Latin America in the Modern World

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2018-02-08
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Latin America in the Modern World is the first text to situate the history of Latin America within a wider global narrative. Written by leading scholars, the book focuses on five themes: state formation; the construction of national identity through popular culture and religion; economics and commodities; race, class, and gender; and the environment. Emphasizing the distinct experiences of each of the Latin American countries, the book provides students with an entry point into understanding this vital region. Instead of suggesting that all Latin American nations have an interchangeable heritage, the authors seek to clearly identify themes, topics, people, and intellectual currents that help to knit the history of modern Latin America into a coherent category of study. While providing in-depth coverage of the history of the three largest Latin American countries (Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina), Latin America in the Modern World also offers case studies from almost all of the countries, including Central American and Andean nations.

Available to Instructors and Students

* A companion sourcebook, Sources for Latin America in the Modern World, edited by Nicola Foote of Florida Gulf Coast University, that matches the organization of Latin America in the Modern World
* A companion website that includes quizzes, flashcards, and chapter summaries
* An image bank of Power Point slides

Author Biography

Virginia Garrard is Professor of History at the University of Texas and Director of the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies.

Peter V. N. Henderson is Emeritus Professor of History at Winona State University.

Bryan McCann is Chair of the History Department at Georgetown University and President of BRASA, the Brazilian Studies Association.

Table of Contents

Each chapter includes a Conclusion, Timeline, and Key Terms and Selected Readings.

List of Maps
Note on Spellings
About the Authors

The Land and the People
Topography and Basic Categories of People
The Densely Populated Societies
The Iberians and the Africans
The Conquest (Encounter) and its Consequences
The Conquest of Mexico
The Conquest of Peru and Elsewhere in South America
Brazil and Other Conquest Experiences
The Consequences of the Conquest: The Columbian Exchange
Colonial Administration and Economics
The Colonial Administration
The Colonial Economy
Colonial Society
The Elite, Middle Sectors and the Issue of Race
Changes in the Eighteenth Century
Piecemeal Reforms, 1713-1750
The Later Reforms and the Enlightenment
Selcted Readings


Chapter One: Latin America in the Age of Revolution, 1789-1820s
Global Connections
The Causes of Independence, 1789-1810
The External Causes of Independence
The Internal Grievances
The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1804
Slavery in Saint-Domingue
The Great Slave Rebellion
The Environment Assists the Haitian Revolutionaries
Violence and New Racial Hierarchies at the Dawn of the Republic
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: The United States and the Haitian Revolution
Independence in Mexico, 1810-1822
The Autonomy Movement versus the Hidalgo Rebellion
Morelos's Insurgency
The Triumph of Criollo Patriotism
The Liberation Movement in Spanish South America, 1808-1825
The Quest for Autonomy
Independence in the Southern Cone
The War in Northern South America, 1810-1816
Patriot Success in the North and the Andes, 1816-1825
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Manuela Sáenz de Thorne
"The Loyal Caribbean," 1800-1860s
Sugar and Slavery in the Caribbean
Retaining the Colonial Order
Brazil's Path to Independent Empire, 1807-1822
The Portuguese Court in Brazil
CULTURE AND IDEAS: José Bonifácio de Andrade e Silva

Chapter Two: Latin America: Regionalism and Localism
Global Connections
The Breakdown of the Spanish Viceroyalties, 1825-1830
Bolívar's Visionary Plans Fail
Plans for Supra-States after Bolívar's Death
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Women Travelers in the Andean Nations
The Breakdown of New Spain, 1821-1835
Iturbide's Empire
Mexican National Politics from Iturbide to the Texas Rebellion
Independence Comes to the Isthmus of Central America
Mexico Loses More Territory: The Effects of Manifest Destiny, 1835-1853
The Idea of Manifest Destiny
The Mexican War
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: The San Patricios
The Brazilian Counter-Example: Unity despite Regionalism, 1822-1845
The Contours of Empire
The Regency Revolts
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Domingos José de Almeida: Race and Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century
The Viceroyalty of La Plata Continues to Fragment, 1820s-1850s
Argentina's Unitarians and the Federalists
Buenos Aires versus the Provinces; Rosas versus Sarmiento
Regionalism and the Demise of the UPCA, 1830s-1840s
Growing Tensions in the UPCA
The Collapse of the Union
THE ENVIRONMENT: The 1837 Cholera Epidemic
Physical Geography and Popular Culture in Mexico, 1820s-1850s
Regionalism and Caudillos, 1820s-1870s
Characteristics of a Caudillo
José Antonio Páez
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
Antonio Abad Huachaca

Chapter Three: First Attempts at State Formation: The Liberal-Conservative Debate, 1830-1875
Global Connections
Liberal and Conservative Visions of State Formation, 1830-1875
An Overview of the Competing Visions
Colombia's Liberal Experiment with Extreme Federalism
Democratic Aspects of the Rionegro Constitution
Chile, Diego Portales and Conservatives Centralism
The Centralist Extreme: Ecuador's Constitution of 1869
The Benefits (and Costs) of Moderation, 1830s-1880s
Moderate Leadership Emerges in Costa Rica
Moderation Prevails in Chile
Brazil under Pedro II: A Third Example of Moderation
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Pedro II and the Sciences
Economics and the Environment, 1830s-1880s
Guano and Resource Depletion
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Mandeponay, a Chiriguano Leader in Bolivia
The Church-State Issue, 1830s-1880s
Liberals, Conservatives, and the Church
The Mexican Reforma
Garcia Moreno and the Catholic Nation in Ecuador
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Sacred Heart of Jesus
Gender, Families, and Liberal Lawmaking, 1830s-1880s
The Family Structure
Liberalism and Elite Women
Foreign Influence, 1840s-1880s
The Era of Filibusters: Narciso López in Cuba
William Walker and Nicaragua
The British and the Miskito Coast
The British in the Southern Cone
France, Latin Americans, and the Empire in Mexico
The War of the Triple Alliance, 1864-1870
The Conduct of the War
Results of the Conflict

Chapter Four: Exclusion and Inclusion: Everyday People, 1825-1880s
Global Connections
Indian Subjects Become Indigenous Citizens, 1820s-1889
The End of "Indian" Tribute
Communal Land Issues in Central America: El Salvador and Guatemala
Land Conflicts in Bolivia
The End of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and the Long Path to the Abolition of Slavery in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
Sugar in the Americas
Environmental Factors Intensify Cuba's Sugar Production
Slave Trade and Abolition in Cuba
Abolition in Brazil, the End of Empire/Creation of the Old Republic
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Photographs of Brazilian Slaves
The Rise of Popular Religion, 1830s-1890s
The Emergence of Popular Catholicism
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Virgin of the Angels: A US Protestant Missionary (Mattie Crawford's) View, 1922
Political, Social and Economic Responses of the Popular Classes, 1840s-1880s
Popular Liberalism and Conservativism in Mexico
Popular Liberals and Popular Conservatives in Colombia
The Popular Classes and the Economy
Social Banditry in Mexico and Brazil
Poor Women in Latin America, 1820s-1880s
Patriarchy and Poor Rural Women
Patriarchy and Poor Urban Women
Haciendas and Urban Life: The Role of Elites, 1830s-1880s
Elites and Comparative Ranching in the Rio de la Plata Basin
Mexican and Peruvian Haciendas
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: Foreign Travelers in Andean Marketplaces
Urban Life in Lima


Chapter Five: Progress and Modernization: The Elite's Strategy (1870-1929)
Global Connections
Philosophy and Principles of Modernization: Positivism and Social Darwinism, 1870s-1900s
The Ideas behind Positivism and Social Darwinism
Positivism and Social Darwinism in Latin America
The Quest for Order, 1870s-1900s
Argentina under the Liberals
Mexico under Porfirio Díaz
Creating the Modern Latin American Military: The Case of Chile
Foreign Investment, 1870s-1900s
Foreign Investment in Mexico
British Investment in Argentina
Products for Export, 1870s-1900s
Beef and Wheat in Argentina and Uruguay
Banana Cultivation and its Consequences
Bananas and the Environment
Railroads and other Technologies, 1870s-1900s
Railroads in Brazil and Mexico
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Chá Viaduct, Sao Paulo
Railroads in the Andean Nations
Refrigeration and other Technologies
Immigration, 1870s-1900s
Immigration in the Southern Cone
Immigrants and Race
Elite Women in the Age of Progress, 1870s-1900s
Social Motherhood
New Roles in Education and Health Care

Chapter Six: Worlds Connecting: Latin America in an Imperial Age
Global Connections
The Growing Presence of the US in Latin America, 1890s-1920s
The Cuban Independence Movement of 1895
The US Intervention and the Spanish-American War
Cuba under the Platt Amendment, 1899-1934
The Roosevelt Corollary and "Dollar Diplomacy," 1900s-1920s
Articulating the Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy
The Panama Canal and the Conquest of the Tropics
The US Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934
Augusto Sandino and the US Occupation of Nicaragua, 1919-1933
Territorial Readjustments and South American Imperialism, 1878-1929
Events Leading to the War of the Pacific
Conflict and Resolution
Foreign Capital, the Automobile and New Sources of Energy, 1900-1920s
Petroleum in Venezuela
Oil and Environmental Disaster in Mexico
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Conflict between Elites and the Popular Class
The Rubber Industry and Fordlandia
The Latin American Reaction to US Aggression, 1890s-1920s
The Baltimore Affair
Latin Americans Reflect on the Yankee Menace
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Soccer in Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil
The Formative Years of Middle Class Feminism, 1900-1930
Changing Social Behavior: "The Woman Question"
Paulina Luisi: Feminist and Physician
The Quest for Married Women's Property Rights in Argentina
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Protestant Missionaries
The Role of the US during South America's "Roaring Twenties," 1920s
The US and the "Roaring Twenties" in Colombia
The "Roaring Twenties" in Peru

Chapter Seven: Progress and its Discontents, 1880-1920
Global Connections
Consequences of Urbanization, 1880-1920
Urbanization in Argentina
Urbanization in Uruguay
The Old Republic and the Modernization of Rio de Janeiro
The Urban Environment and Public Parks
The Seamier Side of Urban Life in Mexico
Crime and Disease in Andean Cities
The Rise of the Middle Class, 1890s-1920s
The Middle Class in Argentina
The Middle Class in Peru
CULTURE AND IDEAS: "The Redemption of Ham"
Literary Visions and Transitions, 1870s-1920s
From Romanticism to Realism
José Enrique Rodó and Anti-Positivism
Indigenous People and Liberal Rule, 1880s-1920s
Indigenous People in Mexico
COMMODITIES AND ECONOMICS: Brazil's Cacao Boom and Bust, 1870s-1930s
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Sex Workers and the Banana Plantations
The Andean Republics
Rural Conflict in Brazil: Canudos
The Mexican Revolution: The Decade of Violence, 1910-1920
The Failed Transition from the Porfiriato
From Reform to Revolution
Women at War: The Soldadera
The Constitution of 1917


Chapter Eight: The Great Depression and Authoritarian Populists, 1930-1950
Global Connections
The End of the Export Boom and its Consequences, 1929-1935
Mineral Exporting Nations
Export Agriculture and the Depression
Everyday Life during the Depression, 1930-1940
Strategies for Change: ISI and Economic Nationalism, 1935-1960
Light Industry
Brazilian Industrialization
Heavy Industry in Mexico
The Expropriation of the Oil Industry in Mexico: Economic Nationalism
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Early Tourism Industry in Mexico
Urbanization and the Emergence of Labor Movements, 1900-1945
The Evolution of the Labor Movement
Industrial Labor in Brazil
Industrial Labor in Argentina
The Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and the Confederation of Mexican Workers
Gender and Labor in a Chilean Copper Mine
Andean Populism, 1930-1955
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán of Colombia
Populism in Peru and Ecuador
Brazil and Getúlio Vargas, 1930-1945
Vargas Comes to Power
The Estado Novo
The Peróns: Argentine Populism, 1945-1955
Perón's Ascension to Power
Evita Perón
Depression Era Dictatorships, 1930-1945
The Dictators
La Matanza in El Salvador
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rafael Trujillo and the Parsley Massacre
The Good Neighbor Policy and World War II
The Good Neighbor Policy
The Good Neighbor Policy in Practice

Chapter Nine: The Challenges of Modernity, 1930-1950
Global Connections
New Ideas about Race in Latin America, 1925-1935
The Ideas about Mestizaje in Mexico
Indigenismo in Mexico
Indigenismo in Guatemala
Pan-Africanism, Negritude, and New Ideas about Blackness in Latin America
Cultural Nationalism: The Mexican Example, 1920-1955
Artists and the Development of Mexican National Culture
Frida Kahlo: Art and the Importance of Popular Culture
Mass Media: Promoting Revolutionary Mexican Culture, 1935-1960
The Golden Age of Cinema
Comic Books
Mexico's Practical Program to Reform National Culture, 1926-1940
The Campaign against the Church and its Consequences
Destroying the Hacienda: The Agrarian Reform Program
The Campaign against Vice
Indigenismo and Mestizaje in the Andean Nations, 1928-1980
Andean Mestizaje
Andean Indigenismo
Cholas in the Andes
Cholas in the Marketplace
Cholas in Bolivia
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Survival of Handicrafts: The Panama Hat
Indigenista Art and Literature in the Andean Republics
Andean Literature
Andean Visual Arts
Land Use in Southern Chile, 1925-1960
Early Efforts to Control Forest Usage
Peasant Protest and Forest Development
New Understandings of Race in Brazil, 1930-1960
Women and the Quest for Equal Legal Rights, 1929-1960
Suffrage in South America
Mexico Belatedly Joins the First Wave of Feminism
Popular Culture and the Spread of Modern Ideas, 1930-1960
The Sources of Cultural Images
Argentina and the Tango
The Brazilian Samba
Son and Rumba in Cuba

Chapter Ten: Revolution and Reform in Latin America, 1950-1980
Global Connections
Latin American Follows Mexico's Path to Reform, 1948-1980
The Bolivian National Revolution of 1952
The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution
José Figueres and the Costa Rican Revolution
Guatemala's Ten Years of Spring, 1944-1954
Arévalo and Spiritual Socialism
The Arbenz Administration
The Covert Operation in Guatemala
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Opposition to the Arbenz Regime in a Poster
The Cuban Revolution, 1959-1989
The Batista Regime and its Overthrow
Fidel Castro and the Early Days of the Cuban Revolution
CULTURE AND IDEAS: The Iconography of Che Guevara
The Cuban Revolution Enters the Cold War
The Cuban Revolution at Home
Exporting the Cuban Revolution to Africa and Latin America
Aging Populists and Leftist Opposition in the Southern Cone, 1954-1970
The Return of Getúlio Vargas
Goulart and the Unravelling of the Getulista Coalition
Perón and Peronism: From Exile to Return
The Montoneros and Urban Guerrillas in Argentina and Uruguay
Ernesto "Che" Guevara's Misadventure in Bolivia
The Expeditionaries in Bolivia
Che Guevara's Capture and Death
Salvador Allende and Electoral Socialism in Chile, 1970-1973
The Historic Chilean Presidential Election of 1970
Allende's Controversial Policies and their Consequences
The Coup of September 11, 1973
Latin America's Third Way: Authoritarian Reformers in Peru and Ecuador, 1967-1980
The Military and Economic Nationalism
Agrarian Reform and Policies Affecting other Sectors of Society
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Bob Marley and Reggae in Latin America
The Revolution in Latin American Literature, 1950s-1980s
The Authors
Their Best Known Novels

Chapter Eleven: Counter-Revolution in Latin America, 1960-1980
Global Connections
The Alliance for Progress, 1961-1972
The Creation of the Alliance
The Alliance's Successes and Failures
The National Security Doctrine, 1960-1980
The Workings of the Doctrine
The School of the Americas
The National Security State: Guatemala in the 1960s
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Death Comes to the Beauty Queen: Rogelia Cruz Martínez
The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1967
The Lead-up to the Coup
Dictatorship in the Name of Democracy
Soft and Hard Dictatorship
The Trans-Amazonian Highway
The Brazilian Military Dictatorship, 1964-1974
The Lead-up to the Coup
Dictatorship in the Name of Democracy
Soft and Hard Dictatorships
The Trans-Amazonian Highway
Argentina, Uruguay and the Dirty Wars in the Southern Cone, 1970s-1980s
The Dirty War Begins
Victims and Survivors
Augusto Pinochet and the Dirty War in Chile, 1973-1990
Pinochet Suppresses the Left and Imposes Order
Pinochet, Neo-Liberalism and the "Chilean Miracle"
Economic Collapse, the Recovery, and the Path toward Democracy
Women's Participation in the Pinochet Regime
Mexico: From Economic Miracle to the Dirty War, 1950-1964
PRI and Dominant Party Politics
Early Opposition to PRI
The Dirty War in Mexico, 1964-1974
Rural Protests
The Tlatelolco Massacre
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Popular Music, Mexican Youth, and the Counterculture Movement
Conservation and National Parks in Latin America, 1964-2000
The National Park System in Costa Rica
The Galápagos Islands: Darwin's Laboratory


Chapter Twelve: The Late Cold War in Latin America, 1970s to 1990
Global Connections
Liberation Theology in Latin America, 1962-1980
The Crisis in the Catholic Church and the Reforms
The Effect of Liberation Theology
The Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua, 1972-1995
The Continuing Somoza Dynasty
The Sandinista Revolution and the Aftermath
The Sandinista Government and its Opposition
Revolutionary Women in Nicaragua
The Cold War in El Salvador and Guatemala, 1970-1992
El Salvador
Cuba in the Special Period, 1989-2016
The Economic Effects of the Special Period
Other Changes during the Special Period
The Sustainable Agriculture Movement in Mexico and Central America
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Latin American Baseball
The Late Cold War in the Andes, 1960-2016
The FARC and the ELN in Colombia
The Shining Path: The Scourge of Peru
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Mario Vargas Llosa Contextualizes the Shining Path

Chapter Thirteen: Neo-Liberalism and its Discontents, 1980-2015
Global Connections
The Return to Democracy in the Southern Cone, 1975-2015
Argentina's Dirty War Ends
Brazil's Return to Democracy
Civil Society Mobilization and the End of Dictatorship
Chile after Pinochet: Democracy, Economic Growth, and Justice
The International Debt Crisis, the IMF, and Neoliberalism, 1975-2000
The Debt Crisis and Neoliberalism in Latin America
Bait and Switch Populists
ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES: The Privatization of the Rio Doce Valley Company
Contemporary Feminist Issues, 1970-2017
Divorce in the Southern Cone Nations
Reproductive Rights
Mexico: New Challenges and Protests, 1970-2000
The Failure of the Institutional Revolutionary Party after Tlatelolco
The Zapatista Uprising of 1994
The Drug Trade: Poisoning the Andean States, 1970-2000
Producing Coca in Bolivia and Peru
Drug Smuggling: The Medellín and Cali Cartels in Colombia
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Narcocorridos
Urban Poverty and the Informal Sector, 1960-2000
The Resurgence of Urbanization in the 1960s
Contemporary Ideas about Informal Urbanization
The Environment and Development, 1960-2000
Urban Environmental Issues: Electrification
Brazil's Rolling Brownouts of 2001-2002
Automobile Traffic and Pollution
Unsettling Circumstances for Venezuela's Democracy, 1970-1998
From the Caracazo to the Breakdown of the Two Parties
The Venezuelan Election of 1998

Chapter Fourteen: New Identities, New Politics, 1980-2016
Global Connections
The Rejection of Mestizaje and Racial Democracy, 1980-2000
The Evolution of New Thinking about Race, Class, and Gender
New Racial and Cultural Identities in Brazil
Questioning Mestizaje in the Andean Nations
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Otavalan Weaving and Global Entrepreneurship
The Indigenous Movements in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, 1980-2010
The Ecuadorian Experience
The Indigenous Movement in Bolivia
The Maya Movement in Guatemala
SOCIAL UPHEAVAL: Rigoberto Menchú Tum
Contemporary Mexico: Competitive Democracy, Drugs, and State Violence, 2000-present
Vicente Fox and the Fruition of Democracy
The Drug Trafficking Issue
Hugo Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution, 1998-2016
The Chavista Revolutionary Program
Criticism Mounts as the Revolution Falters
The Changing Role of Women in Politics, 1990-2016
The Evolving Ecological Debate, 1980-2000
General Tenets of the Environmental Movement in Latin America
Ecological Policy Debates in Peru
Religious Pluralism: Pentecostalism in Latin America, 1960-2010
The Rise of Protestantism
The Three Waves of the Protestant Movement
Why Pentecostalism?
Brazilian Neo-Pentecostalism
CULTURE AND IDEAS: Argentina's Naval Mechanic School Museum
Popular Cultural Traditions, 1970-2000
New Popular Music Genres
Other Forms of Popular Culture

The Zika Epidemic
Environmental Issues
Commodities in the Twenty-First Century
Gender Issues: The LGBT Movement in Contemporary Latin America
Porous Borders and Transnational Crime: Gangs
The Latin Americanization of the US

Appendix: Table of Contents for Sources in Latin America in the Modern World

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