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A Little History of the World,9780300108835

A Little History of the World

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ISBN13:

9780300108835

ISBN10:
0300108834
Format:
Trade Book
Pub. Date:
10/13/2005
Publisher(s):
Yale University Press
List Price: $25.00

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Summary

The international bestseller available in English for the first time: E. H. Gombrich's world history for the curious of all ages...

Author Biography

Among E. H. GOMBRICH’s many writings are the international bestsellers The Story of Art and Art and Illusion. He was director of the Warburg Institute of the University of London from 1959 to1976.

Table of Contents

PREFACE XV
1 ONCE UPON A TIME
1(4)
The past and memory – Before there were any people – Dragonlike creatures – Earth without life – Sun without earth – What is history?
2 THE GREATEST INVENTORS OF ALL TIME
5(5)
The Heidelberg jaw – Neanderthal man – Prehistory – Fire –Tools – Cavemen – Language – Painting – Making magic – The Ice Age and the Early Stone Age – Pile dwellings – The Bronze Age – People like you and me
3 THE LAND BY THE NILE
10(7)
King Menes – Egypt – A hymn to the Nile – Pharaohs – Pyramids –The religion of the ancient Egyptians – The Sphinx – Hieroglyphs –Papyrus – Revolution in the old kingdom – Akhenaton's reforms
4 SUNDAY, MONDAY
17(7)
Mesopotamia today – The burial sites at Ur – Clay tablets and cuneiform script – Hamurabi's laws – Star worship – The origin of the days of the week – The Tower of Babel – Nebuchadnezzar
5 THE ONE AND ONLY GOD
24(5)
Palestine – Abraham of Ur – The Flood – Moses' bondage in Egypt and the year of the departure from Egypt – Saul, David, Solomon – The division of the kingdom – The destruction of Israel – The prophets speak – The Babylonian Captivity–The Return – The Old Testament and faith in the Messiah
6 I C-A-N R-E-A-D
29(2)
Writing with the alphabet – The Phoenicians and their trading posts
7 HEROES AND THEIR WEAPONS
31(6)
The songs of Homer – Schliemann's excavations – Sea-raider kings – Crete and the labyrinth – The Dorian migration – The songs of the heroes – Greek tribes and their colonies
8 AN UNEQUAL STRUGGLE
37(7)
The Persians and their faith – Cyrus conquers Babylon – Cambyses in Egypt – Darius's empire – The Ionian revolt – The first Punitive Expedition – The second Punitive Expedition and the Battle of Marathon – Xerxes' campaign – Thermopylae – The Battle of Salamis
9 TWO SMALL CITIES IN ONE SMALL LAND
44(7)
The Olympic Games – The Delphic Oracle – Sparta and Spartan education – Athens – Draco and Solon – The People's Assembly and tyrants – The time of Pericles – Philosophy – Sculpture and painting – Architecture – Theatre
10 THE ENLIGHTENED ONE AND HIS LAND 51(6)
India – Mohenjo-Daro, a city from the time of Ur – The Indian migrations – Indo-European languages – Castes – Brahma and the transmigration of souls – 'This is you' – Prince Gautama – The Enlightenment – Release from suffering – Nirvana – The followers of the Buddha
11 A GREAT TEACHER OF A GREAT PEOPLE 57(5)
China in the time before Christ – The emperor of China and the princes – The meaning of Chinese writing – Confucius – The importance of practices and customs – The family – Ruler and subject – Lao-tzu – The Tao
12 THE GREATEST ADVENTURE OF ALL 62(11)
The Peloponnesian War – The Delphic War – Philip of Macedon – The Battle of Chaeronea – The decline of the Persian empire – Alexander the Great – The destruction of Thebes – Aristotle and his knowledge – Diogenes – The conquest of Asia Minor – The Gordion Knot – The Battle of Issus – The conquest of Tyre and the conquest of Egypt – Alexandria – The Battle of Gaugamela – The Indian expedition – Porus – Alexander, ruler of the Orient – Alexander's death and his successors – Hellenism – The library of Alexandria
13 NEW WARS AND NEW WARRIORS 73(7)
Italy – Rome and the myth of Rome's foundation – Class warfare – The twelve tablets of the law – The Roman character – Rome's capture by the Gauls – The conquest of Italy – Pyrrhus – Carthage – The First Punic War – Hannibal – Crossing the Alps – Quintus Fabius Maximus – Cannae – The last call to arms – Scipio's victory over Hannibal – The conquest of Greece – Cato – The destruction of Carthage
14 AN ENEMY OF HISTORY 80(3)
The Emperor Shih Huang-ti of Ch'in – The burning of the books – The princes of Ch'in and the naming of China – The Great Wall of China – The Han ruling family – Learned officials
15 RULERS OF THE WESTERN WORLD 83(9)
Roman provinces – Roads and aqueducts – Legions – The two Gracchi – Bread and circuses – Marius – The Cimbri and the Teutones – Sulla – Gladiators – Julius Caesar – The Gallic Wars – Victory in the civil war – Cleopatra – The reform of the calendar – Caesar's murder – Augustus and the empire – The arts
16 THE GOOD NEWS 92(5)
Jesus Christ – The teachings of the Apostle Paul – The Cross – Paul preaching to the Corinthians – The cult of the emperor – Nero – Rome burns – The first Christian persecutions – The catacombs – Titus destroys Jerusalem – The dispersal of the Jews
17 LIFE IN THE EMPIRE AND AT ITS FRONTIERS 97(7)
Tenements and villas – Therms – The Colosseum – The Germans – Arminius and the battle in Teutoburg forest – The Limes – Soldiers and their gods – Trajan's expeditions in Dacia – Marcus Aurelius's battles near Vienna – Warrior-emperors – The decline of Italy – The spread of Christianity – Diocletian's reforms – The last Christian persecution – Constantine – The founding of Constantinople – The division of the empire – Christianity becomes the religion of the state
18 THE STORM 104(6)
The Huns – The Visigoths – The Migrations – Attila – Leo the Great – Romulus Augustulus – Odoacer and the end of antiquity – The Ostrogoths and Theodoric – Ravenna – Justinian – The Pandects of Justinian and the Agia Sophia – The end of the Goths – The Lombards
19 THE STARRY NIGHT BEGINS 110(5)
'The Dark Ages'? – Belief and superstition – Stylites – Benedictines – Preserving the inheritance of antiquity – The importance of the northern monasteries – Clovis's baptism – The role of the clergy in the Merovingian kingdom – Boniface
20 THERE IS NO GOD BUT ALLAH, AND MUHAMMAD IS HIS PROPHET 115(8)
The Arabian desert – Mecca and the Kaaba – Muhammad's background and life – Persecution and flight – Medina – The battle with Mecca – The last sermon – The conquests of Palestine, Persia and Egypt – The burning of the Alexandrian library – The siege of Constantinople – The conquests of North Africa and Spain – The battles of Tours and Poitiers – Arab culture – Arabic numerals
21 A CONQUEROR WHO KNOWS HOW TO RULE 123(7)
The Merovingians and their stewards – The kingdom of the Franks – Charlemagne's battles in Gaul, Italy and Spain – The Avars – Battles with the Saxons – The Heldenlieder – The crowning of the emperor – Harun al-Rashid's ambassadors – The division and decline of the Carolingian empire – Svatopluk – The Vikings – The kingdoms of the Normans
22 A STRUGGLE TO BECOME LORD OF CHRISTENDOM 130(7)
East and West in Carolingian times – The blossoming of culture in China – The Magyar invasion – King Henry – Otto the Great – Austria and the Babenbergs – Feudalism and serfdom – Hugh Capet – The Danes in England – Religious appointments – The Investiture Controversy – Gregory VII and Henry IV – Canossa – Robert Guiscard and William the Conqueror
23 CHIVALROUS KNIGHTS 137(7)
Horsemen and knights – Castles – Bondsmen – From noble youth to knight: page, squire, dubbing – A knight's duties – Minstrelsy – Tournaments – Chivalrous poetry – The Song of the Nibelungen – The First Crusade – Godfrey of Bouillon and the conquest of Jerusalem – The significance of the crusades
24 EMPERORS IN THE AGE OF CHIVALRY 144(12)
Frederick Barbarossa – Barter and the money-based economy – Italian towns – The empire – The resistance and defeat of Milan – The dubbing feast at Mainz – The Third Crusade – Frederick II – Guelphs and Ghibellines – Innocent III – The Magna Carta – Sicily's rulers – The end of the Hohenstaufens – Ghengis Khan and the Mongol invasion – The lack of an emperor and 'fist-law – The Kyffhδuser legend – Rudolf of Habsburg – Victory over Otakar – The power of the House of Habsburg is established
25 CITIES AND CITIZENS 156(7)
Markets and towns – Merchants and knights – Guilds – Building cathedrals – Mendicant friars and penitential priests – The persecution of Jews and heretics – The Babylonian Captivity of the popes – The Hundred Years War with England – Joan of Arc – Life at court – Universities – Charles IV and Rudolf the Founder
26 A NEW AGE 163(9)
The burghers of Florence – Humanism – The rebirth of antiquity – The flowering of art – Leonardo da Vinci – The Medici - Renaissance popes – New ideas in Germany – The art of printing – Gunpowder – The downfall of Charles the Bold – Maximilian, the Last Knight – Mercenaries – Fighting in Italy – Maximilian and Diirer
27 A NEW WORLD 172(8)
The compass – Spain and the conquest of Granada – Columbus and Isabella –The discovery of America – The modern era – Columbus's fate – The conquistadores – Hernando Cortez – Mexico – The fall of Montezuma – The Portuguese in India
28 A NEW FAITH 180(7)
The building of the Church of St Peter – Luther's theses – Luther's forerunner, Hus – The burning of the papal bull – Charles V and his empire – The sack of Rome – The Diet of Worms – Luther at the Wartburg – The translation of the Bible – Zwingli – Calvin – Henry VIII – Turkish conquests – The division of the empire
29 THE CHURCH AT WAR 187(6)
Ignatius of Loyola – The Council of Trent – The Counter-Reformation – The St Bartholomew's Day Massacre – Philip of Spain – The Battle of Lepanto – The revolt of the Low Countries – Elizabeth of England – Mary Stuart – The sinking of the Armada – English trading posts in America – The East India Companies – The beginnings of the British empire
30 TERRIBLE TIMES 193(7)
The Defenestration of Prague – The Thirty Years War – Gustavus Adolphus – Wallenstein – The Peace of Westphalia – The devastation of Germany – The persecution of witches – The birth of a scientific understanding of the world – Nature's laws – Galileo and his trial
31 AN UNLUCKY KING AND A LUCKY KING 200(6)
The Stuart king, Charles I – Cromwell and the Puritans – The rise of England – The year of the Glorious Revolution – France's prosperity – Richelieu's policies – Mazarin – Louis XIV – A king's lever – Versailles – Sources of the government's wealth – The peasants' misery – Predatory wars
32 MEANWHILE, LOOKING EASTWARDS... 206(7)
Turkish conquests – Insurrection in Hungary – The siege of Vienna – Jan Sobieski and the relief of Vienna – Prince Eugene – Ivan the Terrible – Peter the Great – The founding of St Petersburg – Charles XII of Sweden – The race to Stralsund – The expansion of Russian might
33 A TRULY NEW AGE 213(7)
The Enlightenment – Tolerance, reason and humanity – Critique of the Enlightenment – The rise of Prussia – Frederick the Great – Maria Theresa – The Prussian army – The Grand Coalition – The Seven Years War – Joseph II – The abolition of serfdom – Overhasty reforms – The American War of Independence – Benjamin Franklin – Human rights and negro slaves
34 A VERY VIOLENT REVOLUTION 220(7)
Catherine the Great – Louis XV and Louis XVI – Life at court – Justice and the landowning nobility – The Rococo – Marie Antoinette – The convocation of the Estates-General – The storming of the Bastille – The sovereignty of the people – The National Assembly – The Jacobins – The guillotine and the Revolutionary Tribunal – Danton – Robespierre – The Reign of Terror – The sentencing of the king – The foreigners defeated – Reason – The Directory – Neighbouring republics
35 THE LAST CONQUEROR 227(13)
Napoleon in Corsica – To Paris – The siege of Toulon – The conquest of Italy – The Egyptian expedition – The coup d'ιtat – The consulate and the Code Napolιon – Emperor of the French – Victory at Austerlitz – The end of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation – Francis I – The Continental System – Victory over Russia – Spain and the War of Spanish Resistance – Aspern and Wagram – The German uprising – The Grande Armιe – The retreat from Moscow – The Battle of Leipzig – The Congress of Vienna – Napoleon's return from Elba – Waterloo – St Helena
36 MEN AND MACHINES 240(8)
The Biedermeier era – Steam engines, steamships, locomotives, the telegraph – Spinning machines and mechanical looms – Coal and iron – Luddites – Socialist ideas – Marx and his theory of class war – Liberalism – The revolutions of 1830 and 1848
37 ACROSS THE SEAS 248(7)
China before 1800 – The Opium war – The Taiping Rebellion – China's submission – Japan in 1850 – Revolution in support of the Mikado – Japan's modernisation with foreign assistance – America after 1776 – The slave states – The North – Abraham Lincoln – The Civil War
38 TWO NEW STATES IN EUROPE 255(9)
Europe after 1848 – The Emperor Franz Josef and Austria – The German Confederation – France under Napoleon III – Russia – Spain's decline – The liberation of the peoples of the Balkans – The fight for Constantinople – The kingdom of Sardinia – Cavour – Garibaldi – Bismarck – The reform of the army in defiance of the constitution – The Battle of Kφniggrδtz – Sedan – The founding of the German empire – The Paris Commune – Bismarck's social reforms – Dismissal of the Iron Chancellor
39 DIVIDING UP THE WORLD 264(9)
Industry – Markets and sources of raw materials – Britain and France – The Russo-Japanese War – Italy and Germany – The race to mobilize – Austria and the East – The outbreak of the First World War – New weapons – Revolution in Russia – The American intervention – The terms of peace – Scientific advance – End
40 THE SMALL PART OF THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD WHICH I HAVE LIVED THROUGH MYSELF: LOOKING BACK 273
The growth of the world's population – The defeat of the central-European powers during the First World War – The incitement of the masses – The disappearance of tolerance from political life in Germany, Italy, Japan and Soviet Russia – Economic crisis and the outbreak of the Second World War – Propaganda and reality – The murder of the Jews – The atomic bomb – The blessings of science – The collapse of the Communist system – International aid efforts as a reason for hope


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