Literacy for the Twenty-First Century : A Balanced Approach

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1996-10-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
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Teachers can make a difference in children's lives, and this book is designed to help you become an effective reading teacher. It teaches teachers how to create a classroom climate where literacy flourishes, and how to empower the diverse array of students in today's classrooms to function competently as literate adults in the twenty-first century.

Author Biography

Gail E. Tompkins is Professor Emerita at California State University, Fresno.

Table of Contents

What Is a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instruction?p. 1
Becoming an Effective Teacher of Readingp. 4
Vignette: Fourth Graders Participate in a Yearlong Author Studyp. 4
Effective Teachers Understand How Children Learnp. 11
Behaviorismp. 12
Constructivismp. 12
Interactive Theoryp. 12
Sociolinguisticsp. 14
Reader Responsep. 14
Critical Literacyp. 15
Effective Teachers Support Children's Use of the Four Cueing Systemsp. 16
The Phonological Systemp. 16
The Syntactic Systemp. 18
The Semantic Systemp. 19
The Pragmatic Systemp. 20
Effective Teachers Create a Community of Learnersp. 21
Characteristics of Classroom Communitiesp. 21
How to Create a Classroom Communityp. 22
Effective Teachers Adopt a Balanced Approach to Literacy Instructionp. 24
Effective Teachers Scaffold Children's Reading and Writing Experiencesp. 25
Modeled Reading and Writingp. 26
Shared Reading and Writingp. 27
Interactive Reading and Writingp. 28
Guided Reading and Writingp. 28
Independent Reading and Writingp. 29
Effective Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction in Four Waysp. 30
Basal Reading Programsp. 30
Literature Focus Unitsp. 30
Literature Circlesp. 30
Reading and Writing Workshopp. 30
Effective Teachers Connect Instruction and Assessmentp. 31
Preassessingp. 32
Monitoringp. 33
Assessingp. 34
Effective Teachers Become Partners With Parentsp. 35
Providing Literacy Information to Parentsp. 35
Parent Volunteersp. 36
Supporting Literacy at Homep. 36
Family Literacyp. 37
Review: How Effective Teachers Teach Reading and Writingp. 38
Professional Referencesp. 39
Children's Book Referencesp. 40
Teaching the Reading and Writing Processesp. 42
Vignette: Mrs. Goodman's Seventh Graders Read The Giverp. 42
The Reading Processp. 46
Prereadingp. 48
Readingp. 50
Respondingp. 55
Exploringp. 56
Applyingp. 57
The Writing Processp. 57
Prewritingp. 58
Draftingp. 61
Revisingp. 63
Editingp. 64
Publishingp. 67
Qualities of Good Writingp. 69
Reading and Writing Are Similar Processesp. 71
Comparing the Two Processesp. 71
Classroom Connectionsp. 71
Review: How Effective Teachers Teach the Reading and Writing Processesp. 73
Professional Referencesp. 73
Children's Book Referencesp. 74
How Do Children Learn to Read and Write?p. 75
Working With Young Readers and Writersp. 78
Vignette: Ms. McCloskey's Students Become Readers and Writersp. 78
Fostering Young Children's Interest in Literacyp. 86
Concepts About Printp. 86
Concepts About Wordsp. 87
Concepts About the Alphabetp. 88
How Children Develop as Readers and Writersp. 89
Emergent Reading and Writingp. 91
Beginning Reading and Writingp. 93
Fluent Reading and Writingp. 94
Instructional Practicesp. 96
Shared Readingp. 96
Language Experience Approachp. 101
Interactive Writingp. 102
Manuscript Handwritingp. 103
Writing Centersp. 105
Review: How Effective Teachers Support Young Children's Literacy Developmentp. 107
Professional Referencesp. 108
Children's Book Referencesp. 109
Cracking the Alphabetic Codep. 110
Vignette: Mrs. Firpo Teaches Phonics Using a Basal Reading Programp. 110
Phonemic Awarenessp. 116
Components of Phonemic Awarenessp. 117
Teaching Phonemic Awarenessp. 117
Why Is Phonemic Awareness Important?p. 124
Phonicsp. 124
Phonics Conceptsp. 125
Teaching Phonicsp. 130
What Is the Role of Phonics in a Balanced Literacy Program?p. 132
Spellingp. 134
Stages of Spelling Developmentp. 134
Teaching Spellingp. 138
Weekly Spelling Testsp. 145
What Is the Controversy About Spelling Instruction?p. 146
Review: How Effective Teachers Assist Students in "Cracking the Code"p. 147
Professional Referencesp. 147
Children's Book Referencesp. 148
Developing Fluent Readers and Writersp. 150
Vignette: Ms. Williams's Students Learn High-Frequency Wordsp. 150
Teaching Students to Read and Write Wordsp. 156
Word Recognitionp. 156
Word Identificationp. 162
What Is Fluency?p. 173
Promoting Reading Fluencyp. 175
Developing Writing Fluencyp. 179
Assessing Students' Reading and Writing Fluencyp. 181
Review: How Effective Teachers Develop Fluent Readers and Writersp. 182
Professional Referencesp. 182
Children's Book Referencesp. 183
Expanding Students' Knowledge of Wordsp. 184
Vignette: Mrs. Sanom's Word Wizards Clubp. 184
How Do Students Learn Vocabulary Words?p. 191
Levels of Word Knowledgep. 191
Incidental Word Learningp. 192
Context Cluesp. 193
Word-Learning Strategiesp. 194
Why Is Vocabulary Knowledge Important?p. 195
Teaching Students to Unlock Word Meaningsp. 195
Characteristics of Effective Instructionp. 196
Components of Word Studyp. 197
Choosing Words to Studyp. 208
Spotlighting Words on Word Wallsp. 209
Activities for Exploring Wordsp. 211
Review: How Effective Teachers Expand Students' Knowledge of Wordsp. 213
Professional Referencesp. 213
Children's Book Referencesp. 214
Facilitating Students' Comprehension: Reader Factorsp. 216
Vignette: Mrs. Donnelly Teaches Comprehension Strategiesp. 216
What Is Comprehension?p. 223
Reader and Text Factorsp. 223
Background Knowledgep. 225
Purposep. 227
Fluencyp. 227
Comprehension Strategiesp. 228
Making Inferencesp. 232
Motivation and Attentionp. 234
Comparing Capable and Less Capable Readers and Writersp. 238
Teaching Comprehensionp. 240
Explicit Comprehension Instructionp. 241
Developing Comprehension Through Readingp. 243
Developing Comprehension Through Writingp. 245
Review: How Effective Teachers Facilitate Students' Comprehensionp. 247
Professional Referencesp. 247
Children's Book Referencesp. 248
Facilitating Students' Comprehension: Text Factorsp. 250
Vignette: Mr. Abrams's Fourth Graders Learn About Frogsp. 250
Storiesp. 255
Narrative Genresp. 257
Elements of Story Structurep. 260
Literary Devicesp. 270
Informational Booksp. 270
Nonfiction Genresp. 273
Expository Text Structuresp. 274
Text Featuresp. 276
Poetryp. 276
Types of Poetry Booksp. 277
Poetic Formsp. 278
Review: How Effective Teachers Focus on Text Factorsp. 287
Professional Referencesp. 287
Children's Book Referencesp. 288
Assessing Students' Literacy Developmentp. 292
Vignette: Mrs. McNeal Conducts Second-Quarter Assessmentsp. 292
Literacy Assessment Toolsp. 299
Assessing Students' Concepts About Printp. 300
Assessing Students' Phonemic Awareness and Phonicsp. 301
Assessing Students' Word Identification and Fluencyp. 302
Determining Students' Instructional Reading Levelp. 305
Assessing Students' Comprehensionp. 309
Assessing Students' Vocabularyp. 311
Assessing Students' Writingp. 312
Assessing Students' Spellingp. 314
Assessing Students' Attitudes and Motivationp. 316
Monitoring Students' Progressp. 317
Implementing Portfolios in the Classroomp. 319
Why Are Portfolio Programs Worthwhile?p. 320
Collecting Work in Portfoliosp. 320
Involving Students in Self-Assessmentp. 323
Showcasing Students' Portfoliosp. 324
Assigning Gradesp. 324
Unit Assignment Sheetsp. 325
Review: How Effective Teachers Assess Students' Literacy Developmentp. 326
Professional Referencesp. 326
Children's Book Referencesp. 328
How Do Teachers Organize Literacy Instruction?p. 329
Teaching With Basal Reading Textbooksp. 332
Vignette: Mrs. Ohashi Teaches Reading Using Basal Readersp. 332
Teaching With Basal Reading Textbooksp. 338
Components of Basal Reading Programsp. 340
Materials Included in Basal Reading Programsp. 343
Benefits of Using Basal Reading Programsp. 344
Differentiating Instructionp. 344
Guided Readingp. 346
Literacy Centersp. 349
Review: How Effective Teachers Use Basal Reading Textbooksp. 352
Professional Referencesp. 352
Children's Book Referencesp. 352
Teaching Literature Focus Unitsp. 354
Vignette: Mrs. Dillon's Students Read "The Three Little Pigs"p. 354
Choosing Literature for Unitsp. 360
The Best of the Bestp. 361
Multicultural Literaturep. 361
Framework for a Literature Focus Unitp. 364
Steps in Developing a Unitp. 364
Units Featuring a Picture Bookp. 372
Units Featuring a Chapter Bookp. 373
Units Featuring a Genrep. 376
Units Featuring an Author or Illustratorp. 376
Benefits of Literature Focus Unitsp. 378
Review: How Effective Teachers Use Literature Focus Unitsp. 378
Professional Referencesp. 379
Children's Book Referencesp. 379
Orchestrating Literature Circlesp. 380
Vignette: Mrs. Donnelly's Students Read in Book Clubsp. 380
Key Features of Literature Circlesp. 385
Choicep. 385
Literaturep. 386
Responsep. 387
Implementing Literature Circlesp. 392
Using Literature Circles With Young Childrenp. 394
Monitoring and Assessing Students' Learningp. 395
Benefits of Using Literature Circlesp. 395
Review: How Effective Teachers Orchestrate Literature Circlesp. 397
Professional Referencesp. 397
Children's Book Referencesp. 398
Implementing Reading and Writing Workshopp. 400
Vignette: First Graders Participate in Writing Workshopp. 400
Reading Workshopp. 406
Readingp. 406
Respondingp. 410
Sharingp. 413
Teaching Minilessonsp. 413
Reading Aloud to Studentsp. 413
Is Sustained Silent Reading the Same as Reading Workshop?p. 414
Writing Workshopp. 416
Writingp. 416
Sharingp. 420
Teaching Minilessonsp. 420
Managing a Workshop Classroomp. 422
Benefits of Reading and Writing Workshopp. 424
Review: How Effective Teachers Conduct Reading and Writing Workshopp. 424
Professional Referencesp. 425
Children's Book Referencesp. 425
Reading and Writing in the Content Areasp. 426
Vignette: Mrs. Zumwalt's Third Graders Create Multigenre Projectsp. 426
Connecting Reading and Writingp. 431
Writing as a Learning Toolp. 431
Writing to Demonstrate Learningp. 436
Content-Area Textbooksp. 444
Unique Conventions of Content-Area Textbooksp. 444
Making Content-Area Textbooks More Comprehensiblep. 446
Learning How to Studyp. 451
Why Aren't Content-Area Textbooks Enough?p. 452
Thematic Unitsp. 453
How to Develop a Thematic Unitp. 453
A First-Grade Unit on Treesp. 456
A Fourth-Grade Unit on Desert Ecosystemsp. 457
A Sixth-Grade Unit on Ancient Egyptp. 457
Review: How Effective Teachers Use Reading and Writing in the Content Areasp. 464
Professional Referencesp. 464
Children's Book Referencesp. 465
Compendium of Instructional Proceduresp. 467
Anticipation Guidesp. 468
Book Talksp. 469
Choral Readingp. 469
Class Collaborationsp. 470
Cubingp. 471
Data Chartsp. 472
Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA)p. 472
Double-Entry Journalsp. 473
Exclusion Brainstormingp. 475
GIST Procedurep. 476
Grand Conversationsp. 477
Graphic Organizersp. 478
Guided Readingp. 479
Instructional Conversationsp. 479
Interactive Writingp. 481
K-W-L Chartsp. 482
Language Experience Approach (LEA)p. 484
Learning Logsp. 486
Making Wordsp. 486
Minilessonsp. 488
Open-Mind Portraitsp. 489
Prereading Planp. 490
Question-Answer Relationships (QARs)p. 490
Quickwritingp. 491
Quiltsp. 493
Read-Aroundsp. 493
Readers Theatrep. 494
Reading Logsp. 494
Reciprocal Teachingp. 495
Repeated Readingsp. 496
Running Recordsp. 497
Semantic Feature Analysisp. 498
Shared Readingp. 499
SQ3R Study Strategyp. 500
Story Boardsp. 500
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR)p. 502
Word Sortsp. 503
Word Wallsp. 504
Writing Groupsp. 504
Professional Referencesp. 507
Glossaryp. 509
Author and Title Indexp. 513
Subject Indexp. 524
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