Introduction | |
Why study physics? | |
Talking physics | |
The use of mathematics | |
Scientific notation and significant figures | |
Units | |
Dimensional analysis | |
Problem-solving techniques | |
Approximation | |
Graphs | |
Mechanics | |
Force | |
Force | |
Net force | |
Inertia and Equlibrium: Newton's first law of motion | |
Vector addition using components | |
Interaction pairs: Newton’s third law of motion | |
Gravitational forces | |
Contact forces | |
Tension | |
Fundamental forces | |
Acceleration and Newton’s Second Law of Motion | |
Position and displacement | |
Velocity | |
Newton’s second law of motion | |
Applying Newton’s second law | |
Velocity is relative: reference frames | |
Motion with a Changing Velocity | |
Motion along a line due to a constant net force | |
Visualizing motion along a line with constant acceleration | |
Free fall | |
Motion of projectiles | |
Apparent weight | |
Air resistance | |
Circular Motion | |
Description of uniform circular motion | |
Centripetal acceleration | |
Banked curves | |
Circular orbits | |
Nonuniform circular motion | |
Angular acceleration | |
Artificial gravity | |
Conservation of Energy | |
The law of conservation of energy | |
Work done by a constant force | |
Kinetic energy | |
Gravitational potential energy (1) | |
Gravitational potential energy (2) | |
Work done by variable forces: Hooke’s Law | |
Elastic potential energy | |
Power | |
Linear Momentum | |
A vector conservation law | |
Momentum | |
The impulse-momentum theorem | |
Conservation of momentum | |
Center of mass | |
Motion of the center of mass | |
Collisions in one dimension | |
Collisions in two dimensions | |
Torque and Angular Momentum | |
Rotational kinetic energy and rotational inertia | |
Torque | |
Work done by a torque | |
Equilibrium revisited | |
Equilibrium in the human body | |
Rotational form of Newton’s second law | |
The dynamics of rolling objects | |
Angular momentum | |
The vector nature of angular momentum | |
Fluids | |
States of matter | |
Pressure | |
Pascal's principle | |
The effect of gravity on fluid pressure | |
Measuring pressure | |
Archimedes' principle | |
Fluid flow | |
Bernoulli's equation | |
Viscosity | |
Viscous drag | |
Surface tension | |
Elasticity and Oscillations | |
Elastic deformations of solids | |
Hooke's law for tensile and compressive forces | |
Beyond Hooke's law | |
Shear and volume deformations | |
Simple harmonic motion | |
The period and frequency for SHM | |
Graphical analysis of SHM | |
The pendulum | |
Damped oscillations | |
Forced oscillations and resonance | |
Waves | |
Waves and energy transport | |
Transverse and longitudinal waves | |
Speed of transverse waves on a string | |
Periodic waves | |
Mathematical description of a wave | |
Graphing waves | |
Principle of superposition | |
Reflection and refraction | |
Interference and diffraction | |
Standing waves | |
Sound | |
Sound waves | |
The speed of sound waves | |
Amplitude and intensity of sound waves | |
Standing sound waves | |
The human ear | |
Timbre | |
Beats | |
The Doppler effect | |
Shock waves | |
Echolocation and medical imaging | |
Thermal Physics | |
Temperature and the Ideal Gas | |
Temperature | |
Temperature scales | |
Thermal expansion of solids and liquids | |
Molecular picture of a gas | |
Absolute temperature and the ideal gas law | |
Kinetic theory of the ideal gas | |
Temperature and reaction rates | |
Collisions between gas molecules | |
Heat | |
Internal energy | |
Heat | |
Heat capacity and specific heat | |
Specific heat of ideal gases | |
Phase transitions | |
Conduction | |
Convection | |
Radiation | |
Thermodynamics | |
The first law of thermodynamics | |
Thermodynamic processes | |
Thermodynamic processes for an ideal gas | |
Reversible and irreversible processes | |
Heat engines | |
Refrigerators and heat pumps | |
Reversible engines and heat pumps | |
Details of the Carnot cycle | |
Entropy | |
Statistical interpretation of entropy | |
The third law of thermodynamics | |
Electromagnetism | |
Electric Forces and Fields | |
Electric charge | |
Conductors and insulators | |
Coulomb’s law | |
The electric field | |
Motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field | |
Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium | |
Gauss's law for electric fields | |
Electric Potential | |
Electric potential energy | |
Electric potential | |
The relationship between electric field and potential | |
Conservation of energy for moving charges | |
Capacitors | |
Dielectrics | |
Energy stored in a capacitor | |
Electric Current and Circuits | |
Electric current | |
Emf and circuits | |
Microscopic view of current in a metal | |
Resistance and resistivity | |
Kirchoff’s rules | |
Series and parallel circuits | |
Circuit analysis using Kirchoff’s rules | |
Power and energy in circuits | |
Measuring currents and voltages | |
RC circuits | |
Electrical safety | |
Magnetic Forces and Fields | |
Magnetic fields | |
Magnetic force on a point charge | |
Charged particle moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field | |
Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field: general | |
A charged particle in crossed E and B fields | |
Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire | |
Torque on a current loop | |
Magnetic field due to an electric current | |
Ampère’s law | |
Magnetic materials | |
Electromagnetic Induction | |
Motional Emf | |
Electric generators | |
Faraday's law | |
Lenz's law | |
Back Emf in a motor | |
Transformers | |
Eddy currents | |
Induced electric fields | |
Mutual and self-inductance | |
LR circuits | |
Alternating Current | |
Sinusoidal currents and voltages; resistors in AC circuits | |
Electricity in the home | |
Capacitors in AC circuits | |
Inductors in AC circuits | |
RLC series circuit | |
Resonance in an RLC circuit | |
Converting AC to DC; filters | |
Electromagnetic Waves and Optics | |
Electromagnetic Waves | |
Accelerating charges produce electromagnetic waves | |
Maxwell’s equations | |
Antennas | |
The electromagnetic spectrum | |
Speed of EM waves in vacuum and in matter | |
Characteristics of electromagnetic waves in vacuum | |
Energy transport by EM waves | |
Polarization | |
The Doppler effect for EM waves | |
Reflection and Refraction of Light | |
Wavefronts, rays, and Huygens’ principle | |
The reflection of light | |
The refraction of light: Snell’s law | |
Total internal reflection | |
Brewster’s angle | |
The formation of images through reflection or refraction | |
Plane mirrors | |
Spherical mirrors | |
Thin lenses | |
Optical Instruments | |
Lenses in combination | |
Cameras | |
The eye | |
The simple magnifier | |
Compound microscopes | |
Telescopes | |
Aberrations of lenses and mirrors | |
Interference and Diffraction | |
Constructive and destructive interference | |
The Michelson interferometer | |
Thin films | |
Young’s double slit experiment | |
Gratings | |
Diffraction and Huygens’ principle | |
Diffraction by a single slit | |
Diffraction and the resolution of optical instruments | |
X-ray diffraction | |
Holography | |
Quantum and Particle Physics | |
Relativity | |
Postulates of relativity | |
Simultaneity and ideal observers | |
Time dilation | |
Length contraction | |
Velocities in different reference frames | |
Relativistic momentum | |
Mass and energy | |
Relativistic kinetic energy | |
Early Quantum Physics and the Photon | |
Quantization | |
Blackbody radiation | |
The photoelectric effect | |
X-ray production | |
Compton scattering | |
Spectroscopy and early models of the atom | |
The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom; atomic energy levels | |
Pair annihilation and pair production | |
Quantum Physics | |
The wave-particle duality | |
Matter waves | |
Electron microscopes | |
The uncertainty principle | |
Wave functions for a confined particle | |
The hydrogen atom: wave functions and quantum numbers | |
The exclusion principle: electron configurations for atoms other than hydrogen | |
Electron energy levels in a solid | |
Lasers | |
Tunneling | |
Nuclear Physics | |
Nuclear structure | |
Binding energy | |
Radioactivity | |
Radioactive decay rates and half-lives | |
Biological effects of radiation | |
Induced nuclear reactions | |
Fission | |
Fusion | |
Particle Physics | |
Fundamental particles | |
Fundamental interactions | |
Unification | |
“Who ordered that?” | |
Twenty-first-century particle physics | |
Appendices | |
Mathematics Review | |
Algebra | |
Solving equations | |
Exponents and logarithms | |
Proportions and ratios | |
Geometry | |
Trigonometry | |
Approximations | |
Vectors | |
Table of Selected Isotopes | |
Answers to Selected Questions and Problems | |
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