Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2008-03-31
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach, 2/e by Palmer, Dunford and Akin, provides managers with an awareness of the issues involved in managing change, moving them beyond "one-best way" approaches and providing them with access to multiple perspectives that they can draw upon in order to enhance their success in producing organizational change. These multiple perspectives provide a theme for the text as well as a framework for the way each chapter outlines different options open to managers in helping them to identify, in a reflective way, the actions and choices open to them. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Introduction: Stories of Changep. 1
Stories of Changep. 2
A Hewlett-Packard Change Story: Managing a Mergerp. 2
An IBM Change Story: Transformational Change from Below and Abovep. 3
A Kodak Change Story: Provoking Reactionsp. 5
A McDonald's Change Story: Responding to Pressurep. 6
Drawing out the Change Issues and Where They Are Found in the Chapters That Followp. 8
Images of Managing Change...Chapter Twop. 8
Why Organizations Change...Chapter Threep. 10
What Changes in Organizations... Chapter Fourp. 11
Diagnosis for Change...Chapter Fivep. 11
Resistance to Change...Chapter Sixp. 11
Implementing Change...Chapters Seven and Eightp. 12
Linking Vision and Change... Chapter Ninep. 12
Strategies and Skills for Communicating Change...Chapters Ten and Elevenp. 13
Consolidating Change...Chapter Twelvep. 13
Bringing It All Together: A Roadmap of the Bookp. 14
A Note on Chapter Formatsp. 16
Conclusionp. 16
Bibliographyp. 17
Notesp. 20
Images of Managing Changep. 23
Images of Managing Change: Where They Come Fromp. 24
Images of Managingp. 24
Images of Change Outcomesp. 25
Six Images of Managing Changep. 26
Change Manager as Directorp. 27
Change Manager as Navigatorp. 27
Change Manager as Caretakerp. 28
Change Manager as Coachp. 30
Change Manager as Interpreterp. 31
Change Manager as Nurturerp. 32
Using the Six-Images Frameworkp. 34
Three Key Uses of the Six-Images Frameworkp. 35
Conclusionp. 38
Supplemental Readingp. 39
Case Study: Green Mountain Resort (Dis)solves the Turnover Problemp. 40
Bibliographyp. 42
Notesp. 46
Why Organizations Changep. 49
Environmental Pressures for Changep. 50
Fashion Pressuresp. 52
Mandated Pressuresp. 53
Geopolitical Pressuresp. 55
Market Decline Pressuresp. 56
Hypercompetition Pressuresp. 57
Reputation and Credibility Pressuresp. 59
Why Organizations May Not Change in the Face of External Environmental Pressuresp. 60
Organizational Learning versus Threat-Rigidityp. 61
Environment as Objective Entity versus Environment as Cognitive Constructionp. 62
Forces for Change versus Forces for Stabilityp. 63
Bridging (Adapting) versus Buffering (Shielding)p. 63
Organizational Pressures for Changep. 65
Growth Pressuresp. 65
Integration and Collaboration Pressuresp. 66
Identity Pressuresp. 67
New Broom Pressuresp. 67
Power and Political Pressuresp. 69
Conclusionp. 70
Supplemental Readingp. 71
Case Study: Chipping Away at Intelp. 72
Bibliographyp. 74
Notesp. 80
What Changes in Organizationsp. 85
Types of Changesp. 86
Distinguishing between First-Order and Second-Order Changesp. 86
First-Order, Adaptive Changesp. 87
Second-Order, Transformational Changep. 89
Beyond Either First-Order or Second-Order Changep. 93
Rethinking Linear, Equilibrium Assumptions about Changep. 96
Implications for Change Managersp. 97
Types of Changes: Lessons from the Front Linep. 99
Downsizingp. 99
Technological Changep. 101
Mergers and Acquisitionsp. 103
Revisiting Downsizing, Technological Change, and Mergers and Acquisitions: How Fast?p. 106
Conclusionp. 107
Supplemental Readingp. 108
Case Study: Nestlep. 109
Bibliographyp. 110
Notesp. 115
Diagnosis for Changep. 121
Models: Why Bother?p. 122
Modeling Organizationsp. 123
The Six-Box Organizational Modelp. 123
The 7-S Frameworkp. 124
The Star Modelp. 124
The Congruence Modelp. 126
The Burke-Litwin Modelp. 128
The Four-Frame Modelp. 128
Diagnosis by Imagep. 130
Component Analysisp. 130
The PESTEL Frameworkp. 130
Scenario Analysisp. 131
Gap Analysisp. 132
The Elements of Strategyp. 132
The Strategic Inventoryp. 133
Newsflash Exercisep. 135
Cultural Webp. 135
Structural Dilemmasp. 140
The Boundaryless Organizationp. 140
Diagnosing Readiness to Changep. 141
Stakeholder Analysisp. 146
Force-Field Analysisp. 151
Conclusionp. 152
Supplemental Readingp. 152
Case Study: Boeingp. 153
Bibliographyp. 155
Notesp. 157
Resistance to Changep. 159
Support for Changep. 159
Signs of Resistance to Changep. 161
Why Do People Resist Change?p. 162
Dislike of Changep. 162
Discomfort with Uncertaintyp. 163
Perceived Negative Effect on Interestsp. 163
Attachment to the Established Organizational Culture/Identityp. 163
Perceived Breach of Psychological Contractp. 165
Lack of Conviction That Change Is Neededp. 165
Lack of Clarity as to What Is Expectedp. 165
Belief That the Specific Change Being Proposed Is Inappropriatep. 165
Belief That the Timing Is Wrongp. 166
Excessive Changep. 166
Cumulative Effect of Other Changes in One's Lifep. 166
Perceived Clash with Ethicsp. 166
Reaction to the Experience of Previous Changesp. 167
Disagreement with the Way the Change Is Being Managedp. 168
Managers as Change Resistorsp. 169
Managing Resistancep. 172
A "Situational" Approachp. 172
The Resistance Cycle, aka "Let Nature Take Its Course"p. 172
"Creative Counters" to Expressions of Resistancep. 174
Thought Self-Leadershipp. 174
Tinkering, Kludging, and Pacingp. 176
The "Power of Resistance"p. 177
Conclusionp. 181
Supplemental Readingp. 182
Case Study: Problems at Perrierp. 183
Bibliographyp. 184
Notesp. 188
Implementing Change: Organization Development, Appreciative Inquiry, Positive Organizational Scholarship, and Sense-Making Approachesp. 191
Coach Image of Implementing Change: The Organization Development (OD), Appreciative Inquiry (AI), and Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) Approachesp. 192
Traditional OD Approach: Fundamental Valuesp. 192
The OD Practitionerp. 194
Criticisms of ODp. 195
Current Relevance of OD's Traditional Valuesp. 196
Are OD Values Universal?p. 197
Engaging in Large-Scale Changep. 198
Appreciative Inquiry: From Problem Solving to (Building on) What Works Wellp. 199
The Emergence of Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS)p. 202
Interpreter Image of Implementing Change: Sense-Making Approachesp. 204
Conclusionp. 209
Supplemental Readingp. 210
Case Study: Change at DuPontp. 211
Bibliographyp. 213
Notesp. 216
Implementing Change: Change Management, Contingency, and Processual Approachesp. 219
Director Image of Managing Change: Change Management and Contingency Approachesp. 220
Change Management Approachesp. 220
Is Change Management Supplanting OD?p. 224
OD-Change Management Debatesp. 227
Contingency Approachesp. 229
Why Contingency Approaches Are Not Dominantp. 232
Navigator Images of Managing Change: Processual Approachesp. 233
What Does Managing Change Mean from a Processual Approach?p. 234
Conclusionp. 236
Supplemental Readingp. 237
Case Study: The British Airways Swipe Card Debaclep. 239
Bibliographyp. 241
Notesp. 245
Linking Vision and Changep. 249
Content of Meaningful Visionsp. 253
Vision Attributesp. 253
Beyond Bumper Sticker Visions? Visions as Storiesp. 257
Relationship of Vision to Mission and Goalsp. 258
Relationship of Vision to Market Strategyp. 258
How Context Affects Visionp. 259
Processes by Which Visions Emergep. 260
Crafting the Visionp. 260
Questions That Help to Develop a Visionp. 261
Connecting the Vision to the Organization's Inner Voicep. 265
When Visions Failp. 265
Adaptability of the Vision over Timep. 266
Presence of Competing Visionsp. 268
Linking Vision to Change: Three Debatesp. 268
Does Vision Drive Change or Emerge during Change?p. 269
Does Vision Help or Hinder Change?p. 270
Is Vision an Attribute of Heroic Leaders or of Heroic Organizations?p. 273
Conclusionp. 277
Supplemental Readingp. 279
Case Study: Role of Vision at Mentor Graphicsp. 280
Bibliographyp. 281
Notesp. 285
Strategies for Communicating Changep. 291
The Communication Processp. 292
Modeling the Communication Processp. 292
Influence of Language, Power, Gender, and Emotionp. 295
Strategies for Communicating Changep. 299
Can You Communicate Too Much?p. 299
Getting the Word out or Getting Buy-in?p. 301
Beyond Spray and Prayp. 304
Contingency Approaches to Communication Strategiesp. 305
Communication Mediap. 308
Media Richnessp. 308
Who Is Responsible for Communicating the Change?p. 310
Tag Teamsp. 310
Conclusionp. 312
Supplemental Readingp. 313
Case Study: Cheryl Ways and Agilent Technology's Layoffsp. 314
Bibliographyp. 316
Notesp. 319
Skills for Communicating Changep. 323
Communication Skills for Engaging Others in the Change Processp. 326
Listening as a Communication Skillp. 326
Telling Storiesp. 327
Selling Change Upwardp. 328
Toxic Handlersp. 330
Change Conversation Skillsp. 331
Talking in Stagesp. 331
Talking Coherentlyp. 333
Aligning Your Language with the Desired Changep. 334
Creating a Common Change Languagep. 336
Communicating Change with the Outside Worldp. 339
Selling Internal Changes to External Stakeholdersp. 339
Crisis Management and Corporate Reputationp. 340
Conclusionp. 343
Supplemental Readingp. 344
Case Study: Tycop. 345
Bibliographyp. 347
Notesp. 349
Sustaining Changep. 355
Sustained Change: What Are Its Signs?p. 355
Actions to Sustain Changep. 359
Redesign Rolesp. 360
Redesign Reward Systemp. 360
Link Selection Decisions to Change Objectivesp. 360
Act Consistently with Advocated Actionsp. 360
Encourage "Voluntary Acts of Initiative"p. 362
Measure Progressp. 363
Celebrate "En Route"p. 365
Fine-Tunep. 366
Some Words of Cautionp. 367
Expect Some Unanticipated Outcomesp. 367
Be Alert to Measurement Limitationsp. 368
Don't "Declare Victory" Too Soonp. 368
Beware Escalation of Commitmentp. 369
Recognize "Productive Failure"p. 370
Conclusionp. 373
Supplemental Readingp. 374
Case Study: The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disastersp. 375
Bibliographyp. 379
Notesp. 382
Indexp. 385
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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Customer Reviews

Dynamic Environments December 25, 2014
require dynamic players. This book is useful for seeing from a different perspective the changes that I have seen in the industry first hand (big telco.) It will probably be required reading for most people in HR.
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Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach: 5 out of 5 stars based on 1 user reviews.

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