Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, Portable Edition with NEW MyLiteratureLab -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 2012-05-08
  • Publisher: Longman
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Literature, Portable Edition, 12/e, features four lightweight, paperback volumes-Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing-packed in a slipcase. The most popular Literature anthology continues to bring students the finest literature from fables to poetweets. The Twelfth Edition of Literature: An Introductiuon to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing,edited by X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia, includes eleven new stories from students' favorite authors: ZZ Packer's "Brownies," Ray Bradbury's, "The Sound of Thunder," Anne Tyler's, "Teenage Wasteland," David Leavitt's, "A Place I've Never Been" and Isabel Allende's "The Judge's Wife." More than 60 new accessible and engaging poems have been added including former Iraqi soldier Brian Turner's "The Hurt Locker," Katha Pollit's "The Mind-Body Problem" as well as poetweets from Lawrence Bridges and Robert Pinsky. In addition, there are new poems from Kay Ryan, Benjamin Alire Saenz, H. D, Gary Snyder, Joy Harjo, Tami Haaland, Robert Hayden, Denise Levertov, and William Carlos Williams. Three new one-act plays help "ease" students into the study of this genre. The new plays include two comedies-- David Ives's, Sure Thingand Jane Martin's Beauty-as well as Edward Bok Lee's experimental drama El Santo Americano. In addition, Milcha Sanchez-Scott's The Cuban Swimmerhas been added .

Author Biography

X. J. Kennedy , after graduation from Seton Hall and Columbia, became a journalist second class in the Navy (“Actually, I was pretty eighth class”). His poems, some published in the New Yorker, were first collected in Nude Descending a Staircase (1961). Since then he has written six more collections, several widely adopted literature and writing textbooks, and seventeen books for children, including two novels. He has taught at Michigan, North Carolina (Greensboro), California (Irvine), Wellesley, Tufts, and Leeds. Cited in Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations and reprinted in some 200 anthologies, his verse has brought him a Guggenheim fellowship, a Lamont Award, a Los Angeles Times Book Prize, an award from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, an Aiken-Taylor prize, the Robert Frost Medal of the Poetry Society of America, and the Award for Poetry for Children from the National Council of Teachers of English. He now lives in Lexington, Massachusetts, where he and his wife Dorothy have collaborated on four books and five children.


Dana Gioia is a poet, critic, and teacher.  Born in Los Angeles of Italian and Mexican ancestry, he attended Stanford and Harvard before taking a detour into business. After years of writing and reading late in the evenings after work, he quit a corporate vice presidency to write. He has published four collections of poetry, Daily Horoscope (1986), The Gods of Winter (1991), Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award, and Pity the Beautiful (2012); and three critical volumes, including Can Poetry Matter? (1992), an influential study of poetry’s place in contemporary America. Gioia has taught at Johns Hopkins, Sarah Lawrence, Wesleyan (Connecticut), Mercer, and Colorado College. From 2003-2009 he served as the Chairman of the National Endowments for the Arts. At the NEA he created the largest literary programs in federal history, including Shakespeare in American Communities and Poetry Out Loud, the national high school poetry recitation contest. He also led the campaign to restore active literary reading by creating The Big Read, which helped reverse a quarter century of decline in U.S. reading. He is currently the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California.

Table of Contents

** = new selection versus prior edition     




To the Instructor  

About the Authors  



A Conversation with Amy Tan

1   Reading a Story  

The Art of Fiction

Types of Short Fiction

W. Somerset Maugham n The Appointment in Samarra  

A servant tries to gallop away from Death in this brief sardonic fable retold in memorable form by a popular storyteller.

**Aesop n The Fox and the Grapes

Ever wonder where the phrase “sour grapes” comes from? Find out in this classic fable.

**Bidpai n The Camel and His Friends

With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn’t need.

Chuang Tzu n Independence  

The Prince of Ch’u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.

Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm n Godfather Death  

Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folktale,
a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.


The Short Story  

John Updike n A & P  

In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.

Writing Effectively

Writers on Writing 

John Updike on Writing n Why Write?  


Checklist: writing about plot

Writing Assignment on Plot  

More Topics for Writing  

Terms for Review

2   Point of View  

Identifying Point of View

Types of Narrators

Stream of Consciousness

William Faulkner n A Rose for Emily  

Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?

**ZZ Packer  n Brownies

A brownie troop of African American girls at camp declare war on a rival troop only to discover their humiliating mistake

**Eudora Welty n A Worn Path

When the man said to old Phoenix, “you must be a hundred years old, and scared of nothing,” he might have been exaggerating, but not by much.

James Baldwin n Sonny’s Blues  

Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician.

Writing Effectively

James Baldwin on Writing n Race and the African American Writer  

THINKING about Point of View

CHECKLIST: Writing about Point of View

Writing Assignment on Point of View  

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review

3   Character  

Types of Characters

Katherine Anne Porter n The Jilting of Granny Weatherall  

For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house.

Nathaniel Hawthorne n Young Goodman Brown

Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees—or dreams he sees—good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite

Katherine Mansfield n Miss Brill  

Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park.

Raymond Carver n Cathedral  

He had never expected to find himself trying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn’t even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.

Writing Effectively

Raymond Carver on Writing n Commonplace but Precise Language  

thinking about character

checklist: Writing about character

Writing Assignment on character

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review

4   Setting  

Elements of Setting

Historical Fiction



Kate Chopin n The Storm  

Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?

Jack London n To Build a Fire  

     Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog,
a man finds himself battling a relentless force.

**Ray Bradbury  n The Sound of Thunder

In 2055, you can go on a Time Safari to hunt dinosaurs 60 million years ago. But put one foot wrong, and suddenly the future’s not what it used to be.

Amy Tan n A Pair of Tickets  

A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed.

Writing Effectively

Amy Tan on Writing n Setting the Voice  

THINKING about setting

CHECKLIST: Writing about setting

Writing Assignment on setting

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review

5   Tone and Style  




Ernest Hemingway n A Clean, Well-Lighted Place  

All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright café. What does he need more than brandy?

William Faulkner n Barn Burning  

This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.


O. Henry n The Gift of the Magi  

     A young husband and wife find ingenious ways to buy each other Christmas presents, in the classic story that defines the word “irony.”

** Anne Tyler n Teenage Wasteland

With her troubled son, his teachers, and a peculiar tutor all giving her their own versions of what’s going on with him, what’s a mother to do?

Writing Effectively

Ernest Hemingway on Writing n The Direct Style  

THINKING about tone and style

CHECKLIST: Writing about tone and  style

Writing Assignment on tone and style

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review

6   Theme  

Plot vs. Theme

Theme as Unifying Device

Finding the Theme

Stephen Crane n The Open Boat  

In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship.

Alice Munro n How I Met My Husband  

When Edie meets the carnival pilot, her life gets more complicated than she expects.

Luke 15:11–32 n The Parable of the Prodigal Son  

A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. n Harrison Bergeron  

Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.

Writing Effectively

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. on Writing n The Themes of Science Fiction  

THINKING about theme

CHECKLIST: Writing about theme

Writing Assignment on theme

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review


7   Symbol  



Recognizing Symbols

John Steinbeck n The Chrysanthemums  

Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved—then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.

John Cheever  n The Swimmer

A man decides to swim home through his neighbors’ pools, but the water turns out to be much deeper than he realized.

Ursula K. Le Guin n The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas  

Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone’s prosperity depends on a hidden evil.

Shirley Jackson n The Lottery  

Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember.


writing effectively

Shirley Jackson on Writing n Biography of a Story  

THINKING about symbols

CHECKLIST: Writing about symbols

Writing Assignment on Symbols  

Sample Student Paper n an analysis of the symbolism in steinbeck’s “the chrysanthemums”  

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review


8 Reading Long Stories and Novels  

Origins of the Novel

Novelistic Methods

Reading Novels

Leo Tolstoy n The Death of Ivan Ilych  

The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth.

Franz Kafka n The Metamorphosis  

“When Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from troubled dreams, he
found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous insect.” Kafka’s famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in
world literature.

Writing Effectively

Franz Kafka on Writing n Discussing The Metamorphosis   

THINKING about long stories and novels

CHECKLIST: Writing about long stories and novels

Writing Assignment for a research paper

Sample Student Paper n Kafka’s greatness

More Topics for Writing

TERMS for Review

9 Latin American Fiction 

“El Boom”  

Magic Realism  

After the Boom

Jorge Luis Borges n The Gospel According to Mark  

A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results.

Gabriel García Márquez n A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings  

What do you do when a worn-out angel crashes in your yard? Sell tickets or call the priest?

**Isabel Allende  n The Judge’s Wife

Revenge can take many different forms, but few are as strange as the revenge taken in this passionate tale.

Inés Arredondo n The Shunammite   

When Luisa went to visit her dying uncle, she had no idea that her life was about to change forever.


Writing Effectively

Gabriel García Márquez on Writing  n My beginnings as a writer  

Topics for Writing About “The gospel according to mark”  

Topics for Writing About “The Judge’s Wife”  

Topics for Writing About “a very old man with enormous wings”  

Topics for Writing About “The shunammite”  

TERMS for Review

10 Two Critical Casebooks: Edgar Allan Poe and Flannery O’Connor



The Tell-Tale Heart

The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.

** The Cask of Amontillado

His family motto is No one attacks me with impunity, and he takes it very seriously. A tale of twisted vengeance from the master of the macabre.


** The Fall of the House of Usher

A letter from a boyhood friend turns out to be an invitation to a world of horror and doom.

Edgar Allan Poe on Writing

**The Tale and Its Effect

**On Imagination

**The Philosophy of Composition

Critics on Edgar Allan Poe

**Daniel Hoffman n The Father-Figure in “The Tell-Tale Heart”

**Robert Louis Stevenson n Costume in “The Cask of Amontillado”

**Elena V. Baraban  n The Motive for Murder in “The Cask of Amontillado”

**Charles Baudelaire n Poe’s Characters

**James Tuttleton n  Poe’s Protagonists and the Ideal World

**Carl Moweryn   Madness in Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher”    





A Good Man Is Hard to Find  

Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror—and one moment of redeeming grace.


Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus’ favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor’s waiting room.

Parker’s Back  

A tormented man tries to find his way to God and to his wife—by having himself tattooed.

Flannery O’Connor on Writing

From “On Her Own Work”  

On Her Catholic Faith  

From “The Grotesque in Southern Fiction”  

Yearbook Cartoons  

Critics on Flannery O’Connor

J. O. Tate n A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit  

Mary Jane Schenck n Deconstructing “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”  

Louise S. Cowann The Character of Mrs. Turpin in “Revelation”  

Kathleen Feeley n The Mystery of Divine Direction: “Parker’s Back”  

**Dean Flower n Listening to Flannery O’connor


Writing Effectively

Topics for Writing on EDGAR ALLAN POE

Topics for Writing on FLANNERY O’CONNOR  


11 Critical Casebook: Two Stories in Depth  

Charlotte Perkins Gilman  

The Yellow Wallpaper  

A doctor prescribes a “rest cure” for his wife after the birth of their child. The new mother tries to settle in to life in the isolated and mysterious country house they have rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this Gothic classic.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman on Writing

Why I Wrote “The Yellow Wallpaper”  

Whatever Is  

The Nervous Breakdown of Women  

Critics on “The Yellow Wallpaper”

Juliann Fleenor n Gender and Pathology in “The Yellow Wallpaper”  

Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar n Imprisonment and Escape: The Psychology of Confinement  

Elizabeth Ammons n Biographical Echoes in “The Yellow Wallpaper”  


Alice Walker  

Everyday Use  

When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name to reflect her African roots. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.

Alice Walker on Writing

The Black Woman Writer in America  

Reflections on Writing and Women’s Lives  

Critics on “Everyday Use”

Barbara T. Christian n “Everyday Use” and the Black Power Movement  

**Mary Helen Washington  n  “Everyday Use” as a Portrait of the Artist

Houston A. Baker and Charlotte Pierce-Baker n Stylish vs. Sacred in “Everyday Use”  

Elaine Showalter n Quilt as Metaphor in “Everyday Use”  

Writing Effectively

Topics for Writing About “Young goodman brown”  

Topics for Writing About “The Yellow Wallpaper”  

Topics for Writing About “Everyday Use”  

12 Stories for Further Reading  

Chinua Achebe n Dead Men’s Path  

The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree.

Sherman Alexie n This Is What It Means to Say Phoenix, Arizona

The only one who can help Victor when his father dies is a childhood friend he’s been avoiding for years.

Margaret Atwood n Happy Endings  

John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes.

          Toni Cade Bambara n The Lesson (See Chapter 47)

                Miss Moore takes her boisterous class to an exclusive toy store for a lesson

             in real world economics.


Ambrose Bierce n An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge  

At last, Peyton Farquhar’s neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War.

T. Coraghessan Boyle n Greasy Lake   4

Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three “dangerous characters” learn a lesson one grim night.

Willa Cather n Paul’s Case  

Paul’s teachers can’t understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams.

Kate Chopin n The Story of an Hour  

“There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name.”

Sandra Cisneros n The House on Mango Street  

Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don’t always turn out the way we want them to.

Ralph Ellison n Battle Royal  

A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech
to a gathering of a Southern town’s leading white citizens. What promises
to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery.

Zora Neale Hurston n Sweat  

Delia’s hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband Sykes has promised it to another woman.

James Joyce n Araby  

If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls,
a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.

Jamaica Kincaid n Girl  

“Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming.” An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.

Jhumpa Lahiri n Interpreter of Maladies  

Mr. Kapasi’s life had settled into a quiet pattern—and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it.

D. H. Lawrence n The Rocking-Horse Winner  

Wild-eyed “as if something were going to explode in him,” the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds.

**David Leavitt n A Place I’ve Never Been

Nathan could never love Celia the way she wanted him to. Now, after his HIV diagnosis, he must spend the rest of his life in a place she’s never been.


Naguib Mahfouz n The Lawsuit          

He thought he'd seen the last of his late father's second wife, but now she's back to trouble his peaceful existence.

Bobbie Ann Mason n Shiloh  

After the accident Leroy could no longer work as a truck driver. He hoped to make a new life with his wife, but she seemed strangely different.

Joyce Carol Oates n Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?  

Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of a spellbinding imitation teenager, Arnold Friend.

Tim O’Brien n The Things They Carried  

What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man’s necessities differed.  

** Daniel Orozco  n Orientation

Imagine an episode of The Office cowritten by Franz Kafka and Stephen King. No one needs a job this badly.

Tobias Wolff n The Rich Brother  

Blood may be thicker than water, but sometimes the tension between brothers is thicker than blood.

Virginia Woolf  n A Haunted House     

Whatever hour you woke a door was shutting. From room to room the ghostly couple walked, hand in hand.



A Conversation with Kay Ray

13 Reading a Poem  

Poetry or Verse

Reading a Poem


William Butler Yeats n The Lake Isle of Innisfree  

Lyric Poetry  

Robert Hayden n Those Winter Sundays  

Adrienne Rich n Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers  


Narrative Poetry  

Anonymous n Sir Patrick Spence  

Robert Frost n “Out, Out—”  

Dramatic Poetry  

Robert Browning n My Last Duchess  

Didactic Poetry


Writing Effectively

Adrienne Rich on Writing  n Recalling “Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers”  

thinking about Paraphrase  

William Stafford n Ask Me  

William Stafford n A Paraphrase of “Ask Me”  

Checklist: Writing a Paraphrase

Writing Assignment on Paraphrasing  

More Topics for Writing



14        Listening to a Voice



Theodore Roethke n My Papa’s Waltz  


Countee Cullen n For a Lady I Know  

Anne Bradstreet n The Author to Her Book  

Walt Whitman n To a Locomotive in Winter  

Emily Dickinson n I like to see it lap the Miles  

**Benjamin Alire Saenz, To the Desert

**Gwendolyn Brooks  n Speech to the Young. Speech to the Progress-Toward 

Weldon Kees n For My Daughter  

The Person in the Poem  

Natasha Trethewey n White Lies  

Edwin Arlington Robinson n Luke Havergal  

Ted Hughes n Hawk Roosting  

**Anonymous n Dog Haiku

William Wordsworth n I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud  

Dorothy Wordsworth n Journal Entry  

James Stephens n A Glass of Beer  

Anne Sexton n Her Kind  

William Carlos Williams n The Red Wheelbarrow  


Robert Creeley n Oh No  

W. H. Auden n The Unknown Citizen  

Sharon Olds n Rites of Passage  

**Julie Sheehan, Hate Poem

Sarah N. Cleghorn n The Golf Links  

Edna St. Vincent Millay n Second Fig  

Thomas Hardy n The Workbox  

For Review and Further Study  

William Blake n The Chimney Sweeper  

**William Jay Smith, American Primitive

**David Lehman  n Rejection Slip 

William Stafford n At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border  

Richard Lovelace n To Lucasta  

Wilfred Owen n Dulce et Decorum Est  

Writing Effectively

Wilfred Owen on Writing  n War Poetry  

thinking About TONE  

Checklist: writing about Tone  

Writing Assignment on Tone  

Sample Student Paper n Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke’s “My Papa’s Waltz”  

More Topics for Writing



15 Words  

Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First  

William Carlos Williams n This Is Just to Say  



Marianne Moore n Silence  

Robert Graves n Down, Wanton, Down!  

John Donne n Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You  


The Value of a Dictionary  

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow n Aftermath  

** Kay Ryan n Mockingbird

J. V. Cunningham n Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead  

** Samuel Menashe n Bread

Carl Sandburg n Grass


Word Choice and Word Order

Robert Herrick n Upon Julia’s Clothes  

Kay Ryan n Blandeur  

Thomas Hardy n The Ruined Maid  

Richard Eberhart n The Fury of Aerial Bombardment  

Wendy Cope n Lonely Hearts  


For Review and Further Study  

E. E. Cummings n anyone lived in a pretty how town  

Billy Collins n The Names  

** Christian Wiman  n When the Time’s Toxin  

Anonymous n Carnation Milk  

Gina Valdés n English con Salsa  

Lewis Carroll n Jabberwocky  

Writing Effectively

Lewis Carroll n Humpty Dumpty Explicates “Jabberwocky”  

thinking About Diction  

Checklist: writing About diction

Writing Assignment on Word Choice  

More Topics for Writing



16 Saying and Suggesting  

Denotation and Connotation

John Masefield n Cargoes  

William Blake n London  

Wallace Stevens n Disillusionment of Ten O’Clock  

** Gwendolyn Brooks n The Bean Eaters

Timothy Steele n Epitaph  

E. E. Cummings n next to of course god america i  

Robert Frost n Fire and Ice  

Diane Thiel  n The Minefield  

** H.D. n Storm

Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Tears, Idle Tears  

Richard Wilbur n Love Calls Us to the Things of This World  

Writing Effectively

Richard Wilbur on Writing  n Concerning “Love Calls Us to the Things of This World”  

thinking About Denotation and Connotation  

Checklist: writing about What a Poem SAYS AND Suggests  

Writing Assignment on Denotation and Connotation  

More Topics for Writing



17 Imagery  

Ezra Pound n In a Station of the Metro  

Taniguchi Buson n The piercing chill I feel  


T. S. Eliot n The winter evening settles down  

Theodore Roethke n Root Cellar  

Elizabeth Bishop n The Fish  

Charles Simic n Fork  

Emily Dickinson n A Route of Evanescence  

Jean Toomer n Reapers  

Gerard Manley Hopkins n Pied Beauty  

About Haiku  

Arakida Moritake n The falling flower  

Matsuo Basho n Heat-lightning streak  

Matsuo Basho n In the old stone pool  

Taniguchi Buson n On the one-ton temple bell  

Taniguchi Buson n Moonrise on mudflats

Kobayashi Issa n only one guy  

Kobayashi Issa n Cricket  

Haiku from Japanese Internment Camps  

**Suiko Matsushita n Rain shower from mountain

Suiko Matsushita n Cosmos in bloom  

Hakuro Wada n Even the croaking of frogs  

**Neiji Ozawa n The war—this year


Contemporary Haiku  

Etheridge Knightn Making jazz swing in

**Gary Snyder n After weeks of watching the roof leak

Penny Harter n broken bowl

Jennifer Brutschy n Born Again

**Adelle Foley n Learning to Shave

Garry Gay n Hole in the ozone


For Review and Further Study  

John Keats n Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art  

Walt Whitman n The Runner  

**H.D.  n Oread

William Carlos Williams n El Hombre  

Robert Bly n Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter  

Billy Collins n Embrace  

**Chana Bloch  n Tired Sex

**Gary Snyder  n Mid-August at Sourdough Mountain

Kevin Prufer n Pause, Pause

Stevie Smith n Not Waving but Drowning  

Writing Effectively

Ezra Pound on Writing n The Image  

thinking About Imagery  

Checklist: Writing about imagery  

Writing Assignment on Imagery  

Sample Student Paper n FADED BEAUTY: Elizabeth Bishop’s Use of Imagery in “The Fish”  

More Topics for Writing


18 Figures of Speech  

Why Speak Figuratively?  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The Eagle  

William Shakespeare n Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?  

Howard Moss n Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?  

Metaphor and Simile  

Emily Dickinson n My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson n Flower in the Crannied Wall  

William Blake n To see a world in a grain of sand  

Sylvia Plath n Metaphors  

N. Scott Momaday n Simile  

Emily Dickinson n It dropped so low – in my Regard  

Jill Alexander Essbaum n The Heart  

Craig Raine n A Martian Sends a Postcard Home  

Other Figures of Speech  

James Stephens n The Wind  

Robinson Jeffers n Hands

Margaret Atwood n You fit into me  

George Herbert n The Pulley  

Dana Gioia n Money  

Carl Sandburg n Fog  

Charles Simic n My Shoes


For Review and Further Study  

Robert Frost n The Silken Tent  

Jane Kenyon n The Suitor  

Robert Frost n The Secret Sits  

A. R. Ammons n Coward  

Kay Ryan n Turtle  

**Emily Brontë n Love and Friendship  

**April Lindner n Low Tide

Robert Burns n Oh, my love is like a red, red rose  

Writing Effectively

Robert Frost on Writing n The Importance of Poetic Metaphor  

thinking About Metaphors  

Checklist: writing about metaphors  

Writing Assignment on Figures of Speech  

More Topics for Writing



19 Song  

Singing and Saying  

Ben Jonson n To Celia  

James Weldon Johnson n Sence You Went Away

** William Shakespeare n Fear no more the heat o’ the sun


Edwin Arlington Robinson n Richard Cory  

Paul Simon n Richard Cory  


Anonymous n Bonny Barbara Allan  

Dudley Randall n Ballad of Birmingham  


Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams n Jailhouse Blues  

W. H. Auden n Funeral Blues  

Kevin Young  n Late Blues



For Review and Further Study  

Bob Dylan n The Times They Are a-Changin’  

Aimee Mann n Deathly  

Writing Effectively

**Bob Dylan on Writing n Excerpt from Dylan’s  Chronicles

thinking About POETRY and Song

Checklist: writing about song lyrics

Writing Assignment on Song Lyrics  

More Topics for Writing



20 Sound  

Sound as Meaning  

Alexander Pope n True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance  

William Butler Yeats n Who Goes with Fergus?  

John Updike n Recital  

William Wordsworth n A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal  

Aphra Behn n When maidens are young  

Alliteration and Assonance  

A. E. Housman n Eight O’Clock  

James Joyce n All day I hear  

Alfred, Lord Tennyson n The splendor falls on castle walls  


William Cole n On my boat on Lake Cayuga  

Hilaire Belloc n The Hippopotamus  

**Bob Kaufman  n No More Jazz at Alcatraz 

William Butler Yeats n Leda and the Swan  

Gerard Manley Hopkins n God’s Grandeur  

Robert Frost n Desert Places  

Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud  

Michael Stillman n In Memoriam John Coltrane  

**William Shakespeare  n Hark, hark, the lark 

Kevin Young  n Doo Wop

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