Managerial Accounting

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-11-03
  • Publisher: South-Western College Pub
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The most successful higher education accounting text of all time keeps getting better. The authors adapt their proven approach to accounting's evolving role in business and use the preparation of financial statements as the framework for understanding what accounting is all about. Accounting provides a solid foundation of accounting concepts with unique features to show how users can use accounting to understand business.

Table of Contents

Managerial Accounting Concepts and Principlesp. 1
Managerial Accountingp. 2
The Differences Between Managerial and Financial Accountingp. 2
The Management Accountant in the Organizationp. 3
Managerial Accounting in the Management Processp. 4
A Tour of Manufacturing Operations: Costs and Terminologyp. 7
Direct and Indirect Costsp. 8
Manufacturing Costsp. 9
Financial Statements for a Manufacturing Businessp. 13
Balance Sheet for a Manufacturing Businessp. 13
Income Statement for a Manufacturing Companyp. 14
Uses of Managerial Accountingp. 18
Job Order Cost Systemsp. 38
Cost Accounting System Overviewp. 39
Job Order Cost Systems for Manufacturing Businessesp. 40
Materialsp. 41
Factory Laborp. 43
Factory Overhead Costp. 45
Work in Processp. 48
Finished Goods and Cost of Goods Soldp. 50
Salesp. 50
Period Costsp. 51
Summary of Cost Flows for Legend Guitarsp. 51
Job Order Costing for Decision Makingp. 53
Job Order Cost Systems for Professional Service Businessesp. 54
Process Cost Systemsp. 79
Overview of Process Manufacturers and Process Costingp. 80
Comparing Job Order and Process Cost Systemsp. 81
Cost Flows for a Process Manufacturerp. 83
The First-In, First-Out (FIFO) Methodp. 84
Determine the Units to Be Assigned Costsp. 85
Compute Equivalent Units of Productionp. 86
Determine the Cost per Equivalent Unitp. 89
Allocate Costs to Transferred and Partially Completed Unitsp. 90
Bringing It All Together: The Cost of Production Reportp. 92
Journal Entries for a Process Cost Systemp. 94
Using the Cost of Production Report for Decision Makingp. 96
Just-in-Time Processingp. 97
Average Cost Methodp. 100
Determining Cost Under the Average Cost Methodp. 100
The Cost of Production Reportp. 101
Cost Behavior and Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 127
Cost Behaviorp. 128
Variable Costsp. 129
Fixed Costsp. 130
Mixed Costsp. 130
Summary of Cost Behavior Conceptsp. 133
Cost-Volume-Profit Relationshipsp. 134
Contribution Margin Conceptp. 134
Unit Contribution Marginp. 135
Mathematical Approach to Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 136
Break-Even Pointp. 136
Target Profitp. 140
Graphic Approach to Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 141
Cost-Volume-Profit (Break-Even) Chartp. 141
Profit-Volume Chartp. 143
Use of Computers in Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 144
Assumptions of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysisp. 144
Special Cost-Volume-Profit Relationshipsp. 145
Sales Mix Considerationsp. 146
Operating Leveragep. 147
Margin of Safetyp. 148
Variable Costing for Management Analysisp. 171
The Income Statement Under Variable Costing and Absorption Costingp. 172
Income from Operations When Units Manufactured Equal Units Soldp. 174
Income from Operations When Units Manufactured Exceed Units Soldp. 174
Income from Operations When Units Manufactured Are Less than Units Soldp. 174
Comparing Income from Operations Under the Two Conceptsp. 177
Income Analysis Under Variable Costing and Absorption Costingp. 177
Management's Use of Variable Costing and Absorption Costingp. 180
Controlling Costsp. 180
Pricing Productsp. 181
Planning Productionp. 182
Analyzing Contribution Marginsp. 182
Analyzing Market Segmentsp. 182
Variable Costing in Analyzing Market Segmentsp. 182
Sales Territory Profitability Analysisp. 183
Product Profitability Analysisp. 184
Salesperson Profitability Analysisp. 185
Contribution Margin Analysisp. 187
Variable Costing for Service Firmsp. 189
Variable Costing Income Statement-Service Firmp. 189
Market Segment Analysis-Service Firmp. 190
Contribution Margin Analysisp. 191
Budgetingp. 213
Nature and Objectives of Budgetingp. 220
Objectives of Budgetingp. 220
Human Behavior and Budgetingp. 222
Budgeting Systemsp. 224
Static Budgetp. 225
Flexible Budgetp. 226
Computerized Budgeting Systemsp. 227
Master Budgetp. 228
Income Statement Budgetsp. 229
Sales Budgetp. 229
Production Budgetp. 229
Direct Materials Purchases Budgetp. 230
Direct Labor Cost Budgetp. 231
Factory Overhead Cost Budgetp. 232
Cost of Goods Sold Budgetp. 233
Selling and Administrative Expenses Budgetp. 234
Budgeted Income Statementp. 235
Balance Sheet Budgetsp. 235
Cash Budgetp. 235
Capital Expenditures Budgetp. 238
Budgeted Balance Sheetp. 239
Performance Evaluation Using Variances from Standard Costsp. 285
Standardsp. 266
Setting Standardsp. 266
Types of Standardsp. 267
Reviewing and Revising Standardsp. 267
Budgetary Performance Evaluationp. 269
Direct Materials and Direct Labor Variancesp. 271
Direct Materials Variancesp. 271
Direct Labor Variancesp. 273
Factory Overhead Variancesp. 275
The Factory Overhead Flexible Budgetp. 275
Variable Factory Overhead Controllable Variancep. 276
Fixed Factory Overhead Volume Variancep. 277
Reporting Factory Overhead Variancesp. 279
Factory Overhead Variances and the Factory Overhead Accountp. 279
Recording and Reporting Variances from Standardsp. 280
Nonfinancial Performance Measuresp. 283
Comprehensive Problemp. 300
Performance Evaluation for Decentralized Operationsp. 307
Centralized and Decentralized Operationsp. 308
Advantages of Decentralizationp. 308
Disadvantages of Decentralizationp. 309
Responsibility Accountingp. 309
Responsibility Accounting for Cost Centersp. 310
Responsibility Accounting for Profit Centersp. 312
Service Department Chargesp. 312
Profit Center Reportingp. 314
Responsibility Accounting for Investment Centersp. 316
Rate of Return on Investmentp. 317
Residual Incomep. 320
The Balanced Scorecardp. 321
Transfer Pricingp. 323
Market Price Approachp. 323
Negotiated Price Approachp. 324
Cost Price Approachp. 326
Differential Analysis and Product Pricingp. 349
Differential Analysisp. 350
Lease or Sellp. 351
Discontinue a Segment or Productp. 353
Make or Buyp. 355
Replace Equipmentp. 356
Process or Sellp. 358
Accept Business at a Special Pricep. 359
Setting Normal Product Selling Pricesp. 360
Total Cost Conceptp. 361
Product Cost Conceptp. 363
Variable Cost Conceptp. 364
Choosing a Cost-Plus Approach Cost Conceptp. 365
Activity-Based Costingp. 365
Target Costingp. 365
Product Profitability and Pricing Under Production Bottlenecksp. 366
Product Profitability Under Production Bottlenecksp. 366
Product Pricing Under Production Bottlenecksp. 368
Capital Investment Analysisp. 389
Nature of Capital Investment Analysisp. 390
Methods of Evaluating Capital Investment Proposalsp. 391
Methods that Ignore Present Valuep. 391
Present Value Methodsp. 394
Factors that Complicate Capital Investment Analysisp. 401
Income Taxp. 401
Unequal Proposal Livesp. 401
Lease versus Capital Investmentp. 402
Uncertaintyp. 403
Changes in Price Levelsp. 403
Qualitative Considerationsp. 403
Capital Rationingp. 404
Cost Allocation and Activity-Based Costingp. 425
Product Costing Allocation Methodsp. 426
Single Plantwide Factory Overhead Rate Methodp. 427
Multiple Production Department Factory Overhead Rate Methodp. 429
Production Department Factory Overhead Rates and Allocationp. 430
Distortion in Product Costs-Single Plantwide versus Multiple Production Department Factory Overhead Ratesp. 432
Activity-Based Costing Methodp. 434
Activity Rates and Allocationp. 435
Distortion in Product Costs-Multiple Production Department Factory Overhead Rate Method versus Activity-Based Costingp. 437
The Dangers of Product Cost Distortionp. 438
Activity-Based Costing for Selling and Administrative Expensesp. 439
Activity-Based Costing in Service Businessesp. 441
Cost Management for Just-in-Time Environmentsp. 472
Just-in-Time Principlesp. 473
Reducing Inventoryp. 473
Reducing Lead Timesp. 474
Reducing Setup Timep. 475
Emphasizing Product-Oriented Layoutp. 478
Emphasizing Employee Involvementp. 478
Emphasizing Pull Manufacturingp. 478
Emphasizing Zero Defectsp. 479
Emphasizing Supply Chain Managementp. 479
Applying a Just-in-Time Approach to Anderson Metal Fabricatorsp. 480
Traditional Operations-AMFp. 480
Just-in-Time Operations-AMFp. 481
Accounting for Just-in-Time Operationsp. 482
Fewer Transactionsp. 483
Combined Accountsp. 483
Nonfinancial Performance Measuresp. 485
Direct Tracing of Overheadp. 485
Just-in-Time for Nonmanufacturing Processesp. 485
Activity Analysisp. 487
Costs of Quality Using Activity Analysisp. 487
The Relationship between the Costs of Qualityp. 488
Pareto Chart of Quality Costsp. 489
Cost of Quality Reportp. 490
Value-Added/Non-Value-Added Activity Analysisp. 491
Activity Analysis for Processesp. 492
Statement of Cash Flowsp. 513
Reporting Cash Flowsp. 514
Cash Flows from Operating Activitiesp. 515
Cash Flows from Investing Activitiesp. 516
Cash Flows from Financing Activitiesp. 517
Noncash Investing and Financing Activitiesp. 517
No Cash Flow per Sharep. 518
Statement of Cash Flows-The Indirect Methodp. 518
Retained Earningsp. 519
Cash Flows from Operating Activities-Indirect Methodp. 519
Cash Flows Used for Payment of Dividendsp. 525
Common Stockp. 525
Bonds Payablep. 526
Buildingp. 526
Landp. 527
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flowsp. 527
Statement of Cash Flows-The Direct Methodp. 528
Cash Received from Customersp. 528
Cash Payments for Merchandisep. 530
Cash Payments for Operating Expensesp. 531
Gain on Sale of Landp. 532
Interest Expensep. 532
Cash Payments for Income Taxesp. 532
Reporting Cash Flows from Operating Activities-Direct Methodp. 532
Financial Analysis and Interpretationp. 534
Spreadsheet (Work Sheet) for Statement of Cash Flows-The Indirect Methodp. 534
Analyzing Accountsp. 535
Retained Earningsp. 535
Other Accountsp. 536
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flowsp. 537
Financial Statement Analysisp. 563
Basic Analytical Proceduresp. 564
Horizontal Analysisp. 564
Vertical Analysisp. 567
Common-Size Statementsp. 569
Other Analytical Measuresp. 569
Solvency Analysisp. 570
Current Position Analysisp. 570
Accounts Receivable Analysisp. 572
Inventory Analysisp. 574
Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilitiesp. 575
Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders' Equityp. 576
Number of Times Interest Charges Earnedp. 576
Profitability Analysisp. 577
Ratio of Net Sales to Assetsp. 577
Rate Earned on Total Assetsp. 578
Rate Earned on Stockholders' Equityp. 579
Rate Earned on Common Stockholders' Equityp. 580
Earnings per Share on Common Stockp. 581
Price-Earnings Ratiop. 581
Dividends per Share and Dividend Yieldp. 582
Summary of Analytical Measuresp. 583
Corporate Annual Reportsp. 585
Management Discussion and Analysisp. 585
Report on Adequacy of Internal Controlp. 585
Report on Fairness of Financial Statementsp. 586
Interest Tablesp. A-2
The Williams-Sonoma, Inc., 2005 Annual Reportp. B-1
Glossaryp. G-1
Subject Indexp. 1-1
Company Indexp. 1-9
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