9780312452940

The Making of the West, Combined Volume: Peoples and Cultures

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780312452940

  • ISBN10:

    0312452942

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-02-20
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

The Making of the Westoffers a geographically and culturally expansive conception of the West that prepares students to understand today's globalized world. Its integrated chronological narrative makes the impact of historical developments clear by highlighting the interconnections among the politics, people, and ideas of a specific period. From the book's conception, the authors a team of renowned scholars and expert teachers have worked to provide a new vision of the West based on cutting-edge scholarship. The narrative enhanced by a rich and informative art and map program distills the latest research and consistently treats topics underserved in other books: the West in global perspective, high and popular art and culture, and gender.

Author Biography

LYNN HUNT (Ph.D., Stanford University) is Eugen Weber Professor of Modern European History at University of California at Los Angeles. She is the author or editor of several books, including The Family Romance of the French Revolution (1992) and Inventing Human Rights: A History (2007). She is currently researching changing attitudes toward religion in early eighteenth-century Europe.

THOMAS R. MARTIN (Ph.D., Harvard University) is Jeremiah O’Connor Professor in Classics at the College of the Holy Cross. He is the author of Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece (1985) and Ancient Greece (1996, 2000) and is one of the originators of Perseus: Interactive Sources and Studies on Ancient Greece (www.perseus.tufts.edu). He is currently conducting research on the history and significance of freedom of speech in Athenian democracy.

BARBARA H. ROSENWEIN (Ph.D., University of Chicago) is professor of history at Loyola University Chicago. She is the author or editor of several books including A Short History of the Middle Ages (2001; 2004) and Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (2006). She is currently working on a general history of the emotions in the West.

R. PO-CHIA HSIA (Ph.D., Yale University) is Edwin Erle Sparks Professor of History at Pennsylvania State University. He is the author or editor of several books including The Myth of Ritual Murder: Jews and Magic in Reformation Germany (1988) and The World of the Catholic Renewal (1997). Currently he is working on a study of the history of cultural encounter between Counter-Reformation Europe and the Ming and Qing empires.

BONNIE G. SMITH (Ph.D., University of Rochester) is Board of Governors Distinguished Professor of History at Rutgers University. She is author or editor of several books including Ladies of the Leisure Class (1981); The Gender of History: Men, Women and Historical Practice (1998); and The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History (2007). Currently she is studying the globalization of European culture and society since the seventeenth century.

Table of Contents

Note: All chapters close with a conclusion and a full-page Chapter Review section.

Prologue: The Beginnings of Human Society

The Paleolithic Age, 200,000–10,000 B.C.E.

The Neolithic Age, 10,000–4000 B.C.E.

New Sources, New Perspectives: Daily Bread, Damaged Bones, and Cracked Teeth


1. Early Western Civilization, 4000–1000 B.C.E.

The Controversial Concept of Western Civilization

Mesopotamia, Home of the First Civilization, 4000–1000 B.C.E.

Egypt, the First Unified Country, 3050–1000 B.C.E.

The Hittites, Minoans, and Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 B.C.E.

Terms of History: Civilization

Document: Hammurabi’s Laws for Physicians

Document: Declaring Innocence on Judgment Day in Ancient Egypt


2. The Near East and the Emergence of Greece, 1000–500 B.C.E.

From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 B.C.E.

Remaking Greek Civilization, 1000–750 B.C.E.

The Creation of the Greek Polis, 750–500 B.C.E.

New Directions for the Polis, 750–500 B.C.E.

Document: Homer’s Vision of Justice in the Polis

Seeing History: Shifting Sculptural Expression: From Egypt to Greece

Document: Cyrene Records Its Foundation as a Greek Colony

Taking Measure: Greek Family Size and Agricultural Labor in the Archaic Age

Contrasting Views: Persians Debate Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy



3. The Greek Golden Age c. 500–c. 400 B.C.E.

Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 B.C.E.

Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 B.C.E.

Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age

The End of the Golden Age, 431–403 B.C.E.

Document: Athenian Regulations for a Rebellious Ally

Contrasting Views: The Nature of Women and Marriage

Document: Sophists Argue Both Sides of a Case

Taking Measure: Military Forces of Athens and Sparta at the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.E.)


4. From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 B.C.E.

Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 B.C.E.

The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 B.C.E.

The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 B.C.E.

Hellenistic Culture

Document: Aristotle on the Nature of the Greek Polis

Document: Epigrams by Women Poets

New Sources, New Perspectives: Papyrus Discoveries and Menander’s Comedies


5. The Rise of Rome, 753–44 B.C.E.

Roman Social and Religious Traditions

From Monarchy to Republic

Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences

Upheaval in the Late Republic

Document: The Rape and Suicide of Lucretia

Taking Measure: Census Records during the First and Second Punic Wars

Document: Polybius on Roman Military Discipline

Contrasting Views: What Was Julius Caesar Like?


6. The Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.–284 C.E.

Creating the Pax Romana

Maintaining the Pax Romana

The Emergence of Christianity

The Third-Century Crisis

Document: Augustus, Res Gestae (My Accomplishments)

Document: The Scene at a Roman Bath

Contrasting Views: Christians in the Empire: Conspirators or Faithful Subjects?

Taking Measure: The Value of Roman Imperial Coinage, 27 B.C.E.–300 C.E.


7. The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 C.E.

Reorganizing the Empire, 284–395

Christianizing the Empire, 312–c. 540

Non-Roman Kingdoms in the West, c. 370-550s

The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500-565

Document: Diocletian’s Edict On Maximum Prices and Wages

Taking Measure: Peasants’ Use of Farm Produce in the Roman Empire

Document: The Edict of Milan on Religious Liberty

Seeing History: Changing Religious Beliefs: Pagan and Christian Sarcophaguses

New Sources, New Perspectives: Was There a Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire?


8. Islam, Byzantium, and the West, 600–750

Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire

Byzantium: A Christian Empire under Siege

Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms

Terms of History: Medieval

Document: The Fatihah of the Qur’an

Seeing History: Who Conquered Whom? A Persian and an Arabic Coin Compared

Taking Measure: Church Repair, 600–900

Document: On Holy Images

New Sources, New Perspectives: Anthropology, Archaeology, and Changing Notions of Ethnicity


9. Emperors, Caliphs, and Local Lords, 750–1050

The Emperor and Local Elites in the Byzantine Empire

The Caliphate and Its Fragmentation

The Creation and Division of a New European Empire

After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule

Document: The Book of the Prefect

Document: When She Approached

Contrasting Views: Charlemagne: Roman Emperor, Father of Europe, or the Chief Bishop?

Terms of History: Feudalism

Taking Measure: Sellers, Buyers, and Donors, 800–1000


10. Merchants and Kings, Popes and Crusaders, 1050–1150

The Commercial Revolution

Church Reform

The Crusades

The Revival of Monarchies

Document: A Byzantine View of Papal Primacy

Contrasting Views: The First Crusade

New Sources, New Perspectives: The Cairo Geniza

Document: Penances for the Invaders, 1070

Taking Measure: Slaves in England in 1086


11. The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215

New Schools and Churches

Governments as Institutions

The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture

Religious Fervor and Crusade

Seeing History: Romanesque vs. Gothic: The View Down the Nave

Contrasting Views: Magna Carta

Document: Frederick’s Reply to the Romans

Document: The Children’s Crusade, 1212


12. The Medieval Search for Order, 1215–1340

The Church’s Mission

The Medieval Synthesis

The Politics of Control

New Sources, New Perspectives: The Peasants of Montaillou

Taking Measure: Sentences Imposed by an Inquisitor, 1308–1323

Document: The Debate between Reason and the Lover

Document: Ausculta Fili (Listen, beloved son)



13. Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492

Crisis: Disease, War and Schism

The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression

Consolidating Power

Taking Measure: Population Losses and the Black Death

Contrasting Views: Joan of Arc: Who Was Òthe MaidÓ?

Document: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion, 1381

Terms of History: Renaissance

Document: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man

 
14. Global Encounters and Religious Reforms, 1492–1560

Widening Horizons

The Protestant Reformation

Reshaping Society through Religion

A Struggle for Mastery

Seeing History: Expanding Geographic Knowledge: World Maps in an Age of Exploration

Document: Columbus Describes His First Voyage, 1493

Contrasting Views: Martin Luther: Holy Man or Heretic?

Document: Ordinances for Calvinist Churches, 1547


15. Wars of Religion and the Clash of World Views, 1560–1648

Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560–1618

The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648

Economic Crisis and Realignment

The Rise of Secular and Scientific Worldviews

Document: Hans Grimmelshausen, The Horrors of the Thirty Years’ War

Taking Measure: The Rise and Fall of Silver Imports to Spain, 1550–1660

New Sources, New Perspectives: Tree Rings and the Little Ice Age

Seeing History: Religious Differences in Painting of the Baroque Period: Rubens and Rembrandt

Document: Sentence Pronounced Against Galileo


16. State Building and the Search for Order, 1648–1690

Louis XIV: Absolutism and its Limits

Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe

Constitutionalism in England

Outposts of Constitutionalism

The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture

Document: Marie de Sevigne’s Description of the French Court

Taking Measure: The Seventeenth-Century Army

Contrasting Views: The English Civil War

Document: John Milton’s Defense of Freedom of the Press



17. The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1690–1740

The Atlantic System and the World Economy

New Social and Cultural Patterns

Consolidation of the European State System

The Birth of the Enlightenment

New Sources, New Perspectives: Oral History and the Life of Slaves

Document: The Social Effects of Growing Consumption

Taking Measure: Relationship of Crop Harvested to Seed Used, 1400–1800

Terms of History: Progress

Document: Voltaire, Letters Concerning the English Nation, 1733


18. The Promise of Enlightenment, 1740–1789

The Enlightenment at Its Height

Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment

State Power in an Era of Reform

Rebellions against State Power

Terms of History: Enlightenment

Document: Denis Diderot, "Encyclopedia," 1755

Contrasting Views: Women and the Enlightenment

Taking Measure: World Population Growth, 1700–1800

Document: Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776


19. The Cataclysm of Revolution, 1789–1799

The Revolutionary Wave, 1787–1789

From Monarchy to Republic, 1789–1793

Terror and Resistance

Revolution on the March

Terms of History: Revolution

Document: The Rights of Minorities

Contrasting Views: Consequences of the French Revolution

Document: Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade, February 5, 1790


20. Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy, 1800–1830

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

"Europe Was at My Feet": Napoleon’s Conquests

The "Restoration" of Europe

Challenges to the Conservative Order

Contrasting Views: Napoleon: For and Against

Document: An Ordinary Soldier on Campaign with Napoleon

Document: Wordsworth’s Poetry

Seeing History: The Clothing Revolution: The Social Meaning of Changes in Post-Revolutionary Fashion



21. Industrialization and Social Ferment, 1830–1850

The Industrial Revolution

Reforming the Social Order

Ideologies and Political Movements

The Revolutions of 1848

Taking Measure: Railroad Lines, 1830–1850

New Sources, New Perspectives: Statistics and the Standard of Living of the Working Class

Document: Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto

Document: Alexis de Tocqueville describes the June Days in Paris, 1848


22. Politics and Culture of the Nation-State, 1850–1870

The End of the Concert of Europe

War and Nation Building

Establishing Social Order

The Culture of Social Order

Terms of History: Nationalism

Seeing History: Photographing the Nation: Domesticity and War

Document: Bismarck Tricks the Public to Get His War

Document: Mrs. Seacole: The Other Florence Nightingale


23. Empire and Everyday Life, 1870–1890

The Advance of Industry in an Age of Empire

The New Imperialism

Imperial Society and Culture

The Birth of Mass Politics

Taking Measure: The Decline of Illiteracy

Document: Imperialism’s Popularity among the People

Contrasting Views: Experiences of Migration

Document: Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House


24. Modernity and the Road to War, c. 1890–1914

Public Debate over Private Life

Modernity and the Revolt in Ideas

Growing Tensions in Mass Politics

European Imperialism Challenged

Roads to War

Terms of History: Modern

New Sources, New Perspectives: Psychohistory and Its Lessons

Document: Leon Pinsker Calls for a Jewish State

Document: An Historian Promotes Militant Nationalism


25. World War I and Its Aftermath 1914–1929

The Great War, 1914–1918

Protest, Revolution, and War’s End, 1917–1918

The Search for Peace in an Era of Revolution

The Aftermath of War: Europe in the 1920s

Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators

Contrasting Views: Arguing with the Victors

Taking Measure: The Growth of Radio, 1924–1929

Document: Outbreak of the Russian Revolution

Document: Battlefield Tourism

Seeing History: Demonizing the Enemy Italian Propaganda Posters from World War I


26. The Great Depression and World War II, 1929–1945

The Great Depression

Totalitarian Triumph

Democracies on the Defensive

The Road to Global War

World War II, 1939–1945

Terms of History: Totalitarianism

Contrasting Views: Stalin and Hitler: For and Against

Document: The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

New Sources, New Perspectives: Museums and Memory

Document: A Family Copes with Unemployment


27. The Cold War and the Remaking of Europe, C. 1945–1965

World Politics Transformed

Political and Economic Recovery in Europe

Decolonization in a Cold War Climate

Cultural Life on the Brink of Nuclear War

New Sources, New Perspectives: Government Archives and the Truth about the Cold War

Document: The Schuman Plan on European Unity, 1950

Taking Measure: World Manufacturing Output, 1950–1970

Document: Consumerism, Youth, and the Birth of the Generation Gap



28. Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War Order, 1965–1989

The Revolution in Technology

Postindustrial Society and Culture

Protesting Cold War Conditions

The Testing of Superpower Domination and the End of the Cold War

Contrasting Views: Feminist Debates

Document: Margaret Thatcher’s Economic Vision

Document: Tatiana Tolstoya Criticizes Mikhail Gorbachev

Seeing History: Political Art: Soviet Socialist Realism and Dissident Painting


29. The New Globalism: Opportunities and Dilemmas, 1989 to the Present

The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Its Aftermath

The Nation-State in a Global Age

Challenges from an Interconnected World

Global Culture and Society in the New Millennium

Conclusion: The Making of the West Continues

Document: Vaclav Havel, "Czechoslovakia is Returning to Europe"

Document: The European Green Party Becomes Transnational, 2006

Taking Measure: World Population Growth, 1950–2007

Contrasting Views: The Dutch Debate Immigration

Appendix: Useful Facts and Figures

Glossary

Suggested References

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