bromine Test for Unsaturation
D. Preparation of Hand Lotion
25    Glycerophospholipids and Steroids                    
A. Isolating Cholesterol in Egg Yolk
B. Isolating Lecithin in Egg Yolk
26    Saponification and Soaps                            
A. Saponification: Preparation of Soap
B. Properties of Soap and Detergents
27    Amines and Amides                               
A. Structure and Classification of Amines
B. Solubility of Amines in Water
C. Neutralization of Amines with Acids
D. Amides
28    Synthesis of Acetaminophen                       
A. Synthesis of Acetaminophen
B. Isolating Acetanilide from an Impure Sample
29    Plastics and Polymerization                        
A. Classification of Plastics
B. Gluep and Slime®
C. Polystyrene
D. Nylon
30    Amino Acids                                    
A. Structures of Amino Acids
B. Chromatography of Amino Acids
31    Peptides and Proteins                            
A. Peptide Bonds
B. Structure of Proteins
C. Denaturation of Proteins
D. Isolation of Casein (Milk Protein)
E. Color Tests for Proteins
32    Enzymes                                    
A. Effect of Enzyme Concentration
B. Effect of Temperature
C. Effect of pH
D. Inhibition of Enzyme Activity
33    Vitamins                                    
A. Solubility of Vitamins
B. Standardization of Vitamin C
C. Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks
D. Heat Destruction of Vitamin C
34    DNA Components and Extraction                        
A. Components of DNA
B. Extraction of DNA
35    Digestion of Foodstuffs                             
A. Digestion of Carbohydrates
B. Digestion of Fats
C. Protein Digestion
36    Analysis of Urine                               
A. Color, pH and Specific Gravity
B. Electrolytes
C. Glucose
D. Ketone Bodies
E. Protein
F. Urobilinogen
Appendix: Materials and Solutions                         
Standard Laboratory Materials   
Additional Materials Needed for Individual Experiments
Preparation of Solutions Used in the Laboratory

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