Literature: The Human Experience Reading and Writing

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-09-07
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Literature: The Human Experience is based on a simple premise: All students can and will connect with literature if the works they read are engaging, exciting, and relevant. Accordingly, every edition of this classroom favorite has featured a broad range of enticing stories, poems, plays, and essays that explore timeless, ever-resonant themes: innocence and experience, conformity and rebellion, culture and identity, love and hate, life and death. The affordable new edition (a third less expensive than comparable anthologies) opens students eyes to a more contemporary selection of writing, while continuing to help them see, and write about, illuminating connections to literature past and present, lives near and far, and experiences that are enduringly human.

Author Biography

Marvin Klotz (PhD, New York University) is a professor of English emeritus at California State University, Northridge, where he taught for thirty-three years and won Northridge's distinguished teaching award in 1983. He is also the winner of two Fulbright professorships (in Vietnam and Iran) and was a National Endowment for the Arts Summer Fellow twice. In addition to editing Literature: The Human Experience and several other textbooks, he coauthored a guide and index to the characters in Faulkner's fiction.
Samuel Cohen (PhD, City University of New York) is Associate Professor of English and Director of Graduate Studies at the University of Missouri. He is the author of After the End of History: American Fiction in the 1990s, co-editor (with Lee Konstantinou) of The Legacy of David Foster Wallace, Series Editor of The New American Canon: The Iowa Series in Contemporary Literature and Culture, and has published in such journals as Novel, Clio, Twentieth-Century Literature, The Journal of Basic Writing, and Dialogue: A Journal for Writing Specialists. For Bedford/St. Martin's, he is author of 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology and coauthor of Literature: The Human Experience.

Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors

Responding to Literature
          Emily Dickinson, There Is No Frigate Like A Book
Why We Read Literature
Reading Actively and Critically
Reading Fiction
     The Methods of Fiction
          Point of View
     Questions for Exploring Fiction
Reading Poetry
          Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn'd Astronome
Word Choice
Figurative Language
     The Music of Poetry
     Questions for Exploring Poetry
Reading Drama
     Stages and Staging
     The Elements of Drama
          Dramatic Irony
          Plot and Conflict
     Questions for Exploring Drama
Reading Nonfiction
     Types of Nonfiction
          Narrative Nonfiction
          Descriptive Nonfiction
          Expository Nonfiction
          Argumentative Nonfiction
     Analyzing Nonfiction
          The Thesis
          Structure and Detail
          Style and Tone
     Questions for Exploring Nonfiction
Writing about Literature
Responding to Your Reading
     Annotating While You Read
          William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29
     Keeping a Journal
     Exploring and Planning
          Asking Good Questions
          Establishing a Working Thesis
          Gathering Information
          Organizing Information
Drafting the Essay
     Refining Your Opening
     Supporting Your Thesis
Revising the Essay
     Editing Your Draft
          Selecting Strong Verbs
          Eliminating Unnecessary Modifiers
          Grammatical Connections
     Proofreading Your Draft
Some Common Writing Assignments
     Comparison and Contrast
The Research Paper
An Annotated Student Research Paper
Some Matters of Form and Documentation
          Brackets and Ellipses
          Quotation Marks and Other Punctuation
          Documenting Online Sources
A Checklist for Writing about Literature
Questions for Thinking and Writing
     Nathaniel Hawthorne, Young Goodman Brown
     John Updike, A & P
     Toni Cade Bambara, The Lesson
     Jamaica Kincaid, Girl
     *Daniel Orozco, Orientation
     Hari Kunzru, Raj, Bohemian
     James Joyce, Araby
     *Rivka Galchen, Wild Berry Blue
*CASE STUDY: Flannery O'Connor in a Critical Context
     Flannery O'Connor, A Good Man Is Hard to Find
     *Flannery O'Connor, from Mystery & Manners
     *Rebecca R. Butler, What's So Funny about Flannery O'Connor?
     *Hallman B. Bryant, Reading the Map in "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"
     *Robert H. Brinkmeyer, Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers
     *Joseph O'Neil, Touched by Evil
     William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper
     William Blake, The Lamb
     William Blake, The Garden of Love
     William Blake, London
     William Blake, The Tyger
     Robert Browning, My Last Duchess
     Emily Dickinson, I felt a Funeral, in my Brain
     Thomas Hardy, The Ruined Maid
     Gerard Manley Hopkins, Spring and Fall
     A.E. Housman, Terence, This Is Stupid Stuff
     A.E. Housman, When I Was One-and-Twenty
     William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan
     Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken
     Robert Frost, Birches
     e.e. cummings, In Just —
     Stevie Smith, Not Waving but Drowning
     Stevie Smith, To Carry the Child
     Countee Cullen, Incident
     Dylan Thomas, Fern Hill
     Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Constantly Risking Absurdity
     Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits
     Philip Larkin, This Be the Verse
     *Anthony Hecht, After the Rain
     Audra Lorde, Hanging Fire
     *Jean Nordhaus, A Dandelion for My Mother
     Louise Gluck, The School Children
     *Alan Feldman, My Century
     Hanan Mikha'il 'Ashrawi, From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old
     Katherine McAlpine, Plus C'est la Meme Chose
     Sandra Cisneros, My Wicked Wicked Ways
     *Sandra Castillo, Christmas, 1970
     *Spencer Reese, The Manhattan Project
     *Carrie Fountain, Experience
     Evelyn Lau, Solipsism
CONNECTING POEMS: Revisiting Fairy Tales
     Anne Sexton, Cinderella
     Bruce Bennett, The True Story of Snow White
     Marilyn Hacker, Conte
     Katharyn Howd Machan, Hazel Tells LaVerne
CONNECTING POEMS: Voices of Experience
     Langston Hughes, Mother to Son
     Peter Meinke, Advice to My Son
     Robert Mezey, My Mother
     Molly Peacock, Our Room
     Gary Soto, Behind Grandma's House
     *W. S. Merwin, Thanks
     *Carl Dennis, Thanksgiving Letter from Harry
     *Sheila Ortiz Taylor, The Way Back
     *James Welch, Christmas Comes to Moccasin Flat
     *Maggie Nelson, Thanksgiving
     Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House
     Suzan-Lori Parks, Father Comes Home from the Wars
     Langston Hughes, Salvation
     Judith Ortiz Cofer, American History
     Brian Doyle, Pop Art
     *David Sedaris, What I Learned, And What I Said at Princeton
     David Foster Wallace, Commencement Speech, Kenyon College
Further Questions for Thinking and Writing
Questions for Thinking and Writing
     Herman Melville, Bartleby, the Scrivener
     Franz Kafka, A Hunger Artist
     Ralph Ellison, Battle Royal
     Shirley Jackson, The Lottery
     Ursula K. Le Guin, The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
     Amy Tan, Two Kinds
     Aimee Bender, Tiger Mending
     Harlan Ellison, "Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman
     Jonathan Lethem, Super Goat Man
     *John Donne, Holy Sonnets: "If poisonous minerals, and if that tree"
     *Richard Crashaw, But Men Loved Darkness rather than Light
     Phyllis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America
     William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us
     Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses
     Emily Dickinson, Much Madness is divinest Sense
     Emily Dickinson, She rose to His Requirement
     William Butler Yeats, Easter 1916
     William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming
     *Carl Sandburg, I Am the People, the Mob
     Wallace Stevens, Sunday Morning
     Anna Akhmatova, from Requiem
     Claude McKay, If We Must Die
     Langston Hughes, Harlem
     W.H. Auden, The Unknown Citizen
     Dudley Randall, Ballad of Birmingham
     Henry Reed, Naming of Parts
     Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool
     *Donald Davie, The Nonconformist
     Philip Levine, What Work Is
     Marge Piercy, The Market Economy
     *Marvin Klotz, God: The Villanelle
     Richard Garcia, Why I Left the Church
     Carolyn Forche, The Colonel
     *Natasha Tretheway, Flounder
CONNECTING POEMS: Revolutionary Thinking
     William Butler Yeats, The Great Day
     Robert Frost, A Semi-Revolution
     Oscar Williams, A Total Revolution
     Nikki Giovanni, Dreams
*CONNECTING POEMS: Revising America
     *Walt Whitman, One Song, America, Before I Go
     *Langston Hughes, I, Too
     *Allen Ginsberg, A Supermarket in California
    *Shirley Geok-Lin Lim, Learning to Love America
CONNECTING POEMS: Soldiers' Protests
     Thomas Hardy, The Man He Killed
     Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est
     Hanan Mikha'il 'Ashrawi, Night Patrol
     Steve Earle, Rich Man's War
     *Kevin C. Powers, Letter Composed During a Lull in the Fighting
     *Sophocles, Antigone
     Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
     *Jamaica Kincaid, On Seeing England for the First Time
     E.L. Doctorow, Why We Are Infidels
     Salman Rushdie, "Imagine There's No Heaven"
CASE STUDY: "Letter from Birmingham Jail" in Historical Context
     from The U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2
     from Dred Scott v. Sandford
     Jim Crow Laws
     A Call for Unity from Alabama Clergymen
     The Birmingham Truce Agreement
     Martin Luther King Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail
Further Questions for Thinking and Writing
Questions for Thinking and Writing
     Charlotte Perkins Gilman, The Yellow Wallpaper
     James Baldwin, Sonny's Blues
     Alice Walker, Everyday Use
     *Sherman Alexie, War Dances
     Jhumpa Lahiri, Hell-Heaven
     *Dagoberto Gilb, Uncle Rock
     *Yiyun Li, The Science of Flight
CONNECTING STORIES: Insiders and Outcasts
     William Faulkner, A Rose for Emily
     Ha Jin, The Bridegroom
     Emily Dickinson, I'm Nobody! Who Are You?
     *James Weldon Johnson, A Poet to His Baby Son
     Paul Laurence Dunbar, We Wear the Mask
     *Georgia Douglas Johnson, Old Black Men
     T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
     e.e. cummings, the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished souls
     Etheridge Knight, Hard Rock Returns to Prison from the Hospital for the Criminal Insane
     Yevgeny Yevtushenko, I Would Like
     Wole Soyinka, Telephone Conversation
     Kay Ryan, All Shall Be Restored
     Juan Felipe Herrera, 187 Reasons Why Mexicans Can't Cross the Border
     *Maggie Anderson, Long Story
     Judith Ortiz Cofer, Latin Women Pray
     Marilyn Chin, How I Got That Name
     *Alexandra Teague, Adjectives of Order
     Louise Erdrich, Dear John Wayne
     Joshua Clover, The Nevada Glassworks
     Kevin Young, Negative
     *Terrance Hayes, Roots
*CONNECTING POEMS: Poetic Identities
     Walt Whitman, from Song of Myself
     *Frank O'Hara, My Heart
     *Billy Collins, Monday
     *Timothy Yu, Chinese Silence No. 22
     *Carl Phillips, Blue
CONNECTING POEMS: Fashioning Selves
     Emily Dickinson, What Soft—Cherubic Creatures—
     June Jordan, Memo:
     Marge Piercy, Barbie Doll
     Taslima Nasrin, Things Cheaply Had
     Tess Gallagher, I Stop Writing the Poem
     Julia Alvarez, Woman's Work
     Rita Dove, My Mother Enters the Work Force
     Deborah Garrison, Sestina for the Working Mother
     Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun
     David Henry Hwang, Trying to Find Chinatown
     Virginia Woolf, What If Shakespeare Had Had a Sister?
     Zora Neale Hurston, How It Feels to Be Colored Me
     George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
     Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong in America
     *Lacy M. Johnson, White Trash Primer
Further Questions for Thinking and Writing
Questions for Thinking and Writing
     Kate Chopin, The Storm
     *Zora Neale Hurston, Sweat
     Raymond Carver, What We Talk About When We Talk About Love
     Joyce Carol Oates, Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
     *Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Birdsong
     Ernest Hemingway, Hills Like White Elephants
     *David Foster Wallace, Good People
     Sappho, With His Venom
     *Catullus, 85
     Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan
     William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18 "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?"
     William Shakespeare, Sonnet 29 "When, in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes"
     *William Shakespeare, Sonnet 64 "When I have seen by Time's fell hand defaced"
     William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116, "Let me not to the marriage of true minds"
     William Shakespeare, Sonnet 130 "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun"
     John Donne, The Flea
     *John Donne, The Prohibition
     John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning
     Ben Jonson, Song, to Celia
     Lady Mary Wroth, Am I thus conquered?
     Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time
     Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband
     *Katherine Philips, Friendship's Mystery, to My Dearest Lucasia
     *Ephelia, To My Rival
     William Blake, A Poison Tree
     Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose
     Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach
     Robert Frost, Fire and Ice
     Dorothy Parker, One Perfect Rose
     e.e. cummings, she being Brand
     Theodore Roethke, I Knew a Woman
     Elizabeth Bishop, One Art
     John Frederick Nims, Love Poem
     Wislawa Szymborska, A Happy Love
     Lisa Mueller, Happy and Unhappy Families
     Carolyn Kizer, Bitch
     Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps
     Adrienne Rich, Living in Sin
     Sylvia Plath, Daddy
     Lucille Clifton, There Is a Girl Inside
     Seamus Heaney, Valediction
     *Robert Hass, Meditation at Lagunitas
     Billy Collins, Sonnet
     Sharon Olds, Sex without Love
     Deborah Pope, Getting Through
     Wyatt Prunty, Learning the Bicycle
     *Adrian Blevins, The Case Against April
     *Daisy Fried, Econo Motel, Ocean City
*CONNECTING POEMS: Looking Back on Love
     *Sir Thomas Wyatt, They Flee from Me
     *Lady Mary Wroth, "Come darkest night, becoming sorrow best"
     *Sharon Olds, My Father's Diary
     *Dean Young, Winged Purposes
CONNECTING POEMS: Remembering Fathers
     Theodore Roethke, My Papa's Waltz
     Robert Hayden, Those Winter Sundays
     Molly Peacock, Say You Love Me
     Li-Young Lee, Eating Alone
CONNECTING POEMS: Proposals and Replies
     Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd
     Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to his Love
     Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress
     Annie Finch, Coy Mistress
*CASE STUDY: Cultural Contexts for Othello
     William Shakespeare, Othello
     *Juan Louis Vives, from Instruction of a Christian Woman
     *George Best, from A True Discourse of the Late Voyages of Discovery
     *Robert Burton, from Anatomy of Melancholy
     *Francis Bacon, from The Essays or Counsels, Civil and Moral
     Susan Glaspell, Trifles
     *Lynn Nottage, Poof!
     Paul, 1 Corinthians 13
     Maxine Hong Kingston, No Name Woman
     Stuart Lishan, Winter Count, 1964
     Grace Talusan, My Father's Noose
*CONNECTING NONFICTION: Love in the Digital Age
     *Katha Pollitt, Webstalker
     *Megan Daum, Virtual Love
Further Questions for Thinking and Writing
Questions for Thinking and Writing
     Edgar Allen Poe, The Cask of Amontillado
     Leo Tolstoy, The Death of Ivan Ilyich
     *Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
     Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried
     Leslie Marmon Silko, The Man to Send Rain Clouds
     Helena Maria Viramontes, The Moths
*CONNECTING STORIES: Between Life and Death
     Katherine Anne Porter, The Jilting of Granny Weatherall
     *Tobias Wolff, Bullet in the Brain
*CONNECTING STORIES: Endangered Species
     *T.C. Boyle, Admiral
     *Lydia Millet, Girl & Giraffe
     Anonymous, Edward
     William Shakespeare, Sonnet 73 "That time of year thou mayst in me behold"
     William Shakespeare, Fear No More the Heat o' the Sun
     John Donne, Death, Be Not Proud
     Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias
     John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn
     Emily Dickinson, After great pain, a formal feeling comes
     Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz—when I died
     Emily Dickinson, Apparently with no surprise
     Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death
     *Gerard Manley Hopkins, God's Grandeur
     A.E. Housman, To an Athlete Dying Young
     William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium
     Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory
     Robert Frost, After Apple-Picking
     Robert Frost, "Out, Out—"
     Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay
     Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
     Robert Frost, Design
     Pablo Neruda, The Dead Woman
CASE STUDY: Poems about Paintings
     W.H. Auden, Musee des Beaux Arts
     Pieter Brueghal the Elder, Landscape with the Fall of Icarus
     Lawrence Ferlinghetti, In Goya's Greatest Scenes
     Francisco de Goya, The Third of May, 1808, Madrid
     Anne Sexton, The Starry Night
     Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night
     Donald Finkel, The Great Wave: Hokusai
     Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Wave of Kanagawa
     Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
     Catherine Davis, After a Time
     *Donald Hall, Affirmation
     Mary Oliver, When Death Comes
     *Alicia Ostriker, Daffodils
     Seamus Heaney, Mid-term Break
     Janice Mirikitani, Suicide Note
     Jane Kenyon, Let Evening Come
     Yusef Komunyakaa, Facing It
     Victor Hernandez Cruz, Problems with Hurricanes
     *Mark Halliday, Chicken Salad
     *Linda Gregerson, Sweet
     *Marie Howe, What The Living Do
     *Mark Turpin, The Man Who Built This House
     Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish
     William Stafford, Traveling Through the Dark
     *William Greenway, Pit Pony
     *Edward Hirsch, Wild Gratitude
*CONNECTING POEMS: Seizing the Day
     *Rainer Maria Rilke, Archaic Torso of Apollo
     *James Wright, Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy's Farm in Pine Island, Minnesota
     *Billy Collins, Sandhill Cranes of Nebraska
     *Barbara Ras, You Can't Have It All
     *Tony Hoagland, I Have News for You
     *Gwendolyn Brooks, The Mother
     *Lisel Mueller, Curriculum Vitae
     *David Wojahn, August, 1953
     *Sam Hamill, The Orchid Flower
     Woody Allen, Death Knocks
     John Donne, Meditation XIV, from Devotions upon Emergent Occasions
     *Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure
     Jill Christman, The Sloth
     E.B. White, Once More to the Lake
     *Brian Doyle, Joyas Voladores
     *Chang-Rae Lee, Coming Home Again
Further Questions for Thinking and Writing
Glossary of Critical Approaches
     Ethical Criticism
     Feminist Criticism
     Formalist Criticism
     Marxist Criticism
     Historical Criticism
     Psychoanalytic Criticism
     Postcolonial Criticism
     Reader-Response Criticism
Biographical Notes on the Authors
Glossary of Literary Terms
Index of Authors and Titles
 *new to this edition

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