9780312417611

The Making of the West; Peoples and Cultures, Volume II

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780312417611

  • ISBN10:

    0312417616

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Trade Paper
  • Copyright: 2004-09-20
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Table of Contents

Preface v
Maps and Figures
xxi
Special Features xxiv
To the Student xxvi
About the Authors xxxii
The Struggle for Reformation Europe, 1500--1560
547(34)
A New Heaven and a New Earth
548(4)
The Crisis of Faith
548(2)
Christian Humanism
550(2)
Protestant Reformers
552(7)
Martin Luther and the German Nation
552(4)
Huldrych Zwingli and the Swiss Confederation
556(1)
John Calvin and Christian Discipline
557(2)
Reshaping Society through Religion
559(6)
Challenging the Social Order
559(2)
New Forms of Discipline
561(4)
A Struggle for Mastery
565(8)
The Court
566(1)
Art and the Christian Knight
566(2)
Wars among Habsburgs, Valois, and Ottomans
568(2)
The Finance and Technologies of War
570(1)
Divided Realms
571(2)
A Continuing Reformation
573(4)
Catholic Renewal
574(1)
Missionary Zeal
575(2)
Conclusion
577(1)
Suggested References
578(1)
Chapter Review
579(2)
A Century of Crisis, 1560--1648
581(40)
Religious Conflicts and State Power, 1560--1618
582(9)
French Wars of Religion, 1562--1598
582(4)
Challenges to Spanish Power
586(3)
Elizabeth I's Defense of English Protestantism
589(1)
The Clash of Faiths and Empires in Eastern Europe
590(1)
The Thirty Years' War and the Balance of Power, 1618--1648
591(6)
Origins and Course of the War
592(1)
The Effects of Constant Fighting
593(2)
The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
595(2)
Economic Crisis and Realignment
597(9)
From Growth to Recession
598(1)
Consequences for Daily Life
599(4)
The Economic Balance of Power
603(3)
A Clash of Worldviews
606(11)
The Arts in an Age of Crisis
606(2)
The Natural Laws of Politics
608(2)
Origins of the Scientific Revolution
610(5)
Magic and Witchcraft
615(2)
Conclusion
617(1)
Suggested References
618(1)
Chapter Review
619(2)
State Building and the Search for Order, 1648--1690
621(44)
Louis XIV: Model of Absolutism
622(8)
The Fronde, 1648--1653
623(1)
Court Culture as an Element of Absolutism
624(2)
Enforcing Religious Orthodoxy
626(1)
Extending State Authority at Home and Abroad
627(3)
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
630(6)
Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden: Militaristic Absolutism
631(1)
An Uneasy Balance: Austrian Habsburgs and Ottoman Turks
632(2)
Russia: Foundations of Bureaucratic Absolutism
634(1)
Poland-Lithuania Overwhelmed
635(1)
Constitutionalism in England
636(9)
England Turned Upside Down, 1642--1660
637(6)
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
643(2)
Constitutionalism in the Dutch Republic and the Overseas Colonies
645(4)
The Dutch Republic
645(3)
Freedom and Slavery in the New World
648(1)
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
649(12)
Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke
650(1)
Newton and the Consolidation of the Scientific Revolution
651(2)
Freedom and Order in the Arts
653(3)
Women and Manners
656(2)
Reforming Popular Culture
658(3)
Conclusion
661(1)
Suggested References
661(2)
Chapter Review
663(2)
The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1690--1740
665(42)
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
667(9)
Slavery and the Atlantic System
667(6)
World Trade and Settlement
673(2)
The Birth of Consumer Society
675(1)
New Social and Cultural Patterns
676(7)
Agricultural Revolution
676(2)
Social Life in the Cities
678(2)
The Growth of a Literate Public
680(1)
New Tastes in the Arts
680(3)
Religious Revivals
683(1)
Consolidation of the European State System
683(12)
The Limits of French Absolutism
684(2)
British Rise and Dutch Decline
686(2)
Russia's Emergence as a European Power
688(2)
The Balance of Power in the East
690(2)
The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Numbers
692(1)
Public Hygiene and Health Care
693(2)
The Birth of the Enlightenment
695(7)
Popularization of Science and Challenges to Religion
695(3)
Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition
698(2)
Raising the Woman Question
700(2)
Conclusion
702(1)
Suggested References
702(2)
Chapter Review
704(3)
The Promise of Enlightenment, 1740--1789
707(40)
The Enlightenment at Its Height
708(14)
Men and Women of the Republic of Letters
709(3)
Conflicts with Church and State
712(1)
The Individual and Society
713(4)
Spreading the Enlightenment
717(3)
The Limits of Reason: Roots of Romanticism and Religious Revival
720(2)
Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment
722(7)
The Nobility's Reassertion of Privilege
722(1)
The Middle Class and the Making of a New Elite
723(3)
Life on the Margins
726(2)
The Roots of Industrialization
728(1)
State Power in an Era of Reform
729(7)
War and Diplomacy
730(3)
State-Sponsored Reform
733(2)
Limits of Reform
735(1)
Rebellions against State Power
736(6)
Food Riots and Peasant Uprisings
736(2)
Public Opinion and Political Opposition
738(1)
Revolution in North America
739(3)
Conclusion
742(1)
Suggested References
743(2)
Chapter Review
745(2)
The Cataclysm of Revolution, 1789--1800
747(40)
The Revolutionary Wave, 1787--1789
748(9)
Protesters in the Low Countries and Poland
749(3)
Origins of the French Revolution, 1787--1789
752(5)
From Monarchy to Republic, 1789--1793
757(6)
The Revolution of Rights and Reason
757(4)
The End of Monarchy
761(2)
Terror and Resistance
763(7)
Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety
763(2)
The Republic of Virtue, 1793--1794
765(2)
Resisting the Revolution
767(1)
The Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror, 1794--1799
768(2)
Revolution on the March
770(12)
Arms and Conquests
770(3)
European Reactions to Revolutionary Change
773(3)
Poland Extinguished, 1793--1795
776(1)
Revolution in the Colonies
777(3)
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
780(2)
Conclusion
782(1)
Suggested References
783(2)
Chapter Review
785(2)
Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy, 1800--1830
787(42)
Napoleon's Authoritarian State
788(7)
From Republic to Empire
789(3)
The New Paternalism: The Civil Code
792(1)
Patronage of Science and Intellectual Life
793(2)
``Europe Was at My Feet'': Napoleon's Conquests
795(10)
The Grand Army and Its Victories, 1800--1807
795(5)
The Impact of French Victories
800(2)
From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812--1815
802(3)
The ``Restoration'' of Europe
805(5)
The Congress of Vienna, 1814--1815
805(3)
The Emergence of Conservatism
808(1)
The Revival of Religion
809(1)
Forces for Social and Cultural Change
810(9)
Industrial and Urban Growth in Britain
810(1)
The New Ideologies
811(4)
Romanticism
815(4)
Political Challenges to the Conservative Order
819(6)
Political Revolts in the 1820s
819(4)
Revolution and Reform, 1830--1832
823(2)
Conclusion
825(1)
Suggested References
826(1)
Chapter Review
827(2)
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Revolution, 1830--1850
829(44)
The Advance of Industrialization and Urbanization
830(10)
Engines of Change
831(4)
Urbanization and Its Consequences
835(4)
Agricultural Perils and Prosperity
839(1)
Reforming the Social Order
840(9)
Cultural Responses to the Social Question
840(4)
The Varieties of Social Reform
844(3)
Abuses and Reforms Overseas
847(2)
The Ferment of Ideologies
849(9)
The Spell of Nationalism
849(4)
Liberalism in Economics and Politics
853(1)
Socialism and the Early Labor Movement
854(3)
The New Historical Imagination
857(1)
The Revolutions of 1848
858(11)
The Hungry Forties
859(1)
Another French Revolution
860(2)
Nationalist Revolution in Italy
862(1)
Revolt and Reaction in Central Europe
863(3)
Aftermath to 1848
866(3)
Conclusion
869(1)
Suggested References
869(2)
Chapter Review
871(2)
Politics and Culture of the Nation-State, c. 1850--1870
873(42)
The End of the Concert of Europe
875(6)
Napoleon III and the Quest for French Glory
875(2)
The Crimean War, 1853--1856: Turning Point in European Affairs
877(2)
Spirit of Reform in Russia
879(2)
War and Nation Building
881(10)
Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Process of Italian Unification
881(2)
Bismarck and the Realpolitik of German Unification
883(4)
Francis Joseph and the Creation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
887(1)
Political Stability through Gradual Reform in Great Britain
888(1)
Civil War and Nation Building in the United States and Canada
889(2)
Establishing Social Order
891(8)
Bringing Order to the Cities
891(2)
Expanding the Reach of Bureaucracy
893(1)
Schooling and Professionalizing Society
894(1)
Spreading Western Order beyond the West
895(4)
The Culture of Social Order
899(7)
The Arts Confront Social Reality
900(3)
Religion and Secular Order
903(2)
From Natural Science to Social Science
905(1)
Contesting the Growing Power of the Nation-State
906(5)
The Rise of Marxism
906(2)
The Paris Commune versus the French State
908(3)
Conclusion
911(1)
Suggested References
911(2)
Chapter Review
913(2)
Industry, Empire, and Everyday Life, 1870--1890
915(44)
The Advance of Industry
917(7)
Industrial Innovation
917(3)
Facing Economic Crisis
920(1)
Revolution in Business Practices
921(3)
The New Imperialism
924(9)
Taming the Mediterranean
924(1)
Scramble for Africa
925(3)
Acquiring Territory in Asia
928(2)
Japan's Imperial Agenda
930(1)
The Paradoxes of Imperialism
931(2)
The Transformation of Culture and Society
933(12)
The ``Best'' Circles and the Expanding Middle Class
933(3)
Professional Sports and Organized Leisure
936(1)
Working People's Strategies
937(2)
Reform Efforts for Working-Class People
939(3)
Artistic Responses to Industrial and Imperial Change
942(3)
The Birth of Mass Politics
945(9)
Workers, Politics, and Protest
945(2)
Expanding Political Participation in Western Europe
947(3)
Power Politics in Central and Eastern Europe
950(4)
Conclusion
954(2)
Suggested References
956(1)
Chapter Review
957(2)
Modernity and the Road to War, c. 1890--1914
959(44)
Private Life in the Modern Age
960(10)
Population Pressure
961(3)
Reforming Marriage
964(1)
New Women, New Men, and the Politics of Sexual Identity
965(1)
Sciences of the Modern Self
966(4)
Modernity and the Revolt in Ideas
970(5)
The Challenge to Positivism
970(1)
Revolutionizing Science
971(1)
Modern Art
972(2)
Musical Iconoclasm
974(1)
Growing Tensions in Mass Politics
975(10)
Labor's Expanding Power
976(1)
Rights for Women and the Battle for Suffrage
977(2)
Liberalism Modified
979(1)
Anti-Semitism, Nationalism, and Zionism in Mass Politics
980(5)
European Imperialism Contested
985(7)
The Trials of Empire
985(3)
The Russian Empire Threatened
988(2)
Growing Resistance to Colonial Domination
990(2)
Roads to War
992(7)
Competing Alliances and Clashing Ambitions
993(1)
The Race to Arms
994(3)
1914: War Erupts
997(2)
Conclusion
999(1)
Suggested References
999(2)
Chapter Review
1001(2)
War, Revolution, and Reconstruction, 1914--1929
1003(46)
The Great War, 1914--1918
1004(10)
Blueprints for War
1004(2)
The Battlefronts
1006(5)
The Home Front
1011(3)
Protest, Revolution, and War's End, 1917--1918
1014(6)
War Protest
1014(1)
Revolution in Russia
1014(5)
Civil War in Russia
1019(1)
Ending the War, 1918
1019(1)
The Search for Peace in an Era of Revolution
1020(8)
Europe in Turmoil
1021(1)
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919--1920
1021(5)
Economic and Diplomatic Consequences of the Peace
1026(2)
A Decade of Recovery: Europe in the 1920s
1028(6)
Changes in the Political Landscape
1028(3)
Reconstructing the Economy
1031(1)
Restoring Society
1032(2)
Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
1034(9)
Culture for the Masses
1034(1)
Cultural Debates over the Future
1035(4)
The Communist Utopia
1039(2)
Fascism on the March in Italy
1041(2)
Conclusion
1043(2)
Suggested References
1045(2)
Chapter Review
1047(2)
An Age of Catastrophes, 1929--1945
1049(48)
The Great Depression
1050(5)
Economic Disaster Strikes
1050(1)
Social Effects of the Depression
1051(2)
The Great Depression beyond the West
1053(2)
Totalitarian Triumph
1055(9)
The Rise of Stalinism
1055(5)
Hitler's Rise of Power
1060(2)
The Nazification of German Politics
1062(1)
Nazi Racism
1063(1)
Democracies on the Defensive
1064(5)
Confronting the Economic Crisis
1065(3)
Cultural Visions in Hard Times
1068(1)
The Road to Global War
1069(8)
A Surge in Global Imperialism
1070(3)
The Spanish Civil War, 1936--1939
1073(2)
Hitler's Conquest of Central Europe, 1938--1939
1075(2)
World War II, 1939--1945
1077(14)
The German Onslaught
1077(1)
War Expands: The Pacific and Beyond
1078(1)
The War against Civilians
1079(3)
Societies at War
1082(3)
From Resistance to Allied Victory
1085(5)
An Uneasy Postwar Settlement
1090(1)
Conclusion
1091(2)
Suggested References
1093(2)
Chapter Review
1095(2)
Remaking Europe in the Shadow of Cold War, c. 1945--1965
1097(42)
World Politics Transformed
1098(10)
Europe Prostrate
1099(2)
New Superpowers: The United States and the Soviet Union
1101(1)
Origins of the Cold War
1102(4)
The Division of Germany
1106(2)
Political and Economic Recovery in Europe
1108(10)
Dealing with the Nazi Past
1108(1)
Rebirth of the West
1109(4)
The Welfare State: Common Ground East and West
1113(3)
Recovery in the East
1116(2)
Decolonization in a Cold War Climate
1118(7)
The End of Empire in Asia
1119(1)
The Struggle for Identity in the Middle East
1120(2)
New Nations in Africa
1122(1)
The Arrival of New Europeans
1123(2)
Cultural Life on the Brink of Nuclear War
1125(10)
Restoring ``Western'' Values
1125(2)
Rising Consumerism and Shifting Gender Norms
1127(3)
The Culture of Cold War
1130(3)
Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Atomic Brink
1133(2)
Conclusion
1135(1)
Suggested References
1135(2)
Chapter Review
1137(2)
Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War Order, 1965--1989
1139(46)
The Revolution in Technology
1140(6)
The Information Age: Television and Computers
1140(3)
The Space Age
1143(3)
Revolutions in Biology, Reproductive Technology, and Sexual Behavior
1146(1)
Postindustrial Society and Culture
1146(9)
Multinational Corporations
1146(2)
The New Worker
1148(2)
The Boom in Education and Research
1150(1)
A Redefined Family and a Generation Gap
1151(1)
Art, Ideas, and Religion in a Technocratic Society
1152(3)
Protesting Cold War Conditions
1155(11)
Cracks in the Cold War Order
1155(3)
The Explosion of Civic Activism
1158(5)
1968: Year of Crisis
1163(3)
The Erosion of Superpower Mastery Ends the Cold War
1166(13)
The West, the World, and the Politics of Energy
1166(2)
The Western Bloc Meets Challenges with Reform
1168(5)
Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Bloc
1173(6)
Conclusion
1179(2)
Suggested References
1181(2)
Chapter Review
1183(2)
The New Globalism: Opportunities and Dilemmas, 1989 to the Present
1185
Soviet Collapse Releases Global Forces
1187(9)
The Breakup of Yugoslavia
1188(2)
The Soviet Union Comes Apart
1190(3)
An Elusive Market Economy
1193(1)
Chechnya and Central Asian States: The Quest for Independence and Influence
1194(2)
Global Opportunities Transcend the Nation-State
1196(6)
Europe Looks beyond the Nation-State
1196(4)
Globalizing Cities and Fragmenting Nations
1200(1)
Global Organizations
1201(1)
Global Challenges and Discontents
1202(9)
Pollution and Population
1202(2)
Population and Disease
1204(2)
North versus South?
1206(1)
Islam Confronts the West
1207(2)
The Rise of the Pacific Economy
1209(2)
Global Culture and Society in the New Millennium
1211(9)
Redefining the West: The Impact of Global Migration
1211(3)
Global Networks and the Economy
1214(2)
The Global Diffusion of Culture
1216(4)
Conclusion: The Making of the West Continues
1220(2)
Suggested References
1222(2)
Chapter Review
1224
Appendix: Useful Facts and Figures 1(1)
Glossary of Key Terms 1(1)
Index 1

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