Listening to Western Music (with CD)

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  • Edition: 1st
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  • Copyright: 2007-01-23
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LISTENING TO WESTERN MUSIC helps you to develop and refine your listening skills. With Wright, you will learn to move comfortably from the classroom to the concert hall, listening to classical and popular music with more confidence and enjoyment. Unique multimedia and online support give you the tools you need to master the material, score well on exams and quizzes, and enjoy classical music.

Table of Contents

Listening Exercisesp. xiii
Boxesp. xiv
About the Authorp. xv
About the Coverp. xvi
Prefacep. xvii
The Elements of Musicp. 1
Listening to Musicp. 2
How Musical Sound and Sound Machines Workp. 2
Music and the Brainp. 3
Listening to Whose Music?p. 4
Classical Music-Popular Musicp. 4
Why Listen to Classical Music?p. 5
Classical Music All Around Youp. 5
Attending a Classical Concertp. 6
Learning to Be a Good Listenerp. 7
Getting Started: Three Musical Beginningsp. 7
Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor-Openingp. 7
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minorp. 9
Peter Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1-Openingp. 9
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1p. 10
Richard Strauss, Also Sprach Zarathustra (Thus Spoke Zarathustra)-Openingp. 10
Listening Guide: Strauss, Thus Spoke Zarathustrap. 11
Key Wordsp. 13
Rhythmp. 13
Rhythm and Rhythmic Notationp. 14
Meterp. 16
Hearing Metersp. 17
Syncopationp. 19
Tempop. 19
Rhythm and Rapp. 20
Key Wordsp. 21
Melodyp. 22
Pitchp. 22
The Octavep. 22
Notating Melodiesp. 23
Tonality, Keys, and Scalesp. 26
Modulationp. 27
Hearing Major and Minorp. 27
Chromatic Scalep. 29
Melodic Structurep. 29
Hearing Melodies and Phrasesp. 31
Key Wordsp. 32
Harmonyp. 33
Building Harmonyp. 33
Consonance and Dissonancep. 35
Hearing the Harmony Changep. 35
The Twelve-Bar Blues Harmony Then and Nowp. 37
Key Wordsp. 38
Dynamics and Colorp. 38
Dynamicsp. 39
Colorp. 39
The Voicep. 40
Musical Instrumentsp. 40
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Stringsp. 43
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Woodwindsp. 44
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Brassesp. 46
Listening Guide: Instruments of the Orchestra: Percussionp. 47
Key Wordsp. 51
Musical Texture and Formp. 52
Monophonic, Polyphonic, and Homophonic Texturesp. 52
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" chorusp. 54
Formp. 55
Five Favorite Musical Formsp. 56
Listening Guide: Brahms, Lullabyp. 56
Listening Guide: Mozart, Variations on Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Starp. 57
Listening Guide: Haydn, Symphony No. 94, 2nd movementp. 58
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, "Dance of the Reed Pipes"p. 58
Listening Guide: Mouret, Rondeaup. 59
Key Wordsp. 60
Musical Stylep. 61
Key Wordp. 61
Checklists of Musical Style by Periodsp. 61
The Middle Ages and Renaissance, 476-1600p. 68
Medieval Music, 476-1475p. 70
Music in the Monasteryp. 70
Gregorian Chantp. 70
Listening Guide: Anonymous, All the Ends of the Earthp. 71
The Gregorian Chant of Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)p. 71
Listening Guide: Hildegard of Bingen, O Greenest Branchp. 73
Music in the Cathedralp. 73
Notre Dame of Parisp. 74
Leoninus: Organum, All the Ends of the Earthp. 74
Chant at the Top of the Chartsp. 75
Listening Guide: Leoninus, All the Ends of the Earthp. 75
Notre Dame of Reimsp. 76
Machaut, Mass of Our Ladyp. 76
Musical Portions of the Massp. 77
Listening Guide: Machaut, Mass of Our Lady, Kyriep. 78
Music at the Courtp. 78
Music at the Forefront of Sciencep. 79
Troubadours and Trouveresp. 79
Listening Guide: Countess of Dia, I Must Singp. 80
Music at the Court of Burgundyp. 81
Listening Guide: Dufay, This Month of Mayp. 82
Medieval Musical Instrumentsp. 83
Listening Guide: Anonymous, The Spanish Tunep. 84
Key Wordsp. 84
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 84
Renaissance Music, 1475-1600p. 85
Music Becomes a Fine Artp. 86
Josquin Desprez (c 1455-1521) and the Renaissance Motetp. 87
Listening Guide: Josquin, Ave Mariap. 90
The Counter-Reformation and Palestrina (1525-1594)p. 91
Male Choirsp. 92
Female Choirs in Conventsp. 93
Listening Guide: Palestrina, Sanctusp. 94
Popular Music in the Renaissancep. 95
The Madrigalp. 95
Listening Guide: Weelkes, As Vesta Was from Latmos Hill Descendingp. 97
Key Wordsp. 98
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 98
The Baroque Period, 1600-1750p. 100
Introduction to Baroque Art and Musicp. 102
Baroque Architecture and Musicp. 102
Baroque Painting and Musicp. 104
Characteristics of Baroque Musicp. 105
Expressive Melodyp. 105
The Basso Continuop. 105
Elements of Baroque Musicp. 107
Melodyp. 107
Harmonyp. 108
Rhythmp. 108
Texturep. 108
Dynamicsp. 108
Key Wordsp. 109
Early Baroque Vocal Musicp. 109
Operap. 109
Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)p. 110
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, Toccatap. 112
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, "At the bitter news" and "Thou art dead"p. 113
Listening Guide: Monteverdi, Orfeo, "Powerful spirit"p. 114
Chamber Cantatap. 114
Barbara Strozzi: Professional Composerp. 115
Listening Guide: Strozzi, "I want to die"p. 116
Opera in Londonp. 117
Henry Purcell (1659-1695)p. 117
Listening Guide: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, "When I am laid in earth"p. 119
Elton John and Basso Ostinatop. 121
Key Wordsp. 121
Middle Baroque Instrumental Musicp. 121
The Baroque Orchestrap. 122
Orchestral Overturep. 123
Jean-Baptiste Lully, (1632-1687)p. 124
Listening Guide: Lully Overture to Armidep. 124
Solo Sonata and Trio Sonatap. 125
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713)p. 125
The Baroque Violinp. 116
Listening Guide: Corelli, Trio Sonata in C majorp. 127
The Baroque Concertop. 128
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)p. 128
The Hospice of Mercy: Convent and Concert Hallp. 129
Listening Guide: Vivaldi, Violin Concerto in E major, 1st movementp. 131
Key Wordsp. 133
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 133
The Late Baroque: Bachp. 134
Aspects of Late Baroque Musical Stylep. 134
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)p. 135
Fuguep. 135
Listening Guide: Bach, Organ Fugue in G minorp. 137
Bach's Orchestral Musicp. 139
Listening Guide: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D major, 1st movementp. 140
The Church Cantatap. 141
What Did Mrs. Bach Do?p. 143
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 1st movementp. 144
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 4th movementp. 146
Listening Guide: Bach, Awake, a Voice Is Calling, 7th movementp. 148
Bach's Bonesp. 149
Key Wordsp. 149
The Late Baroque: Handelp. 150
George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)p. 150
Handel and the Orchestral Dance Suitep. 151
Listening Guide: Handel, Water Music, Minuet and Triop. 152
Handel and Operap. 153
Handel and Oratoriop. 153
The Theatrical Quality of Baroque Artp. 154
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Rejoice greatly"p. 156
Listening Guide: Handel, Messiah, "Hallelujah" chorusp. 157
Key Wordsp. 160
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 160
The Classical Period, 1750-1820p. 162
Classical Stylep. 164
The Enlightenmentp. 164
Music and Social Change: Comic Operap. 165
Public Concertsp. 166
The Advent of the Pianop. 166
Elements of Classical Stylep. 167
Melodyp. 167
Harmonyp. 168
Rhythmp. 168
Texturep. 168
Classical Style in Paintingp. 169
The Dramatic Quality of Classical Musicp. 169
An Example of Classical Stylep. 170
Listening Guide: Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, "If you want to dance"p. 171
Key Wordsp. 171
Classical Composers: Haydn and Mozartp. 173
Vienna: A City of Musicp. 173
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)p. 174
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)p. 176
What's a Genius? Was Mozart a Musical Genius?p. 177
Mozart and Amadeusp. 178
Key Wordsp. 179
Classical Forms: Ternary and Sonata-Allegrop. 179
Ternary Formp. 180
Minuet and Triop. 181
Listening Guide: Mozart, A Little Night Music, 3rd movementp. 183
Listening Guide: Haydn, Symphony No. 94, the "Surprise," 3rd movementp. 183
Sonata-Allegro Formp. 184
The Shape of Sonata-Allegro Formp. 185
Hearing Sonata-Allegro Formp. 187
Listening Guide: Mozart, A Little Night Music, 1st movementp. 188
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Overturep. 189
Key Wordsp. 191
Classical Forms: Theme and Variations, Rondop. 191
Theme and Variationsp. 191
Mozart: Variations on Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Starp. 192
Haydn: Symphony No. 94 (the "Surprise" Symphony), 2nd movementp. 193
Listening Guide Haydn, Symphony No. 94, the "Surprise," 2nd movementp. 194
Rondo Formp. 195
Mozart: Horn Concerto in E[Characters not reproducible] major, K. 495, 3rd movement (finale)p. 196
Listening Guide: Mozart, Horn Concerto in E[Characters not reproducible] major, 3rd movementp. 196
A Rondo by Stingp. 198
Form, Mood, and the Listener's Expectationsp. 199
Key Wordsp. 199
Classical Genres: Instrumental Musicp. 200
The Symphony and the Symphony Orchestrap. 200
The Classical Symphony Orchestrap. 201
Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor, K. 550p. 202
Listening Guide: Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, 1st movementp. 204
The String Quartetp. 206
Haydn: Opus 76, No. 3, the "Emperor" Quartet (1797)p. 207
Listening Guide: Haydn, String Quartet, the "Emperor," 2nd movementp. 208
The Sonatap. 209
The Concertop. 210
Mozart: Piano Concerto in A major (1786), K. 488p. 211
Barbara Ployer: Concert Pianistp. 212
Listening Guide: Mozart, Piano Concerto in A major, 1st movementp. 212
Key Wordsp. 214
Classical Genres: Vocal Musicp. 214
Classical Operap. 215
Mozart and Operap. 215
Mozart: Don Giovanni (1787), K. 527p. 215
Lorenzo Da Ponte: Librettist to Mozartp. 216
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Scene 1p. 217
Listening Guide: Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Scene 7p. 219
Key Wordsp. 222
Beethoven: Bridge to Romanticismp. 222
Beethoven's Musicp. 222
The Early Years (1770-1802)p. 223
Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the "Pathetique" Sonatap. 224
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Piano Sonata, Opus 13, the "Pathetique"p. 225
Beethoven Becomes Deafp. 227
Music and Sufferingp. 228
The "Heroic" Period (1803-1813)p. 228
Symphony No. 3 in E[Characters not reproducible] major ("Eroica")p. 229
Symphony No. 5 in C minorp. 229
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 1st movementp. 232
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 2nd movementp. 235
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 3rd movementp. 237
Listening Guide: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 in C minor, 4th movementp. 238
The Final Years (1814-1827)p. 239
Epilogue: Beethoven and the Nineteenth Centuryp. 240
Key Wordsp. 241
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 241
Romanticism, 1820-1900p. 242
Introduction to Romanticismp. 244
Romantic Inspiration, Romantic Creativityp. 244
The Musician as "Artist," Music as "Art"p. 245
Lord Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimagep. 246
Romantic Ideals and Today's Concert Hallp. 247
The Style of Romantic Musicp. 247
Romantic Melodyp. 247
Colorful Harmonyp. 248
Romantic Tempo: Rubatop. 249
Romantic Forms: Monumental and Miniaturep. 249
Expressive Tone Colors, Greater Size, Greater Volumep. 250
The Romantic Orchestrap. 250
The Conductorp. 251
The Growth of the Symphony Orchestrap. 252
The Virtuosop. 253
Codap. 254
Key Wordsp. 255
Early Romantic Musk: The Art Songp. 255
The Art Songp. 255
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)p. 256
Listening Guide: Schubert, Erlkingp. 259
Robert Schumann (1810-1856)p. 261
Listening Guide: R. Schumann "Dedication" from Myrtlesp. 263
Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)p. 263
Where Were the Women?p. 264
Listening Guide: C. Schumann, "If You Love for Beauty"p. 265
Lives of Tragedy and Fidelityp. 265
Key Wordsp. 267
Early Romantic Music: Program Musicp. 267
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)p. 268
Symphonic fantastiquep. 269
The Real End of the Programp. 273
Listening Guide: Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, 5th movementp. 273
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)p. 275
Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dreamp. 276
Listening Guide: Mendelssohn Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dreamp. 277
Key Wordsp. 278
Early Romantic Music: Piano Musicp. 278
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)p. 279
Mazurka in B[Characters not reproducible] major, Opus 7, No. 1p. 280
Listening Guide: Chopin, Mazurka in B[Characters not reproducible] major, Opus 7, No. 1p. 280
Nocturne in C# minor, Opus 27, No. 1p. 281
Listening Guide: Chopin, Nocturne in C# minor, Opus 27, No. 1p. 282
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)p. 283
Transcendental Etude No. 8, "Wilde Jagd" ("Wild Hunt")p. 285
Listening Guide: Liszt, Transcendental Etude No. 8, "Wild Hunt"p. 286
Key Wordsp. 286
Romantic Opera: Italyp. 287
Italian Bel Canto Operap. 287
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)p. 288
Verdi's Dramaturgy and Musical Stylep. 290
La traviata (1853)p. 290
Listening Guide: Verdi, La traviata, Act I, Scene 4p. 291
Listening Guide: Verdi, La traviata, Act I, Scene 6p. 292
Key Wordsp. 294
Romantic Opera: Germanyp. 295
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)p. 295
Wagner's "Music Dramas"p. 297
Tristan und Isolde (1865)p. 298
Leitmotifs in Star Warsp. 300
Listening Guide: Wagner, Liebestod, from Tristan und Isoldep. 300
Key Wordsp. 302
Nineteenth-Century Realistic Operap. 303
Georges Bizet's Carmen (1875)p. 304
Carmen from Flop to Hip-Hopp. 305
Listening Guide: Bizet, Habanera from Carmenp. 305
Giacomo Puccini's La boheme (1896)p. 307
Listening Guide: Puccini, Aria from La bohemep. 308
Key Wordsp. 309
Music and Nationalismp. 309
Russian Nationalism: Modest Musorgsky (1839-1881)p. 310
Pictures at an Exhibition (1874)p. 310
Listening Guide: Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibitionp. 312
Czech Nationalism: Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904)p. 314
Listening Guide: Dvorak, Furiant from Slavonic Dances, Opus 46p. 316
Key Wordsp. 316
Late Romantic Orchestral Musicp. 316
The Late Romantic Symphonyp. 317
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)p. 317
Symphony No. 2 in D major (1877)p. 319
Listening Guide: Brahms, Symphony No. 2 in D major, 3rd movementp. 319
The Symphonic Poemp. 320
Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)p. 320
Symphonic Poem, Romeo and Juliet (1869; revised 1880)p. 321
Listening Guide: Tchaikovsky, Romeo and Julietp. 323
The Orchestral Songp. 324
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)p. 324
Orchestral Song, I Am Lost to the World, from the Five Ruckert Songs (1901-1902)p. 326
Listening Guide: Mahler, I Am Lost to the Worldp. 327
Key Wordsp. 327
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 328
Modern and Postmodern Art Music, 1880-Presentp. 330
Impressionismp. 332
Impressionism in Painting and Musicp. 332
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)p. 333
Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun (1894)p. 334
Listening Guide: Debussy, Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faunp. 336
Preludes for Piano (1910, 1913)p. 338
Listening Guide: Debussy, Voiles, from Preludes, Book Ip. 340
Key Wordsp. 341
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 341
Exoticismp. 342
The Exotic of China: Puccini's Turandot (1924)p. 343
Listening Guide: Puccini, "People of Peking," from Turandotp. 344
Listening Guide: Puccini, "Lord, please listen!" from Turandotp. 345
Listening Guide: Puccini, "Hello, Pang! Hello, Pong!" from Turandotp. 346
The Exotic of Spain: Ravel's Bolero (1928)p. 347
Listening Guide: Ravel, Bolerop. 349
Key Wordsp. 350
Modernism in Music and the Artsp. 351
Modernism: An Anti-Romantic Movementp. 351
Early-Twentieth-Century Musical Stylep. 353
Melody: More Angularity and Chromaticismp. 353
Harmony: The "Emancipation of Dissonance," New Chords, New Systemsp. 354
Rhythm: New Asymmetrical Rhythms and Irregular Metersp. 355
Tone Color: New Sounds from New Sourcesp. 355
Key Wordsp. 356
Early-Twentieth-Century Modernismp. 357
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1974)p. 357
Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring, 1913)p. 358
Listening Guide: Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Introduction and Scene 1p. 362
Arnold Schoenberg and the Second Viennese Schoolp. 363
Expressionism and Atonalityp. 364
Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot, 1912)p. 364
Listening Guide: Schoenberg, Moonstruck Pierrot, Number 6, Madonnap. 366
Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Musicp. 366
Trio from Suite for Piano (1924)p. 367
Listening Guide: Schoenberg, Trio from Suite for Pianop. 367
Key Wordsp. 368
Russian and Eastern European Modernismp. 369
Sergey Prokofiev (1891-1953)p. 370
Classical Symphony (1917)p. 370
Listening Guide: Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, 1st movementp. 371
Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)p. 372
Symphony No. 5 (1937)p. 372
Listening Guide: Shostakovich, Symphony No. 5, 4th movementp. 373
Bela Bartok (1881-1945)p. 374
Concerto for Orchestra (1943)p. 375
Listening Guide: Bartok, Concerto for Orchestra, 4th movementp. 377
Key Wordsp. 377
Three American Voicesp. 378
Charles Ives (1874-1954)p. 378
Ives's Musicp. 379
Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut from Three Places in New England (c1908-1914)p. 379
Listening Guide: Ives, Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut, 2nd movementp. 381
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)p. 382
Copland's Musicp. 383
Appalachian Spring (1944)p. 383
Listening Guide: Copland, Appalachian Spring, Sections 1, 2, and 7p. 385
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (1939-)p. 387
Listening Guide: Zwilich, Concerto Grosso 1985, 3rd movementp. 388
Key Wordsp. 389
Postmodernismp. 389
Edgard Varese and Electronic Music (1883-1965)p. 390
Poeme electronique (1958)p. 391
Electronic Music: From Varese to Radioheadp. 392
Listening Guide: Varese, Poeme electroniquep. 392
John Cage (1912-1992) and Chance Musicp. 393
4[prime]33[Prime] (1952)p. 395
Listening Guide: Cage, 4[prime]33[Prime]p. 395
John Adams (1947-) and Minimalismp. 395
Short Ride in a Fast Machine (1986)p. 397
Listening Guide Adams, Short Ride in a Fast Machinep. 397
Tan Dun (1957-) and Globalizationp. 398
Marco Polo (1996)p. 399
Listening Guide: Tan, Marco Polop. 399
Key Wordsp. 400
Checklist of Musical Stylep. 400
Glossaryp. 402
Indexp. 411
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