Making the Team

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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About the Book Making the Team is for leaders, managers, and executives-anyone who has to work with people and teams. Making the Team gives leaders answers to hard questions and provides proven solutions to some of management's greatest challenges: bull; bull;Dealing with conflict productively bull;Increasing creativity bull;Managing diversity bull;Evaluating and rewarding team performance bull;Leveraging the team within the organization bull;Managing global teamwork bull;Motivating and leading people The Kellogg Culture The Kellogg School of Management is known throughout the world for its culture of teamwork. Kellogg students are exceptional in their simultaneous ability to lead as well as be team players. Student input is essential to the faculty's teaching methods at Kellogg. The faculty of the Management and Organizations Department at Kellogg brings their world-class research on teamwork into the classroom to create a powerful and interactive group learning experience. The strong Kellogg culture of teamwork inspired the writing of this book, whose key purpose is to expose some of the winning strategies of a teamwork culture.

Author Biography

Leigh L. Thompson is the J. Jay Gerber Distinguished Professor of Dispute Resolution and Organizations in the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern.

Table of Contents

Preface to the New Editionp. xvii
Preface to the First Editionp. xix
The Basics of Teamworkp. 1
Teams in Organizations: Facts and Mythsp. 3
What Is a Team?p. 4
Why Should Organizations Have Teams?p. 5
Customer service focusp. 5
Competitionp. 6
Information agep. 6
Globalizationp. 7
Types of Teams in Organizationsp. 7
Manager-led teamsp. 7
Self-managing teamsp. 8
Self-directing teamsp. 9
Self-governing teamsp. 10
Some Observations about Teams and Teamworkp. 11
Teams are not always the answerp. 11
Managers fault the wrong causes for team failurep. 11
Managers fail to recognize their team-building responsibilitiesp. 12
Experimenting with failures leads to better teamsp. 12
Conflict among team members is not always a bad thingp. 12
Strong leadership is not always necessary for strong teamsp. 13
Good teams can still fail under the wrong circumstancesp. 14
Retreats will not fix all the conflicts between team membersp. 14
What Leaders Tell Us about Their Teamsp. 15
Most common type of teamp. 15
Team sizep. 15
Team autonomy versus manager controlp. 15
Team longevityp. 16
The most frustrating aspect of teamworkp. 16
Developing Your Team-Building Skillsp. 17
Accurate diagnosis of team problemsp. 17
Theory-based interventionp. 18
Expert learningp. 18
A Warningp. 19
Conclusionsp. 20
Performance and Productivity: Team Performance Criteria and Threats to Productivityp. 21
An Integrated Model of Successful Team Performancep. 22
Team contextp. 23
Essential conditions for successful team performancep. 24
Performance criteriap. 36
The Team Performance Equationp. 40
Conclusionsp. 41
Rewarding Teamwork: Compensation and Performance Appraisalsp. 42
Types of Team Payp. 44
Incentive payp. 45
Recognitionp. 47
Profit sharingp. 50
Gainsharingp. 50
Teams and Pay for Performancep. 51
Team Performance Appraisalp. 52
What is measured?p. 53
Who does the measuring?p. 54
Developing a 360-degree programp. 56
Rater Biasp. 59
Inflation biasp. 59
Extrinsic incentives biasp. 59
Homogeneity biasp. 60
Halo biasp. 61
Fundamental attribution errorp. 61
Communication mediump. 61
Experience effectp. 61
Reciprocity biasp. 61
Bandwagon biasp. 61
Primacy and recency biasp. 62
Ratee Biasp. 62
Egocentric biasp. 62
Intrinsic interestp. 62
Social comparisonp. 63
Fairnessp. 63
Guiding Principlesp. 64
Goals should cover areas that team members can directly affectp. 64
Balance the mix of individual and team-based payp. 64
Consult with the team members who will be affectedp. 64
Avoid organizational myopiap. 65
Determine eligibility (who qualifies for the plan)p. 65
Determine equity methodp. 65
Quantify the criteria used to determine payoutp. 65
Determine how target levels of performance are established and updatedp. 65
Develop a budget for the planp. 67
Determine timing of measurements and paymentsp. 67
Communicate with those involvedp. 67
Plan for the futurep. 67
Conclusionsp. 67
Internal Dynamicsp. 69
Building the Team: Tasks, People, and Relationshipsp. 71
Building the Teamp. 72
The Task: What Work Needs to Be Done?p. 73
How much authority does the team have to manage its own work?p. 74
What is the focus of the work the team will do?p. 74
What is the degree of task interdependence among team members?p. 75
Is there a correct solution that can be readily demonstrated and communicated to members?p. 77
Are team members' interests perfectly aligned (cooperative), opposing (competitive), or mixed in nature?p. 77
How big should the team be?p. 77
The People: Who Is Ideally Suited to Do the Work?p. 78
Diversityp. 80
Relationships: How Do Team Members Socialize Each Other?p. 85
Group socializationp. 86
Role negotiationp. 88
Team norms: Development and enforcementp. 90
Cohesion: Team bondingp. 91
Trustp. 93
Turnover and reorganizationsp. 96
Conclusionsp. 97
Sharpening the Team Mind: Communication and Collective Intelligencep. 98
Team Communicationp. 99
Message tuningp. 100
Message distortionp. 100
Biased interpretationp. 101
Perspective-taking failuresp. 101
Transparency illusionp. 102
Indirect speech actsp. 102
Uneven communicationp. 103
Intellectual Bandwidthp. 103
The Information Dependence Problemp. 104
The common information effectp. 105
Hidden profilep. 107
Practices to put in placep. 110
Collective Intelligencep. 113
Team mental modelsp. 113
The team mind: Transactive memory systemsp. 115
Team Longevity: Routinization versus Innovation Trade-offsp. 122
Conclusionsp. 125
Team Decision Making: Pitfalls and Solutionsp. 126
Decision Making in Teamsp. 127
Individual versus Group Decision Makingp. 128
Decision-Making Pitfall 1: Groupthinkp. 130
Learning from historyp. 132
How to avoid groupthinkp. 134
Decision-Making Pitfall 2: Escalation of Commitmentp. 137
Project determinantsp. 139
Psychological determinantsp. 139
Social determinantsp. 141
Structural determinantsp. 141
Avoiding the escalation of commitment problemp. 142
Decision-Making Pitfall 3: The Abilene Paradoxp. 143
How to avoid the Abilene paradoxp. 145
Decision-Making Pitfall 4: Group Polarizationp. 147
The need to be rightp. 148
The need to be likedp. 149
Conformity pressuresp. 149
Decision-Making Pitfall 5: Unethical Decision Makingp. 151
Rational man modelp. 151
Pluralistic ignorancep. 152
Desensitizationp. 152
Accountability for behaviorp. 152
Reward modelp. 153
Appropriate role modelsp. 153
Eliminate conflicts of interestp. 154
Create cultures of integrityp. 154
Conclusionsp. 155
Conflict in Teams: Leveraging Differences to Create Opportunityp. 156
Types of Conflictp. 157
Types of conflict and work team effectivenessp. 158
Proportional and perpetual conflictp. 160
Transforming relationship into task conflictp. 161
Team Dilemma: Group versus Individual Interestsp. 164
Strategies to enhance cooperation and minimize competitionp. 164
Perils and Pitfalls of Democracyp. 166
Voting rulesp. 166
Drawbacks to votingp. 168
Coalitionsp. 169
Team Negotiationsp. 169
The BATNA principlep. 170
Avoid the fixed-pie fallacyp. 170
Build trust and share informationp. 170
Understand underlying interestsp. 171
Share informationp. 171
Make multiple proposals simultaneouslyp. 171
Avoid sequential discussion of issuesp. 172
Construct contingency contracts and leverage differencesp. 172
Search for postsettlement settlementsp. 173
Invoke norms of justicep. 173
What to Do When Conflict Escalates?p. 174
Conclusionsp. 176
Creativity: Mastering Strategies for High Performancep. 177
Creative Realismp. 178
Measuring Creativityp. 180
Convergent and divergent thinkingp. 181
Exploration and exploitationp. 183
Creativity and context dependencep. 183
Creative People or Creative Teams?p. 184
Brainstormingp. 184
Brainstorming on trialp. 186
Major Threats to Team Creativityp. 187
Social loafingp. 187
Conformityp. 187
Production blockingp. 188
Downward norm settingp. 188
What goes on during a typical group brainstorming session?p. 189
Enhancing Team Creativityp. 189
Trained facilitatorsp. 190
High benchmarksp. 190
Brainwritingp. 190
Nominal group techniquep. 191
Diversify the teamp. 193
Analogical reasoningp. 193
Creating an organizational memoryp. 197
Membership changep. 198
Build a playgroundp. 199
Electronic Brainstormingp. 200
Advantages of electronic brainstormingp. 201
Disadvantages of electronic brainstormingp. 203
Capstone on brainstormingp. 204
Conclusionsp. 205
External Dynamicsp. 207
Networking, Social Capital, and Integrating across Teamsp. 209
Team Boundariesp. 210
Insulating teamsp. 211
Broadcasting teamsp. 212
Marketing teamsp. 212
Surveying teamsp. 212
External Roles of Team Membersp. 214
Knowledge Valuationp. 214
Networking: A Key to Successful Teamworkp. 216
Communicationp. 216
Human capital and social capitalp. 217
The importance of boundary spanningp. 219
Cliques versus boundary-spanning networks: Advantages and disadvantagesp. 220
Advice for the managerp. 222
Structural positioningp. 223
Relationships Outside the Teamp. 228
Distancep. 228
Timep. 230
Conclusionsp. 230
Leadership: Managing the Paradoxp. 232
Leaders and the Nature-Nurture Debate: Great Person versus Great Opportunityp. 234
Leadership Stylesp. 236
Task versus person leadershipp. 237
Transactional versus Transformational Leadershipp. 237
Active versus passive leadershipp. 240
Autocratic versus democratic leadershipp. 241
Team Coachingp. 241
Types of coachingp. 241
Leadership and Powerp. 242
Sources of powerp. 243
Using powerp. 243
Decision Analysis Model: How Participative Do You Want to Be?p. 245
Decision stylesp. 245
Problem identificationp. 245
Decision tree modelp. 247
Strategies for Encouraging Participative Managementp. 247
Task delegationp. 250
Parallel suggestion involvementp. 250
Job involvementp. 252
Organizational involvementp. 252
Conclusionsp. 257
Interteam Relations: Competition and Cooperationp. 258
Personal and Team Identityp. 258
Intrateam and interteam respectp. 259
Independence versus interdependencep. 260
Self-interest versus group-interestp. 260
Ingroups and outgroupsp. 261
Balancing the need to belong and the need to be distinctp. 262
Interteam Relationshipsp. 262
Social comparison processesp. 263
Post-merger behaviorp. 263
Intergroup conflictp. 265
When and Why Conflict Is Goodp. 267
Cohesionp. 267
How and why organizations benefit from minority viewpointsp. 267
Biases Associated with Intergroup Conflictp. 268
Categorization: Us versus themp. 268
Ingroup bias (or "We are better than them")p. 269
Racism and racial discriminationp. 270
Denialp. 270
"They all look alike": The outgroup homogeneity biasp. 271
Strategies for Reducing Negative Effects of Intergroup Conflictp. 272
Contactp. 272
Cross-cut role assignmentsp. 273
Conclusionsp. 273
Teamwork via Information Technology: Challenges and Opportunitiesp. 275
Place-Time Model of Social Interactionp. 276
Face-to-face communicationp. 277
Same time, different placep. 279
Different time, same placep. 281
Different place, different timep. 282
Information Technology and Social Behaviorp. 284
Reduced status differences: The "weak get strong" effectp. 285
Equalization of team members' participationp. 285
Technology can lead to face-to-face meetingsp. 286
Increased time to make decisionsp. 286
Communicationp. 286
Risk takingp. 287
Social normsp. 287
Task performance and quality of group decisionsp. 288
Enhancing Local Teamwork: Redesigning the Workplacep. 288
Virtual or flexible spacep. 289
Flexible furniturep. 290
Hotelingp. 290
Virtual Teamsp. 292
Strategies for Enhancing the Virtual Teamp. 293
Collaboratoryp. 293
Virtual team technologyp. 293
Initial face-to-face experiencep. 294
Temporary engagementp. 294
One-day videoconferencep. 295
Touching basep. 295
Schmoozingp. 296
Transnational Teamsp. 296
Conclusionsp. 298
Managing Meetings: A Toolkitp. 301
Tips for Consultants and Facilitatorsp. 308
A Guide for Creating Effective Study Groupsp. 312
Example Items from Peer Evaluations and 360-Degree Performance Evaluationsp. 315
Referencesp. 322
Author Indexp. 361
Subject Indexp. 369
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


When I wroteMaking the Teamin 2000, my intent was to introduce leaders, managers, and executives to practical research on groups and teams. This enterprise required an integration of theory, research, and application. Five professors--Dave Messick, Keith Murnighan, Mark Rittenberg, Brian Uzzi, and I--offer a three-day course for executives in team leadership at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. Moreover, Kellogg offers a full-term course on teamwork to our MBA students. This book is dedicated to the students of Kellogg's executive program and MBA program. The title of the book,Making the Team,has two audiences: leaders and team members. For the leader, the book directs itself toward how teams can be designed to function optimally; for those people who are members of teams, the book focuses on the skills necessary to be a productive team member. Since the publication of the first version, many advances have occurred in team and group research. Every chapter has been updated with new information, new research, updated examples, and more. Specifically, I have made three major changes to the revised version ofMaking the Team: New, updated research:True to the book's defining characteristic--providing managers with the most up-to-date research in a digestible fashion--I have included the latest research on teamwork and group behavior, thus keeping the book up-to-date and true to its strong research focus and theory-driven approach. The updated research also reports on the survey of executives that we have conducted at Kellogg for the past five years. The survey in the first edition reported the responses of 149 managers and executives; the database of this survey has more than tripled, with a current total of 512 responses. In addition, more than 275 new research studies have been cited. More case studies:I have included more examples and illustrations of effective (as well as ineffective) teamwork. More than 130 new case studies and examples of actual company teams have been added. As before, each chapter opens with an example of a real team. Many of the concepts and techniques in the chapters are supplemented with illustrations and examples from real teams, both contemporary and historical. I do not use these examples to prove a theory; rather, I use them to illustrate how many of the concepts in the book are borne out in real-world situations. Learning and development:Mostly due to my strong research interests in learning, I have put learning front-and-center in the new edition, with a special focus on how leaders should be in a continuous learning mode. For example, in Chapter 1, I have expanded the team-building skills from two in the 2000 edition (accurate diagnosis and theory-based intervention) to three in the current edition (accurate diagnosis, theory-based intervention, and expert learning). In addition to the changes discussed, which affect all chapters and sections of the book, several chapters have undergone updates as new theory and research has broken ground and as our world has been shaped by events such as September 11, 2001, and the rash of corporate fraud. For example, Chapter 6 ("Team Decision Making") now has a new section on decision making and ethics. In addition, all of the chapters have undergone a serious facelift. The revision was sparked not only by advances--as well as calamities--in the corporate world, but also even more so by the great scientific research on teamwork that my colleagues have relentlessly contributed to the field of management science in the past three years, since the first edition went to press. One of the reasons why I love this field is because there are so many wonderful people with whom to collaborate. The following people have had a major impact on my thinking and have brought joy and meaning to the word

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