The Longman Concise Companion

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-02-06
  • Publisher: Pearson

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The Longman Concise Companionencourages you to consider how audiences, purposes, and writing conventions differ among academic, public, and workplace communities. You are then offered concrete strategies for adapting your writing to meet varying rhetorical situations. Rather than present grammar as a set of jargon-filled rules,The Longman Concise Companionhelps you learn to call upon your own experience as a reader to help you understand how grammar can communicate meaning clearly or hinder understanding. Will answer any questions a writer has about grammar, the writing process, or research.The writing process, critical thinking, argumentative writing, style, grammar, mechanics, usage, the research process, how to document sources.Anyone who wants a reliable writing reference book.

Table of Contents

Writing and Reading
Communities of Writers and Readers
Academic, Public, and Work Communities
Electronic Communities
Generating and Organizing Ideas
Generating Ideas
Organizing Ideas and Information
Purpose, Thesis, and Audience
Identifying Your Focus and Purpose
Creating a Thesis
Understanding Your Readers
Moving from Planning to Drafting
Drafting Collaboratively
Revising, Editing, and ProofReading
Making Major Revisions
Making Minor Revisions
Revising Collaboratively
Writing Correctly
Reading Critically
Reading for Understanding
Reading Analytically and Critically
Using Journals to Turn Reading into Writing
Recognizing Unfocused Paragraphs
Revising for Paragraph Focus
Recognizing Incoherent Paragraphs
Revising for Paragraph Coherence
Recognizing Poorly Developed Paragraphs
Revising for Paragraph Development
Using Special-Purpose Paragraphs
Reasoning and Presenting
Making Language Choices
Choosing a Style
Recognizing Home and Community Language Varieties
Meeting Language Expectations
Reasoning Critically
Recognizing Critical Reasoning
Building a Chain of Reasoning
Representing Your Reasoning
Writing in Online Communities
Online Expectations
Email Conventions
Online Communities
Writing for the World Wide Web
Avoiding Plagiarism and Behaving Ethically Online
Designing Documents
Goals of Document Design
Planning Design
Laying Out Your Document
Using Type
Using Visuals
Sample Documents
Writing for Specific Audiences
Persuasive Arguments
Recognizing Occasions for Argument
Developing Your Stance
Developing Reasons and Evidence
Acknowledging Other Perspectives
Arguing Logically
Writing a Position Paper
Academic Writing Across the Curriculum
Goals of academic writing
Analyzing academic audiences
General academic writing tasks
Types general academic writing
Short documented paper
Lab report
Essay exam
Annotated bibliography
Literature review
Writing in the arts and humanities
Original or researched interpretation
Writing in the social and natural sciences
Research report
Reading and Writing About Literature
Reading Literary Texts
Writing About Literary Texts
Sample Literary Analysis
Public Writing
Goals of Public Writing
Analyzing Public Audiences
Types of Public Writing
Public Flyer
Letter to the Editor
Speaking in Public Settings
Workplace Writing
Goals of Workplace Writing
Analyzing Workplace Audiences
Understanding Workplace Writing Tasks
Types of Workplace Writing
Business Letter
Résumé and Application Letter
Speaking in the Workplace
Researching and Writing
Getting Started: Researching and Writing
Beginning Your Research
Types of Research Writing
Developing a Research Question
Developing a Preliminary Thesis
Creating a Research File and a Timeline
Reading and Note Taking
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Synthesizing
Library Resources and Research Databases
Developing a Search Strategy and Working Bibliography
Searching Library Resources and Databases
General Resources
Books and Online Catalogs
Periodicals, Print or Electronic Indexes, and Government Documents
Online Databases
Evaluating Library Sources
Web and Internet Resources
Developing a Web and Internet Search Strategy
Search Engines
Web Sites and Internet Resources
Evaluating Web and Internet Sources
Surveying, Polling, or Using Questionnaires
Conducting an Ethnographic Study
Obtaining Consent and Approval for Research on Human Subjects
Avoiding Plagiarism
Recognizing Plagiarism
The Problem of Intention
Recognizing When to Document Sources
Working with Common Knowledge
Citing Sources Responsibly
Citing Sources in Context
Integrating Sources
Choosing Purposes for Your Sources
Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Synthesizing
Writing, Revising, and Presenting Your Research
Reviewing Your Research Questions
Reviewing Your Purpose
Building from a Thesis to a Draft
Revising and Editing
Presenting Your Research
Documenting Sources
Five Serious Documentation Problems
Wrong Kind of Citation Entry
Missing Citation Information
Wrong Citation Details
Misplaced In-text Citations
Incorrect In-text Citation Format
MLA Documentation Style
MLA In-Text (Parenthetical) Citations
MLA List of Works Cited
Sample MLA Paper
APA Documentation Style
APA In-text Citations
APA Reference List
CMS Documentation Style
Using CMS Endnotes or Footnotes
Creating CMS Endnotes or Footnotes
Creating a CMS Bibliography
CSE Documentation Style
CSE In-text Citations
CSE Reference List
Editing Grammar
Ten Serious Errors
Fused Sentence
Unclear Pronoun Reference
Lack of Subject-Verb Agreement
Dangling Modifier
Misused or Missing Apostrophe
Unnecessary Commas
Missing or Misused Quotation Marks
Double Negative
Words Working in Sentences
Nouns and Articles
Sentence Parts and Patterns
Subjects and Predicates
Subordinate Clauses
Different Types of Sentences
Using Verbs
Simple Present and Past Tense Verbs
Editing Present Tense Verbs
Editing Past Tense Verbs
Complex Tenses and Helping Verbs
Editing Progressive and Perfect Tenses
Editing Troublesome Verbs (lie, lay, sit, set)
Clear Tense Sequence
Subjunctive Mood
Active and Passive Voice
Using Pronouns
Pronoun Forms
Editing Common Pronoun Forms
Making Sentence Parts Agree
Creating Simple Subject-Verb Agreement
Creating Complex Subject-Verb Agreement
Creating Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Using Adjectives and Adverbs
What Adjectives and Adverbs Do
Editing Adjectives and Adverbs
Editing Sentence Problems
Sentence Fragments
Sentence Fragments
Editing Sentence Fragments
Using Partial Sentences
Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
Comma Splices
Fused Sentences
Editing Comma Splices and Fused Sentences
Creating Pronoun Reference
Unclear Pronoun Reference
Editing for Clear Pronoun Reference
Misplaced, Dangling, and Disruptive Modifiers
Misplaced, Dangling, and Disruptive Modifiers
Editing Misplaced, Dangling, and Disruptive Modifiers
Making Shifts Consistent
Shifts in Person and Number
Shifts in Tense and Mood
Shifts in Active or Passive Voice
Shifts Between Direct and Indirect Quotations
Mixed and Incomplete Sentences
Mixed Sentences
Editing Mixed Sentences
Incomplete Sentences
Faulty Parallelism
Editing for Parallelism
Coordination and Subordination
Creating Coordination
Creating Subordination
Editing Coordination and Subordination
Clear and Emphatic Sentences
Unclear Sentences
Editing for Clear Sentences
Editing Word Choice
Being Concise
Common Types of Wordiness
Editing for Conciseness
Choosing Appropriate Words
Recognizing the Demands of Context and Purpose
Editing for Precise Diction
Using Respectful Language
Editing Gender Stereotypes
Editing Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Stereotypes
Building Your Language Resources
Recognizing Your Language Resources as a Writer
Turning to the Dictionary and the Thesaurus
Editing Punctuation
Joining Sentences
Setting Off Sentence Elements
Setting Off Nonessential Modifiers
Separating Items in a Series
Separating Adjectives in a Sequence
Dates, Numbers, Addresses, Place Names, People's Titles, and Letters
Commas with Quotations
Commas to Make Your Meaning Clear
Eliminating Commas that Do Not Belong
Semicolons and Colons
Apostrophes that Mark Possession
Apostrophes that Mark Contractions and Omissions
Marking Quotations
Using Quotation Marks
Titles of Short Works
Highlighting Words, Special Terms, and Tone of Voice
Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points
Question Marks
Exclamation Points
Other Punctuation Marks
Symbols in Electronic Addresses
Combining Punctuation Marks
ProofReading for Mechanics and Spelling
Capitalizing to Begin Sentences
Capitalizing Proper Names and Titles
Italicizing (Underlining)
Italics (Underlining) in Titles
Italics for Specific Terms
Underlining for Emphasis
Hyphenating to Join Words
Hyphenating to Divide Words
Using Numbers
Spelling Out Numbers
Using Numerals
Familiar Abbreviations
ProofReading for Appropriate Abbreviations
Starting with Your Spell Checker
Watching for Common Patterns of Misspelling
ProofReading for Commonly Misspelled Words
Glossary of Usage
Answers to Selected Exercises
Guide to ESL Advice
Symbols for Revising and Editing
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