Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners : The SIOP Model

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-03-25
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


The trusted SIOP Model is tailored to secondary classrooms in this long-awaited book from the pioneers of the SIOP! After the introductory chapter's overview of issues in educating ELLs, the book looks at one component of the SIOP Model per chapter, for a full exploration of the SIOP at the middle and high school level. Each chapter provides the research foundation for the component and gives explicit guidance on how to implement it. In addition, each chapter has three teacher vignettes that illustrate varying degrees of implementation of the SIOP Model. With special attention to struggling readers and the most up-to-date research, this book gives secondary educators the targeted SIOP techniques they need. Middle and high school teachers and other educators, including literacy coaches, reading specialists, and staff development coordinators.

Author Biography

Deborah J. Short is a professional development consultant and a senior research associate at the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC. She co-developed the SIOP® Model for sheltered instruction and has directed national research studies on English language learn-ers funded by the Carnegie Corporation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Education. She recently chaired an expert panel on adolescent ELL literacy. As the director of Academic Language Research & Training, Dr. Short provides professional development on sheltered instruction and academic literacy around the U.S. and abroad. She has numerous publications, including the SIOP® book series and five ESL textbook series for National Geographic/Hampton-Brown. She has taught English as a second/foreign language in New York, California, Virginia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.


Jana Echevarría is a Professor Emerita at California State University, Long Beach. She has taught in elementary, middle, and high schools in general education, special education, ESL, and bilingual programs. She has lived in Taiwan, Spain and Mexico. An internationally known expert on second language learners, Dr. Echevarría is a Fulbright Specialist. Her research and publications focus on effective instruction for English learners, including those with learning disabilities. Currently, she is Co-Principal Investigator with the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE) funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In 2005, Dr. Echevarría was selected as Outstanding Professor at CSULB.


MaryEllen Vogt, Ed.D., is Professor Emerita of Education at California State University, Long Beach. MaryEllen has been a classroom teacher, reading specialist, special education specialist, curriculum coordinator, and university teacher educator. She received her doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley, and is a co-author of fifteen books, including Reading Specialists and Literacy Coaches in the Real World (3rd ed., 2011) and the SIOP® book series. Her research interests include improving comprehension in the content areas, teacher change and development, and content literacy and language acquisition for English learners. She was inducted into the California Reading Hall of Fame, received her university’s Distinguished Faculty Teaching Award, and served as President of the International Reading Association in 2004–2005.

Table of Contents

There are page reference errors in the printed Table of Contents of Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners: The SIOP Model . We realize some educators and students have already purchased the book with the incorrect Table of Contents and are currently using the book. We have updated the Table of Contents for online reference below.



Preface and Acknowledgments xi


Introducing Sheltered Instruction 2

Objectives 2

Demographic Changes 6

English Learner Diversity 7

School Reform and Accountability in the Twenty-First Century 8

Academic Literacy 11

Changes in Instructional Practice for English Learners 14

The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol 17

The SIOP® Model 18

Implementing the SIOP® Model: Getting Started 20

Summary 22

Discussion Questions 22


Lesson Preparation 24

Objectives 24

Background 25

SIOP® Feature 1: Content Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed

with Students 26

SIOP® Feature 2: Language Objectives Clearly Defined, Displayed, and Reviewed

with Students 27

Writing Content and Language Objectives 30

SIOP® Feature 3: Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background 34

SIOP® Feature 4: Supplementary Materials Used to a High Degree 36

SIOP® Feature 5: Adaptation of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency 37

SIOP® Feature 6: Meaningful Activities That Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language

Practice Opportunities 41

Using the SIOP® Protocol 42

The Lesson 42

Unit: Italian Renaissance (Tenth Grade) 42

Teaching Scenarios 43

Discussion of Lessons 49

Summary 52

Discussion Questions 53


Building Background 54

Objectives 54

Background 55

 SIOP® Feature 7: Concepts Explicitly Linked to Students’ Background Experiences 56

Instructional Implications 58

SIOP® Feature 8: Links Explicitly Made Between Past Learning and New Concepts 60

SIOP® Feature 9: Key Vocabulary Emphasized 60

Academic Language 60

Academic Word List 63

Vocabulary Instruction 65

The Lesson 70

Unit: Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH (Sixth Grade) 70

Teaching Scenarios 71

Discussion of Lessons 76

Summary 78

Discussion Questions 78


Comprehensible Input 80

Objectives 80

Background 81

SIOP® Feature 10: Speech Appropriate for Students’ Proficiency Levels 82

SIOP® Feature 11: Clear Explanation of Academic Tasks 83

SIOP® Feature 12: A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear 85

Unit: Buoyancy (Ninth Grade) 87

Teaching Scenarios 88

Discussion of Lessons 91

Summary 95

Discussion Questions 95


Strategies 96

Objectives 96

Background 97

SIOP® Feature 13: Ample Opportunities Provided for Students to Use Learning

Strategies 98

SIOP® Feature 14: Scaffolding Techniques Consistently Used, Assisting and Supporting

Student Understanding 102

SIOP® Feature 15: A Variety of Questions or Tasks That Promote Higher-Order Thinking

Skills 104

The Lesson 106

Unit: The Rain Forest (Seventh Grade) 106

Teaching Scenarios 106

Discussion of Lessons 112

Summary 114

Discussion Questions 115


Interaction 116

Objectives 116

Background 118

Mainstream Lesson 119

SIOP® Model 120

SIOP® Feature 16: Frequent Opportunities for Interaction and Discussion 121

Oral Language Development 121

Other Opportunities for Interaction 125

SIOP® Feature 17: Grouping Configurations Support Language and Content Objectives

of the Lesson 129

SIOP® Feature 18: Sufficient Wait Time for Student Responses Consistently Provided 131

SIOP® Feature 19: Ample Opportunity for Students to Clarify Key Concepts in L1 132

The Lesson 133

Unit: Economics (Twelfth Grade) 133

Teaching Scenarios 133

Discussion of Lessons 137

Summary 139

Discussion Questions 139


Practice & Application 140

Objectives 140

Background 141

SIOP® Feature 20: Hands-On Materials and/or Manipulatives Provided for Students

to Practice Using New Content Knowledge 143

SIOP® Feature 21: Activities Provided for Students to Apply Content and Language

Knowledge 144

SIOP® Feature 22: Activities Integrate All Language Skills 146

The Lesson 147

Unit: Ecosystems (Eleventh Grade) 147

Teaching Scenarios 148

Discussion of Lessons 151

Summary 154

Discussion Questions 154


Lesson Delivery 156

Objectives 156

Background 157

SIOP® Feature 23: Content Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery 158

SIOP® Feature 24: Language Objectives Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery 158

Meeting Content and Language Objectives 158

SIOP® Feature 25: Students Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period 159

 SIOP® Feature 26: Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students’Ability Levels 161

The Lesson 162

Unit: Italian Renaissance (Tenth Grade) 162

Teaching Scenarios 162

Discussion of Lessons 165

Summary 169

Discussion Questions 169


Review and Assessment 170

Objectives 170

Background 172

SIOP® Feature 27: Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary 172

SIOP® Feature 28: Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts 174

SIOP® Feature 29: Regular Feedback Provided to Students on Their Output 175

SIOP® Feature 30: Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning of All Lesson Objectives

Throughout the Lesson 175

The Lesson 181

Unit: Egyptian Mummies (Eighth Grade) 181

Teaching Scenarios 181

Discussion of Lessons 187

Summary 190

Discussion Questions 190


Issues of Reading Development and Special

Education for English Learners 192

Objectives 193

Issues of Reading Development and Assessment for Adolescents 194

Issues Related to Special Education 199

Special Education Services: When Are They Appropriate? 200

Students with Special Needs 205

Summary 206

Discussion Questions 207


Effective Use of the SIOP® Protocol 208

Objectives 208

Best Practice in Using the SIOP® Protocol 209

Scoring and Interpreting the SIOP® Protocol 211

Assigning Scores 211

Not Applicable (NA) Category 212

Calculating Scores 212

Sample Lesson 213

Using SIOP® Scores and Comments 216

 Reliability and Validity of the SIOP® 226

Summary 226

Discussion Questions 226


Appendix A: The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP®) 228

Appendix B: Lesson Plans 236

Appendix C: Research on the SIOP® Model 242

Summary: Selected Findings from the SIOP® Research Project 245

Current and Recent SIOP® Research Studies 246

References 249

Glossary 250

References 254

Index 265

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