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Kerman/Tomlinson, Listen, Eighth Edition is moving to W.W. Norton and Company Publishers. For instructors and students currently using Listen, W.H. Freeman will continue to support your teaching and learning with the textbook and its accompanying print and media resources, including LaunchPad, until July 31, 2015. Instructors interested in using Listen after August 1, 2016, should contact Norton.

Generations of students have developed a love of music and focused listening skills through the enjoyable prose, high-quality recordings, unmatched Listening Charts, and historical context in Listen.

In the eighth edition this classic text gets a fresh face, with a new design that enhances its clarity and accessibility, new features that help students review and synthesize important concepts, new perspectives on twentieth-century music, and new repertory that enhances students’ exposure to the forms and genres of classical music. With an array of media options including CDs, downloads, and LaunchPad with streaming music, Listen works well for any course format and any budget.

Author Biography

Joseph Kerman was a leading musicologist, music critic, and music educator from the 1950s into the 2000s. He conceived Listen together with his wife, Vivian Kerman, and was its original author. From his first book, Opera as Drama (1956), to his last, Opera and the Morbidity of Music (2008), including studies of Bach, Beethoven, William Byrd, concertos, and more, Kerman reshaped our understanding and appreciation of Western Classical music. He was long a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, where he served two terms as chair of the Music Department.

Gary Tomlinson did the same at the University of Pennsylvania before he moved to Yale University in 2011, where he is now the John Hay Whitney Professor and Director of the Whitney Humanities Center. A former MacArthur Fellow, he has authored books on Claudio Monteverdi, Renaissance musical culture, opera, and the singing rituals of the Aztecs and Incas. His latest book, 1,000,000 Years of Music, describes the evolutionary emergence of music.

Teaching was the heart and soul of Kerman’s musical career, and it remains such in Tomlinson’s. Between them, their wide-ranging course offerings have encompassed harmony and ear-training, opera, world music, popular music, interdisciplinary studies, seminars in music history, criticism, and anthropology and—many times over—Introduction to Music for non-majors.

Tomlinson and Kerman worked together on five editions of Listen. Joseph Kerman died early in 2014, just shy of his 90th birthday, as this edition went to press.

Table of Contents

*New to this edition

Preface To the Instructor

Introduction To the Student

Classical Music—and Other Kinds

Classical Music and History


*How to Use This Book

Unit I Fundamentals

CHAPTER 1 Rhythm, Meter, and Tempo

1 Rhythm

Beat and Accent

2 Meter

Rhythm and Meter


Listening Exercise 1 Rhythm, Meter, and Syncopation

3 Tempo

Listening Exercise 2 Rhythm, Meter, and Tempo

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 2 Pitch, Dynamics, and Tone Color

1 Pitch

2 Dynamics

Listening Exercise 3 Pitch and Dynamics

3 Tone Color

[Box] Musical Instruments

Listening Exercise 4 The Orchestra in Action

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 3 Scales and Melody

1 Scales

The Octave

The Diatonic Scale

The Chromatic Scale

Half Steps and Whole Steps

2 Melody


[Box] Characteristics of Tunes

Listening Exercise 5 Melody and Tune

Motives and Themes

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 4 Harmony, Texture, Tonality, and Mode

1 Harmony

Consonance and Dissonance

2 Texture


Homophony and Polyphony


Listening Exercise 6 Texture

3 Tonality and Mode


Major and Minor Modes


Listening for the Major and Minor Modes

Listening for Keys and Modulation

Listening Exercise 7 Mode and Key

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 5 Musical Form and Musical Style

1 Form in Music

Form and Feeling

Form and Forms

Listening Exercise 8 Musical Form

Musical Genres

2 Musical Style

Musical Style and Lifestyle

Benjamin Britten, The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra (1946)

Listening Chart 1

*Goals for Review


UNIT II Early Music: An Overview


CHAPTER 6 The Middle Ages

1 Music and the Church

Music and Church Services: Liturgy


Characteristics of Plainchant

Gregorian Recitation and Gregorian Melody

Anonymous, Plainchant antiphon, "In paradisum" (c. ninth century)

Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179), Plainchant sequence, "Columba aspexit"

2 Music at Court

Troubadour and Trouvère Songs

Bernart de Ventadorn (c. 1135–1194), Troubadour song, "La dousa votz"

[Box] How Did Early Music Sound?

The Estampie

3 The Evolution of Polyphony


Pérotin, Organum, "Alleluia. Diffusa est gratia" (c. 1200)

4 Later Medieval Polyphony

Anonymous, Round, "Sumer Is Icumen In" (late thirteenth century)

Ars Nova

Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300–1377), Chanson, "Dame, de qui toute ma joie vient"

Global Perspectives Sacred Chant

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 7 The Renaissance

1 New Attitudes

Early Homophony

Guillaume Dufay (c. 1400–1474), Harmonized hymn, "Ave maris stella"

The Mass

2 The High Renaissance Style



Other Characteristics

Josquin Desprez, Pange lingua Mass (c. 1510)

3 Music as Expression

Josquin Desprez, Chanson, "Mille regrets"

4 Late Renaissance Music

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass (1557)

The Motet

The Italian Madrigal

The English Madrigal

Thomas Weelkes, Madrigal, "As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descending" (1601)

5 Instrumental Music: Early Developments

Renaissance Dances

Anonymous (sixteenth century), Galliard, "Daphne"

Anonymous (sixteenth century), "Kemp’s Jig"

Global Perspectives Music and Early European Colonialism

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 8 The Early Baroque Period

1 From Renaissance to Baroque

Music in Venice

Extravagance and Control

Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 1555–1612), Motet, "O magnum mysterium"

2 Style Features of Early Baroque Music

Rhythm and Meter

Texture: Basso Continuo

Functional Harmony

3 Opera


Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643)

[Box] Singing Italian

Claudio Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea (1642)

Henry Purcell (1659–1695)

Henry Purcell, Dido and Aeneas (1689)

4 The Rise of Instrumental Music

Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583–1643)

Girolamo Frescobaldi, Canzona, Balletto, and Corrente (1627–1637)

Global Perspectives African Ostinato Forms

*Goals for Review


UNIT III The Eighteenth Century


CHAPTER 9 Prelude The Late Baroque Period

1 Absolutism and the Age of Science

Art and Absolutism

The Music of Absolutism

Art and Theatricality

Science and the Arts

Science and Music

2 Musical Life in the Early Eighteenth Century

3 Style Features of Late Baroque Music



Tone Color

The Baroque Orchestra




The Continuo

Musical Form

4 The Emotional World of Baroque Music

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 10 Baroque Instrumental Music

1 Concerto and Concerto Grosso


Ritornello Form

Antonio Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12 (1712–1713)

Listening Chart 2

[Biography] Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741)

Baroque Variation Form: The Ground Bass

Antonio Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in G, La stravaganza, Op. 4, No. 12, second movement

Listening Chart 3

*Vivaldi’s Greatest Hits

*Antonio Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in E, Spring, Op. 8, No. 1 (before 1725)

*Listening Chart 4

Johann Sebastian Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, for Flute, Violin, Harpsichord, and Orchestra (before 1721)

Listening Chart 5

[Biography] Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)

2 Fugue

Fugal Exposition

Fugal Devices

Johann Sebastian Bach, Prelude and Fugue in C Major, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1 (1722)

Listening Chart 6

[Box] Glenn Gould (1932–1982)

3 Baroque Dances

The Dance Suite

Baroque Dance Form

George Frideric Handel, Minuet from The Royal Fireworks Music (1749)

Johann Sebastian Bach, Gigue from Cello Suite No. 2 in D Minor (c. 1720)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 11 Baroque Vocal Music

1 Opera

Italian Opera Seria



[Box] The Castrato

George Frideric Handel, Julius Caesar (1724)

2 Oratorio

[Biography] George Frideric Handel (1685–1759)

George Frideric Handel, Messiah (1742)

3 The Church Cantata

[Box] Women in Music

The Lutheran Chorale

Johann Sebastian Bach, Cantata No. 4, "Christ lag in Todesbanden" (1707)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 12 Prelude Music and the Enlightenment

1 The Enlightenment and Music

"The Pursuit of Happiness"

Art and Entertainment

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Opera

The Novel

2 The Rise of Concerts

3 Style Features of Classical Music



Tone Color: The Classical Orchestra

Melody: Tunes

Texture: Homophony

Classical Counterpoint

4 Form in Classical Music

Repetitions and Cadences

Classical Forms

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 13 The Symphony

1 The Movements of the Symphony

2 Sonata Form

Exposition (A)

Development (B)

Recapitulation (A′)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, K. 550 (1788)

Listening Chart 7

[Biography] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)

3 Classical Variation Form

*Symphonies of Haydn

*Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G ("The Surprise") (1791)

*Listening Chart 8

[Biography] Franz Joseph Haydn (1732–1809)

4 Minuet Form (Classical Dance Form)

Baroque and Classical Dance Form

*Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 99 in E-flat (1793)

*Listening Chart 9

5 Rondo Form

*Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 101 in D ("The Clock") (1793–1794)

*Listening Chart 10

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 14 Other Classical Genres

1 The Sonata

2 The Classical Concerto

Double-Exposition Form

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 23 in A, K. 488 (1786)

Listening Chart 11

3 The String Quartet

Chamber Music

4 Opera Buffa

The Ensemble

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Don Giovanni (1787)

Global Perspectives Musical Form: Two Case Studies from Asia

*Goals for Review


UNIT IV The Nineteenth Century


CHAPTER 15 Beethoven

1 Between Classicism and Romanticism

The French Revolution

2 Beethoven and the Symphony

[Biography] Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)

Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 (1808)

Listening Chart 12

Listening Chart 13

3 Beethoven’s "Third Period"

*Ludwig van Beethoven, Piano Sonata in E, Op. 109 (1820)

*Listening Chart 14

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 16 Prelude Music after Beethoven: Romanticism

1 Romanticism

The Cult of Individual Feeling

Romanticism and Revolt

Artistic Barriers

Music and the Supernatural

Music and the Other Arts

2 Concert Life in the Nineteenth Century

The Artist and the Public

3 Style Features of Romantic Music

Romantic Melody

Romantic Harmony

Rhythmic Freedom: Rubato

The Expansion of Tone Color

4 Program Music

5 Form in Romantic Music

Miniature Compositions

Grandiose Compositions

The Principle of Thematic Unity

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 17 The Early Romantics

1 The Lied

Franz Schubert, "Erlkönig" (The Erlking) (1815)

[Biography] Franz Schubert (1797–1828)

The Song Cycle

Robert Schumann, Dichterliebe (A Poet’s Love) (1840)

[Biography] Robert Schumann (1810–1856)

Clara Schumann, "Der Mond kommt still gegangen" (The moon has risen softly) (1843)

[Biography] Clara Wieck (Clara Schumann) (1819–1896)

2 The Character Piece for Piano

Franz Schubert, Moment Musical No. 2 in A-flat (1827?)

Robert Schumann, Carnaval (1833–1835)

Frédéric Chopin, Nocturne in F-sharp, Op. 15, No. 2 (1831)

[Biography] Frédéric Chopin (1810–1849)

[Biography] Franz Liszt (1811–1886)

3 Early Romantic Program Music

The Concert Overture: Felix Mendelssohn

[Biography] Felix Mendelssohn (1809–1847)

[Biography] Fanny Mendelssohn (1805–1847)

The Program Symphony: Hector Berlioz

Hector Berlioz, Fantastic Symphony: Episodes in the Life of an Artist (1830)

Listening Chart 15

[Biography] Hector Berlioz (1803–1869)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 18 Romantic Opera

1 Verdi and Italian Opera

Recitative and Aria: The Role of the Orchestra

[Box] Early Romantic Opera

Giuseppe Verdi, Rigoletto (1851)

[Biography] Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901)

2 Wagner and Music Drama

[Biography] Richard Wagner (1813–1883)

The Total Work of Art


[Box] Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde (1859)

The Nibelung’s Ring (1848–1874)

Richard Wagner, The Valkyrie (1851–1856)

3 Late Romantic Opera

Giacomo Puccini (1858–1924)

Giacomo Puccini, Madame Butterfly (1904)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 19 The Late Romantics

Romanticism and Realism

1 Late Romantic Program Music

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Overture-Fantasy, Romeo and Juliet (1869, revised 1880)

Listening Chart 16

[Biography] Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893)

2 Nationalism


The Russian Kuchka

Modest Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)

[Biography] Modest Musorgsky (1839–1881)

[Box] Other Nationalists

3 Responses to Romanticism

The Renewal of Classicism: Brahms

[Biography] Johannes Brahms (1833–1897)

Johannes Brahms, Violin Concerto in D, Op. 77 (1878)

Listening Chart 17

Romantic Nostalgia: Mahler

[Biography] Gustav Mahler (1860–1911)

Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 1 (1888)

Listening Chart 18

Global Perspectives Musical Drama Worldwide

*Goals for Review


UNIT V The Twentieth Century and Beyond


CHAPTER 20 Prelude Music and Modernism

*1 Varieties of Modernism

2 Progress and Uncertainty

3 The Response of Modernism

4 Literature and Art before World War I

Impressionists and Symbolists

Expressionists and Fauves

5 Modernist Music before World War I

Experiment and Transformation: Melody

New Horizons, New Scales

"The Emancipation of Dissonance"

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 21 Early Modernism

1 Debussy and Impressionism

Claude Debussy, Clouds, from Three Nocturnes (1899)

Listening Chart 19

[Biography] Claude Debussy (1862–1918)

2 Stravinsky: The Primacy of Rhythm

Igor Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, from Part I, "The Adoration of the Earth" (1913)

Listening Chart 20

[Biography] Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971)

3 Expressionism

Arnold Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot) (1912)

[Biography] Arnold Schoenberg (1874–1951)

Alban Berg (1885–1935), Wozzeck (1923)

[Box] Schoenberg and Serialism

4 The First American Modernist: Ives

[Biography] Charles Ives (1874–1954)

Charles Ives, Second Orchestral Set, second movement, "The Rockstrewn Hills Join in the People’s Outdoor Meeting" (1909)

Listening Chart 21

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 22 Modernism between the Wars

Twentieth-Century Traditionalism

1 Mixing Classical Form and Jazz: Maurice Ravel

Maurice Ravel, Piano Concerto in G (1931)

[Biography] Maurice Ravel (1875–1937)

Listening Chart 22

2 Folk Music, Nationalism, and Modernism: Béla Bartók

[Biography] Béla Bartók (1881–1945)

Béla Bartók, Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936)

Listening Chart 23

*3 Varieties of American Modernism

*Ruth Crawford

*Ruth Crawford, Prelude for Piano No. 6 (Andante Mystico) (1928)

*Listening Chart 24

*[Biography] Ruth Crawford (1901–1953)

*William Grant Still

*William Grant Still, Afro-American Symphony (1930)

*Listening Chart 25

*[Biography] William Grant Still (1895–1978)

Aaron Copland

Aaron Copland, Appalachian Spring (1945)

[Biography] Aaron Copland (1900–1990)

6 The Rise of Film Music

Composers for Film

[Box] Music and Totalitarianism

Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Nevsky Cantata (1938)

Listening Chart 26

[Biography] Sergei Prokofiev (1891–1953)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 23 The Late Twentieth Century

1 The Postwar Avant-Garde

New Sound Materials

Electronic Music

On the Boundaries of Time

Anton Webern, Five Orchestral Pieces (1913)

Chance Music

2 The New Generation

Edgard Varèse (1883–1965)

Edgard Varèse, Poème électronique (1958)

György Ligeti (1923–2006)

György Ligeti, Lux aeterna (1966)

Listening Chart 27

John Cage (1912–1992)

John Cage, 4′33″ (1952)

3 Music at the End of the Millennium

Steve Reich (b. 1936) and Minimalism

Steve Reich, Music for 18 Musicians (1974–1976)

Listening Chart 28

*New Expressionism and Connecting to the Past

*George Crumb (b. 1929)

*George Crumb, American Songbook V: Voices from a Forgotten World (2006)

*Tania León (b. 1943)

*Tania León, Indígena (1991)

*Listening Chart 29

John Adams (b. 1947)

*John Adams, Doctor Atomic (2005)

*Goals for Review


CHAPTER 24 Music in America: Jazz and Beyond

1 Early American Music: An Overview

The Cultivated Tradition

Music in the Vernacular

African American Music

2 Jazz: The First Fifty Years

The Blues

[Box] Ragtime: Scott Joplin (1868–1917)

Sippie Wallace (1898–1986), "If You Ever Been Down" Blues (Composed by G. W. Thomas) (1927)

New Orleans Jazz

[Biography] Louis Armstrong (1901–1971)

Big-Band Jazz: Swing

Duke Ellington, "Conga Brava" (1940)

[Biography] Duke Ellington (1899–1974)

Popular Song

3 Later Jazz


Charlie Parker (1920–1955) and Miles Davis (1926–1991), "Out of Nowhere" (1948)

Jazz after Bebop

Miles Davis (1926–1991), Bitches Brew (1969)

Global Perspectives African Drumming

*4 The American Musical

Musical Comedy

The Musical after 1940

Leonard Bernstein (1918–1990), West Side Story (1957)

The Later Musical

5 Rock

Early Rock ’n’ Roll

The 1960s: Rock Comes of Age

Motown, Soul, and Funk

The British Invasion

American Counteroffensives

After the 1960s

Trends 1980–2000: Punk, Rap, and Post-Rock

Global Perspectives Global Music

6 Conclusion

*Goals for Review


Appendix A Time Lines

Appendix B Musical Notation

Glossary of Musical Terms


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