Making Content Comprehensible for Elementary English Learners : The SIOP Model

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-03-25
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


The trusted SIOP Model is tailored to elementary classrooms in this long-awaited book from the pioneers of the SIOP! After the introductory chapter's overview of issues in educating ELLs, the book looks at one component of the SIOP Model per chapter, for a full exploration of the SIOP in elementary school. Each chapter provides the research foundation for the component and gives explicit guidance on how to implement it. In addition, each chapter has three teacher vignettes that illustrate varying degrees of implementation of the SIOP Model. With special attention to struggling readers and the most up-to-date research, this book gives elementary educators the targeted SIOP techniques they need. Elementary school teachers and other educators, including literacy coaches, reading specialists, and staff development coordinators.

Author Biography

Deborah J. Short is a professional development consultant and a senior research associate at the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC. She co-developed the SIOP® Model for sheltered instruction and has directed national research studies on English language learn-ers funded by the Carnegie Corporation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Education. She recently chaired an expert panel on adolescent ELL literacy. As the director of Academic Language Research & Training, Dr. Short provides professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy around the U.S. and abroad. She has numerous publications, including the SIOP® book series and five ESL textbook series for National Geographic/Hampton-Brown. She has taught English as a second/foreign language in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.


Jana Echevarría is a Professor Emerita at California State University, Long Beach. She has taught in elementary, middle, and high schools in general education, special education, ESL, and bilingual programs. She has lived in Taiwan, Spain and Mexico. An internationally known expert on second language learners, Dr. Echevarría is a Fulbright Specialist. Her research and publications focus on effective instruction for English learners, including those with learning disabilities. Currently, she is Co-Principal Investigator with the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE) funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In 2005, Dr. Echevarría was selected as Outstanding Professor at CSULB.


MaryEllen Vogt, Ed.D., is Professor Emerita of Education at California State University, Long Beach. MaryEllen has been a classroom teacher, reading specialist, special education specialist, curriculum coordinator, and university teacher educator. She received her doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a co-author of fifteen books, including Reading Specialists and Literacy Coaches in the Real World (3rd ed., 2011) and the SIOP® book series. Her research interests include improving comprehension in the content areas, teacher change and development, and content literacy and language acquisition for English learners. She was inducted into the California Reading Hall of Fame, received her university’s Distinguished Faculty Teaching Award, and served as President of the International Reading Association in 2004–2005.

Table of Contents

There are page reference errors in the printed Table of Contents of Making Content Comprehensible for Elementary English Learners: The SIOP Model . We realize some educators and students have already purchased the book with the incorrect Table of Contents. The following Table of Contents has been updated for online reference.


Preface and Acknowledgments xi


Introducing Sheltered Instruction 2

Objectives 2

Demographic Changes 6

English Learner Diversity 7

School Reform and Accountability in the Twenty-First Century 9

Academic Literacy 12

Changes in Instructional Practice for English Learners 14

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol 17

The SIOP® Model 19

Implementing the SIOP® Model: Getting Started 21

Summary 22

Discussion Questions 23


Lesson Preparation 24

Objectives 24

Background 25

SIOP® Feature 1: Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed

with Students 26

SIOP® Feature 2: Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed

with Students 27

Writing Content and Language Objectives 30

SIOP® Feature 3: Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background 34

SIOP® Feature 4: Supplementary Materials Used to a High Degree 36

SIOP® Feature 5: Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency 37

SIOP® Feature 6: Meaningful Activities That Integrate Lesson Concepts

with Language Practice Opportunities 41

Using the SIOP® Protocol 42

The Lesson 42

Unit: The Gold Rush (Fourth Grade) 42

Teaching Scenarios 43

Discussion of Lessons 49

Summary 53

Discussion Questions 53


Building Background 54

Objectives 54

Background 55

 SIOP® Feature 7: Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students’ Background Experiences 56

Instructional Implications 58

SIOP® Feature 8: Links Explicitly Made Between Past Learning and New Concepts 60

SIOP® Feature 9: Key Vocabulary Emphasized 60

Academic Language 61

Vocabulary Instruction 65

The Lesson 71

Unit: Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH (Sixth Grade) 71

Teaching Scenarios 72

Discussion of Lessons 77

Summary 78

Discussion Questions 79


Comprehensible Input 80

Objectives 80

Background 81

SIOP® Feature 10: Speech Appropriate for Students’ Proficiency Levels 82

SIOP® Feature 11: Clear Explanation of Academic Tasks 83

SIOP® Feature 12: A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear 85

The Lesson 87

Unit: Land Forms (Third Grade) 87

Teaching Scenarios 87

Discussion of Lessons 92

Summary 94

Discussion Questions 95


Strategies 96

Objectives 96

Background 97

SIOP® Feature 13: Ample Opportunities Provided for Students to Use Learning

Strategies 98

SIOP® Feature 14: Scaffolding Techniques Consistently Used, Assisting and Supporting

Student Understanding 102

SIOP® Feature 15: A Variety of Questions or Tasks That Promote Higher-Order Thinking

Skills 104

The Lesson 106

Unit: Saving Our Planet (Fifth Grade) 106

Teaching Scenarios 107

Discussion of Lessons 111

Summary 116

Discussion Questions 116


Interaction 118

Objectives 118

Background 119

Mainstream Lesson 121

SIOP® Model 122

SIOP® Feature 16: Frequent Opportunities for Interaction and Discussion 123

Oral Language Development 123

Other Opportunities for Interaction 126

SIOP® Feature 17: Grouping Configurations Support Language and Content Objectives

of the Lesson 131

SIOP® Feature 18: Sufficient Wait Time for Student Responses Consistently Provided 133

SIOP® Feature 19: Ample Opportunity for Students to Clarify Key Concepts in L1 134

The Lesson 134

Unit: Addition and Subtraction (First Grade) 134

Teaching Scenarios 135

Discussion of Lessons 139

Summary 140

Discussion Questions 140


Practice & Application 142

Objectives 142

Background 143

SIOP® Feature 20: Hands-On Materials and/or Manipulatives Provided for Students

to Practice Using New Content Knowledge 145

SIOP® Feature 21: Activities Provided for Students to Apply Content and

Language Knowledge 146

SIOP® Feature 22: Activities Integrate All Language Skills 148

The Lesson 150

Unit: Weather (Second Grade) 150

Teaching Scenarios 150

Discussion of Lessons 156

Summary 158

Discussion Questions 158


Lesson Delivery 160

Objectives 160

Background 161

SIOP® Feature 23: Content Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery 162

SIOP® Feature 24: Language Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery 162

Meeting Content and Language Objectives 162

SIOP® Feature 25: Students Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period 163

SIOP® Feature 26: Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students’Ability Levels 165

 The Lesson 166

Unit: The Gold Rush (Fourth Grade) 166

Teaching Scenarios 166

Discussion of Lessons 170

Summary 172

Discussion Questions 173


Review & Assessment 174

Objectives 174

Background 176

SIOP® Feature 27: Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary 176

SIOP® Feature 28: Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts 178

SIOP® Feature 29: Regular Feedback Provided to Students on Their Output 179

SIOP® Feature 30: Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning

of All Lesson Objectives Throughout the Lesson 179

The Lesson 185

Unit: Mathematics (Kindergarten) 185

Teaching Scenarios 185

Discussion of Lessons 191

Summary 194

Discussion Questions 195


Issues of Reading Development and Special

Education for English Learners 196

Objectives 197

Issues of Reading Development and Assessment for Children 198

Issues Related to Special Education 203

Special Education Services: When Are They Appropriate? 204

Assisting Struggling Learners: Response to Intervention 206

Students with Special Needs 209

Summary 210

Discussion Questions 210


Effective Use of the SIOP® Protocol 212

Objectives 212

Best Practice in Using the SIOP® Protocol 213

Scoring and Interpreting the SIOP® Protocol 215

Assigning Scores 215

Not Applicable (NA) Category 216

Calculating Scores 216

Sample Lesson 217

Using SIOP® Scores and Comments 220

 Reliability and Validity of the SIOP® 230

Summary 230

Discussion Questions 230


Appendix A: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP®) 232

Appendix B: Lesson Plans 240

Appendix C: Research on the SIOP® Model 246

Summary: Selected Findings from the SIOP® Research Project 249

Current SIOP® Research Studies 250

References 253

Glossary 254

References 258

Index 268


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