Luminescent Materials and Applications

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-05-05
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


Luminescence, for example, as fluorescence, bioluminescence, and phosphorescence, can result from chemical changes, electrical energy, subatomic motions, reactions in crystals, or stimulation of an atomic system. This subject continues to have a major technological role for humankind in the form of applications such as organic and inorganic light emitters for flat panel and flexible displays such as plasma displays, LCD displays, and OLED displays. Luminescent Materials and Applications describes a wide range of materials and applications that are of current interest including organic light emitting materials and devices, inorganic light emitting diode materials and devices, down-conversion materials, nanomaterials, and powder and thin-film electroluminescent phosphor materials and devices. In addition, both the physics and the materials aspects of the field of solid-state luminescence are presented. Thus, the book may be used as a reference to gain an understanding of various types and mechanisms of luminescence and of the implementation of luminescence into practical devices. The book is aimed at postgraduate students (physicists, electrical engineers, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and engineers) and researchers in industry, for example, at lighting and display companies and academia involved in studying conduction in solids and electronic materials. It will also provide an excellent starting point for all scientists interested in luminescent materials. Finally it is hoped that this book will not only educate, but also stimulate further progress in this rapidly evolving field.

Author Biography

Adrian Kitai is Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering / Engineering Physics at McMaster University (Canada). He was educated at McMaster University and received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University (USA). His research interests include fundamental luminescent materials, new luminescent devices, new avalanche injection devices and optical fiber liquid crystal display technology. Professor Kitai is a world leader in electroluminescent (EL) science and technology. With over 20 years of experience in the field, he holds several patents relating to EL technology and he has been the Chapter President of the Society for Information Display in Canada. Many of the leading EL researchers in Canada, have been taught and trained by Professor Kitai.

Table of Contents

Series Prefacep. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Principles of Luminescencep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Radiation Theoryp. 1
Simple Harmonic Radiatorp. 4
Quantum Descriptionp. 5
Selection Rulesp. 7
Einstein Coefficientsp. 8
Harmonic Perturbationp. 9
Blackbody Radiationp. 12
Dipole-Dipole Energy Transferp. 15
Energy Levels in Atomsp. 16
Crystal Field Splittingp. 17
Acknowledgementp. 18
Referencesp. 18
Phosphor Quantum Dotsp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Nanostructured Materialsp. 22
Quantum Dotsp. 23
History of quantum dotsp. 24
Structure and properties relationshipp. 25
Quantum confinement effects on band gapp. 26
Relaxation Processes of Excitonsp. 30
Radiative relaxationp. 31
Non-radiative relaxation procesp. 34
Blinking Effectp. 35
Surface Passivationp. 35
Organically capped Qdotsp. 36
Inorganically passivated Qdotsp. 37
Synthesis Processesp. 38
Top-down synthesisp. 38
Bottom-up approachp. 39
Optical Properties and Applicationsp. 42
II-VI Qdotsp. 42
III-V Qdotsp. 62
IV-VI Qdotsp. 63
Perspectivep. 64
Acknowledgementp. 65
Referencesp. 65
Color Conversion Phosphors for LEDSp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Disadvantages of using LEDs without Color Conversion Phosphorsp. 76
Phosphors for Converting the Color of Light Emitted by LEDsp. 79
General considerationsp. 79
Requirements of color conversion phosphorsp. 79
Commonly used activators in color conversion phosphorsp. 81
Strategies for generating white light from LEDsp. 81
Outstanding problems with color conversion phosphors for LEDsp. 82
Survey of the Synthesis and Properties of some Currently Available Color Conversion Phosphorsp. 83
Phosphor synthesisp. 83
Metal oxide-based phosphorsp. 83
Metal sulfide-based phosphorsp. 95
Metal nitridesp. 100
Alkaline earth metal oxo-nitridesp. 102
Multi-Phosphor pcLEDsp. 102
Quantum Dotsp. 103
Conclusionsp. 104
Acknowledgementsp. 104
Referencesp. 104
Development of White OLED Technology for Application in Full-Color Displays and Solid-State Lightingp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Generation of White Lightp. 112
High-performance 2-layer white OLED architecturep. 113
Optimization of white color-two emitting layer (yellow/blue) configurationp. 114
White OLED device performancep. 117
White stability comparison with other colors and the mechanism of operational stabilityp. 120
Method of emitter selection to obtain suitable white colorp. 121
White OLEDs for Display Applicationsp. 122
Methods of color patterningp. 122
OLED full color displaysp. 124
Development of RGBW 4-pixel patternp. 126
Full-color displays based on the RGBW formatp. 127
White OLED structures for improved color gamutp. 128
Low-voltage white OLEDsp. 128
White OLED Tandem Architecturep. 130
Tandem architecturep. 131
Optimization of tandem stacksp. 131
Performance of tandem structurep. 133
Tandem structures for improved color gamutp. 135
Full-color displays using white OLED tandemsp. 136
White tandem and improved color filters for wide color gamutp. 137
White OLEDs Based on Tripletsp. 140
White based on fluorescent and phosphorescent emittersp. 141
Hybrid tandem-white OLEDsp. 141
White OLEDs Based on Conjugated Polymersp. 142
White OLEDs for Solid-State Lightingp. 143
Performance and cost goals for OLED lightingp. 143
Color rendition improvement using tandem whitep. 144
Light extraction and enhancement using scattering layerp. 145
Top-emitting white with scattering layerp. 146
Prototypes of SSL panelsp. 147
Advanced Manufacturing of Large-Area Coatingsp. 149
Vacuum-thermal evaporation using linear sourcesp. 150
Flash evaporation sourcesp. 152
Thin-film encapsulationp. 153
Future Outlookp. 155
Acknowledgementsp. 156
Referencesp. 156
Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cellsp. 161
Introductionp. 161
EL from organic small moleculesp. 162
Electroluminescence from conjugated polymersp. 163
Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cellsp. 167
LEC Operating Mechanism and Device Characteristicsp. 168
LEC Operating mechanismp. 168
LEC device characteristicsp. 171
LEC Materialsp. 176
Luminescent polymersp. 176
Electrolyte materialsp. 180
Frozen-Junction LECsp. 183
Planar LECsp. 188
Planar LECs with millimeter interelectrode spacingp. 190
LECs with a relaxed p-n junctionp. 195
Polymer bulk homojunction LECsp. 196
Conclusions and Outlookp. 201
Referencesp. 202
LED Materials and Devicesp. 207
Introductionp. 207
LED Structures and Efficienciesp. 208
Typical LEDs and Featuresp. 211
Generation of White Lightp. 212
Two methodsp. 212
Characteristics of n-UV white LEDsp. 214
Design and systemp. 217
Devices and Applicationsp. 218
Future Prospectsp. 220
Conclusionsp. 222
Referencesp. 222
Thin Film Electroluminescencep. 223
Introductionp. 223
Background of ELp. 223
Thick film dielectric EL structurep. 224
Ceramic sheet dielectric ELp. 225
Thick top dielectric ELp. 226
Sphere-supported thin film ELp. 226
Theory of Operationp. 226
Electroluminescent Phosphorsp. 233
Device Structuresp. 235
Glass substrate thin film dielectric ELp. 235
Thick film dielectric ELp. 237
Ceramic sheet dielectric ELp. 240
Thick rear dielectric EL devicesp. 240
Sphere-supported thin film EL (SSTFEL)p. 241
EL Phosphor Thin Film Growthp. 242
Vacuum evaporationp. 242
Atomic layer depositionp. 243
Sputter depositionp. 244
Full-Color Electroluminescencep. 245
Color by whitep. 245
Patterned phosphorsp. 246
Color by bluep. 246
Conclusionsp. 247
Referencesp. 248
AC Powder Electroluminescencep. 249
Backgroundp. 249
Direct current powder electroluminescence (DCPEL)p. 249
AC powder electroluminescence (ACPEL)p. 252
Structure and Materials of AC Powder EL Devicesp. 254
The Mechanism of Light Emission for AC ZnS-Powder-EL Devicep. 257
EL Characteristics of AC Powder EL Materialsp. 261
Preparation of Powder EL materialsp. 262
Preparation of pure II-VI compounds (starting materials)p. 263
Activators (dopants)p. 264
EL emission spectrap. 264
Limitations of AC Powder EL Devicesp. 265
Lifetime and luminance degradationp. 265
Luminance and relative high operating voltagep. 266
Moisture and operating environmentp. 266
Applications of ACPELp. 267
Referencesp. 267
Indexp. 269
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