Let's Review Chemistry

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-01
  • Publisher: Barrons Educational Series Inc

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Barron's Let's Review Seriestitles are classroom textbook supplements that help prepare high school students who are studying for New York State Regents exams. This book reviews all high school-level chemistry topics and includes: A topic review covering atomic structure, chemical formulas and equations, the mathematics of chemistry, thermochemistry and thermodynamics, the phases of matter, chemical periodicity, chemical bonding, and much more Practice and review questions with answers Two recent New York State Regents exams with answers

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fifth Editionp. xi
To the Studentp. xi
To the Teacherp. xii
Introduction to Chemistryp. 1
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 2
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 2
Chemistry is ... ?p. 4
Matter and Energyp. 4
Measurement and the Metric Systemp. 13
Metric Prefixesp. 14
Scientific Notationp. 15
Volume and Densityp. 16
Reporting Measured Quantitiesp. 17
Solving Problemsp. 23
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 31
Atoms, Molecules, and ionsp. 39
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 39
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 39
Introduction to the Atomic Model of Matterp. 41
Development of the Early Models of the Atomp. 42
The Current View of Atomic StructureP44
Identifying Elements: Names, Symbols, and Atomic Numbersp. 45
Neutrons, Isotopes, and Mass Numbersp. 46
Moleculesp. 48
Ionsp. 49
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 50
Formulas, Equations, and Chemical Reactionsp. 55
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 55
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 55
Chemical Formulasp. 56
Writing and Naming Chemical Formulasp. 59
Chemical Equationsp. 65
Balancing a Chemical Equationp. 65
Classifying Chemical Reactionsp. 68
Additional Materialp. 72
Other Ways of Naming Ionic Compoundsp. 72
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 72
Chemical Calculationsp. 79
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 80
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 80
Introductionp. 81
Atomic Massp. 81
The Formula Mass of a Substancep. 83
The Mole Concept and Molar Massp. 84
Problems Involving a Single Substancep. 84
Problems Involving Chemical Equationsp. 88
Additional Materialp. 89
Converting Between Moles and Numbers of Particlesp. 89
Empirical Formula from Percent Compositionp. 90
Mole-Mass Problemsp. 91
Mass-Mass Problemsp. 92
Percent Yieldp. 93
Limiting Reactantsp. 94
End-of Chapter Questionsp. 96
Energy and Chemical Reactionsp. 105
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 105
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 105
Energy and its Measurementp. 107
Heat of Reactionp. 109
Potential Energy Diagramsp. 110
Spontaneous Reactionsp. 112
Additional Materialp. 114
Additional Calorimetry Problemsp. 114
Transfer of Energy and Equilibrium Temperaturep. 115
The Role of Energy in Chemical Reactionsp. 117
Additional Aspects of Heats of Reactionp. 118
The Second Law of Thermodynamicsp. 123
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 125
The Phases of Matterp. 135
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 136
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 136
Introductionp. 137
Gasesp. 137
The Gas Lawsp. 139
The Kinetic-Molecular Theory (KMT) of Gas Behaviorp. 150
Liquidsp. 152
Solidsp. 154
Change of Phasep. 154
Additional Materialp. 157
Measuring Gas Pressure in the Laboratoryp. 157
The Ideal (Universal) Gas Lawp. 159
The Density of an Ideal Gas at STPp. 161
Gases and Chemical Reactionsp. 163
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressuresp. 164
Graham's Law of Effusion (Diffusion)p. 166
Gases Collected over Waterp. 167
Additional Fusion and Vaporization Problemsp. 169
Phase Diagramsp. 170
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 172
Nuclear Chemistryp. 183
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 184
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 184
Nuclear Particlesp. 186
Nuclear Equationsp. 186
Natural Radioactivity and Radioactive Decayp. 187
Half-Lifep. 189
Uses of Radioisotopesp. 190
Induced Nuclear Reactionsp. 191
Additional Materialp. 193
The Uranium-238 Decay Seriesp. 193
Isomeric Transitionp. 194
Detection and Measurement of Radioactivityp. 195
Solving Radioactive Decay Problemsp. 195
Particle Acceleratorsp. 197
Fission Reactorsp. 197
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 200
The Electronic Structure of Atomsp. 209
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 209
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 209
Introductionp. 211
The Bohr Model of the Atomp. 211
The Modern (Wave-Mechanical) Modelp. 214
Valence Electronsp. 214
Lewis Structures (Electron-Dot Diagrams)p. 215
Additional Materialp. 216
Atomic Orbitals and Sublevelsp. 216
Electron Configurations of Atomsp. 218
Lewis Structures and Atomic Orbitalsp. 223
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 225
Chemical Periodicityp. 231
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 231
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 231
Introductionp. 233
The Periodic Table in Historyp. 234
The Modern Periodic Tablep. 234
Properties Associated with Periodicityp. 235
Variation of Periodic Properties Among the Elementsp. 238
The Chemistry of the Representative Groupsp. 246
The Chemistry of a Periodp. 248
Additional Materialp. 248
Sublevels and the Periodic Tablep. 248
Successive Ionization Energiesp. 249
Electron Affinityp. 249
Additional Aspects of First Ionization Energyp. 249
Variation of Successive Ionization Energiesp. 250
Synthetic Elementsp. 251
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 253
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Shapep. 259
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 260
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 260
Bonding and Stabilityp. 262
Ionic Bondingp. 263
Covalent Bondingp. 265
Electronegativity and Bondingp. 266
Drawing the Lewis Structures of Covalent Molecules and Polyatomic Ionsp. 267
Network Solidsp. 270
Metallic Substancesp. 270
Dipoles and Polar Moleculesp. 271
Polarity and Molecular Symmetryp. 272
Intermolecular Forcesp. 273
Physical and Chemical Properties of Bonded Substances: A Summaryp. 277
Additional Materialp. 278
Resonance Structuresp. 278
Additional Topics in Bondingp. 280
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 290
Organic Chemistryp. 297
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 298
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 298
Organic Chemistry Is ... ?p. 299
Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Compoundsp. 300
Hydrocarbons and Homologous Seriesp. 301
Functional Groupsp. 308
Organic Reactionsp. 314
Additional Materialp. 317
Stereoisomerismp. 317
The Benzene Seriesp. 318
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Alcoholsp. 319
Dihydroxy and Trihodroxy Alcoholsp. 320
Types of Polymerizationp. 320
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 322
Solutions and Their Propertiesp. 329
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 330
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 330
A Solution Is ... ?p. 331
Saturated and Unsaturated Solutionsp. 332
Solubilityp. 332
Concentrations of Solutionsp. 335
Effect of the Solute on the Solventp. 340
Behavior of Electrolytes in Solutionp. 340
Additional Materialp. 341
Mole Fractionp. 341
Molalityp. 342
Dilution of Stock Solutionsp. 343
Solutions and Chemical Equationsp. 344
Calculating the Freezing and Boiling Points of Solutionsp. 345
Suspensions and Colloidal Dispersionsp. 346
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 348
Kinetics and Equalibriump. 355
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 355
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 355
Chemical Kineticsp. 357
Reversible Reactions and Dynamic Equilibriump. 359
Phase Equilibriump. 360
Solution Equilibriump. 361
Chemical Equilibriump. 361
Additional Materialp. 365
The Common-Ion Effectp. 365
Heterogeneous Equilibriump. 366
The Equilibrium Constant (Keq)p. 366
Problems Involving the Equilibrium Constantp. 369
Applications of Chemical Equilibriump. 372
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 373
Acids and Basesp. 385
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 385
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 385
Operational Definitions of Acids and Basesp. 387
Arrhenius Definitions of Acids and Basesp. 389
Acid-Base Titrationp. 389
Brönsted-Lowry Definitions of Acids and Basesp. 392
The pH Scale of Acidity and Basicityp. 394
Acid-Base Indicatorsp. 395
Additional Materialp. 396
Amphiprotic (Amphoteric) Substancesp. 396
Acid-Base Equilibriap. 396
Conjugate Acid-Base Pairsp. 398
Neutralization (Revisited)p. 399
Strengths of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairsp. 400
Ionization Constants of Acids and Bases (Ka and Kb)p. 401
Ionization Constant of Water (Kw)p. 403
A More Detailed Look at pH and pOHp. 404
Hydrolysis of Salts in Aqueous Solutionsp. 407
Acid-Base Properties of Oxidesp. 409
Lewis Definitions of Acids and Basesp. 409
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 410
Reducation-oxidation(Redox) and Electrochemistryp. 417
Basic (Regents-Level) Materialp. 417
NYS Regents Concepts and Skillsp. 417
What Are Oxidation and Reduction?p. 419
Formal Definitions of Oxidation and Reductionp. 420
Redox Equationsp. 421
Spontaneous Redox Reactionsp. 422
Electrochemical Cellsp. 425
Additional Materialp. 428
Balancing Redox Equations by the Half-ReactionMethodp. 428
Balancing Redox Equations by the Ion-ElectronMethodp. 429
Half-Cell Potentials and Cell Voltagep. 432
The Standard Hydrogen Half-Cellp. 434
Electrolysis of Water and Aqueous NaCl (Brine)p. 435
Electroplatingp. 436
Additional Applications of Redox and Electrochemistryp. 436
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 438
The Chemistry Laboratoryp. 447
Introductionp. 447
Safety Proceduresp. 448
Using Measuring Devicesp. 448
Basic Laboratory Skillsp. 449
Identification of Common Laboratory Apparatusp. 449
Basic Laboratory Activitiesp. 451
The Role of Color in Identifying Substancesp. 452
Guidelines for Laboratory Reportsp. 454
End-of-Chapter Questionsp. 454
Glossaryp. 465
New York State Regents Reference Tables For Chemistryp. 479
Additional Reference Tables For Chemistryp. 493
Answers To End-Of-Chapter Questionsp. 505
Answering Constructed-Response Questionsp. 523
The New York State Examination In Chemistryp. 533
June 2011 Regents Examinationp. 535
Answers To Regents Examinationp. 66
Indexp. 567
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