Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-07-17
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Sustainable Stormwater Management introduces engineers and designers to ideas and methods for managing stormwater in a more ecologically sustainable fashion. It provides detailed information on the design process, engineering details and calculations, and construction concerns. Concepts are illustrated with real-world examples, complete with photographs. This guide integrates the perspectives of landscape architects, planners, and scientists for a multi-disciplinary approach. This is an enlightening reference for professionals working in stormwater management, from engineers and designers to developers to regulators, and a great text for college courses.

Author Biography

Thomas H. Cahill is the Principal Environment Engineer and President of Cahill Associates. He has over forty two years of professional experience in water resources engineering, hydrology, hydraulics, natural resource planning, and environment engineering, including over thirty years in private practice. Mr. Cahill is the author of over 100 technical papers and publications on land use, stormwater management, and water quality, and is a frequent lecturer at environmental and engineering conferences.

Table of Contents

Prologue: Habitat, Sustainability, and Stormwater Managementp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Rainwater as the Resourcep. 1
The Water Balance as a Guide for Sustainable Designp. 1
The Water Balance by Regionp. 7
Arid Environments: The Southern California Modelp. 11
The Energy Demand for Water in Southern Californiap. 13
The Altered Water Balance and Hydrologic Impactsp. 16
Imperviousnessp. 16
Increased Volume of Runoffp. 20
The Impacts of Development on the Hydrologic Cyclep. 24
Reduced Groundwater Rechargep. 24
Reduced Stream Base Flowp. 25
Altered Stream Channel Morphologyp. 26
Water Supply Impactsp. 26
The Historic Approach: Detention System Designp. 27
Stormwater Volume Methodologiesp. 30
Stormwater Hydrology and Qualityp. 33
Overland Flow: The Beginning of Runoffp. 33
Regional Hydrologyp. 35
Wetlandsp. 36
First-Order Streamsp. 38
Stormwater Volumep. 39
The Water Quality Impacts of Land Developmentp. 40
Increased Pollutants in Urban Runoffp. 43
The Chemistry of Urban Runoff Pollutionp. 44
Understanding Pollutant Transport in Stormwaterp. 47
Stormwater Quantity and Qualityp. 47
Particulatesp. 48
Solutesp. 49
Land as the Resourcep. 51
Historic Patterns of Land Developmentp. 51
Sustainable Site Designp. 58
Watershed Setting and Physical Contextp. 58
Smart Growth Issuesp. 59
Changes Related to Developmentp. 59
Conflict Between Desired Land Use and Sustainabilityp. 61
Physical Determinants of Land Developmentp. 62
Geologyp. 62
Physiographyp. 65
Topographyp. 66
Soil and Subsurface Conditionsp. 67
Urban Communities with Combined Sewer Overflowsp. 68
End of the Sewerp. 71
Other Urban Infrastructurep. 73
The Living Building and Zero Net Water Usep. 74
The Planning Process for LIDp. 79
Sustainable Site Planning Process with Stormwater Managementp. 79
Understand the Sitep. 79
Apply LID Conservation Designp. 80
Manage Rainfall Where It Originatesp. 81
Design with Operation and Maintenance in Mindp. 83
Calculate Runoff Volume Increase and Water Quality Impactsp. 85
Overview of the Site Design Process for LIDp. 86
The Legal Basis for LID: Regulatory Standards and LID Design Criteriap. 95
The Land-Water Legal Processp. 95
Common Lawp. 95
Federal Water Quality Lawp. 96
Federal Land Use Lawp. 97
The Evolution of Land Development Regulationp. 98
The Regulatory Frameworkp. 100
Pennsylvania Land Use Lawp. 101
Pennsylvania Water Lawp. 102
California Land Use Lawp. 103
California Water Lawp. 104
Stormwater Management Regulationsp. 105
Volume Controlp. 105
Volume Control Criteriap. 106
Volume Control Guidelinep. 108
Peak-Rate Control Guidelinep. 108
Water Quality Protection Guidelinep. 109
Stormwater Standards for Special Areasp. 110
Legal Implications of Green Infrastructurep. 110
LID Design Calculations and Methodologyp. 113
Introduction to Stormwater Methodologiesp. 113
Existing Methodologies for Runoff Volume Calculationsp. 114
Runoff Curve Number Methodp. 114
Small Storm Hydrology Methodp. 117
Infiltration Models for Runoff Calculationsp. 119
Urban Runoff Quality Managementp. 119
Existing Methodologies for Peak-Rate/Hydrograph Estimatesp. 120
The Rational Methodp. 120
The NRCS (SCS) Unit Hydrograph Methodp. 120
Computer Modelsp. 121
The HEC Hydrologic Modeling Systemp. 121
The SCS/NRCS Models: WinTR-20 and WinTR-55p. 121
The Stormwater Management Modelp. 122
The Source Loading and Management Modelp. 122
Continuous Modelingp. 123
Precipitation Data for Stormwater Calculationsp. 123
Accounting for the Benefits of LID: Linking Volume and Peak Ratep. 124
Recommended LED Stormwater Calculation Methodologyp. 124
Methods Involving No Routingp. 125
Methods Involving Routingp. 126
Nonstructural BMP Creditsp. 127
Design of LID Systemsp. 131
Nonstructural Measuresp. 131
Impervious Surface Reductionp. 131
Limitation of Site Disturbancep. 132
Site Design with Less Spacep. 132
Structural Measuresp. 133
Pervious Pavement with an Infiltration or Storage Bedp. 134
Types of Porous Pavementp. 134
Description and Functionp. 136
Pervious Bituminous Asphaltp. 141
Pervious Portland Cement Concretep. 141
Pervious Paver Blocksp. 141
Reinforced Turfp. 143
Other Porous Surfacesp. 144
Potential Applicationsp. 144
Pervious Pavement Walkways (Concrete and Asphalt)p. 144
Rooftop and Impervious Area Connectionsp. 144
Water Quality Mitigationp. 145
Bioremediationp. 145
Rain Garden: Design and Functionp. 146
Primary Components of a Rain Garden Systemp. 147
Vegetated Roof Systemsp. 152
Design and Functionp. 154
Design Elements of a Vegetated Roof Systemp. 155
Types of Vegetated Roof Systemsp. 155
Dual Media with a Synthetic Retention Layerp. 158
Potential Applicationsp. 158
Capture-Reusep. 158
Rain Barrels and Cisternsp. 161
Vertical Storagep. 164
Structural Measures: Construction, Operation, and Maintenancep. 169
Porous Pavement Systemsp. 169
Constructionp. 169
Storage/Infiltration Bed Dimensionsp. 174
Construction Stagingp. 174
Operation and Maintenancep. 176
Vacuumingp. 177
Restoration of Porous Pavementsp. 178
Cost of Porous Pavementp. 178
Bioremediation Systemsp. 179
Rain Gardensp. 179
Construction of a Rain Gardenp. 183
Maintenance of Rain Gardensp. 183
Cost of Rain Gardensp. 184
Vegetated Roof Systemsp. 184
Construction of a Vegetated Roofp. 187
Maintenance of Vegetated Roofsp. 188
Cost of Vegetated Roofsp. 188
Capture-Reuse Systemsp. 188
Constructionp. 188
Volume Reductionp. 191
Peak-Rate Mitigationp. 191
Water Quality Mitigationp. 191
The Stormwater Calculation Processp. 193
Case Studiesp. 213
The Transition from Research to Practicep. 213
Manualsp. 215
LID Manual for Michigan (2008)p. 219
Models and Watershed Studiesp. 237
Design and Construction Projectsp. 251
Indexp. 283
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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