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9780804746847

The Manchu Way

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780804746847

  • ISBN10:

    0804746842

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-07-01
  • Publisher: Stanford Univ Pr

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Summary

In 1644, the Manchus, a relatively unknown people inhabiting China's rude northeastern frontier, overthrew the Ming, Asia's mightiest rulers, and established the Qing dynasty, which endured to 1912. From this event arises one of Chinese history's great conundrums: How did a barely literate alien people manage to remain in power for nearly 300 years over a highly cultured population that was vastly superior in number? This problem has fascinated scholars for almost a century, but until now no one has approached the question from the Manchu point of view. This book, the first in any language to be based mainly on Manchu documents, supplies a radically new perspective on the formative period of the modern Chinese nation. Drawing on recent critical notions of ethnicity, the author explores the evolution of the "Eight Banners," a unique Manchu system of social and military organization that was instrumental in the conquest of the Ming. The author argues that as rulers of China the Manchu conquerors had to behave like Confucian monarchs, but that as a non-Han minority they faced other, more complex considerations as well. Their power derived not only from the acceptance of orthodox Chinese notions of legitimacy, but also, the author suggests, from Manchu "ethnic sovereignty," which depended on the sustained coherence of the conquerors. When, in the early 1700s, this coherence was threatened by rapid acculturation and the prospective loss of Manchu distinctiveness, the Qing court, always insecure, desperately urged its minions to uphold the traditions of an idealized "Manchu Way." However, the author shows that it was not this appeal but rather the articulation of a broader identity grounded in the realities of Eight Banner life that succeeded in preserving Manchu ethnicity, and the Qing dynasty along with it, into the twentieth century.

Author Biography

Mark C. Elliott is Professor of Chinese and Inner Asian History at Harvard University.

Table of Contents

List of Maps and Figures
xi
List of Tables
xii
Preface xiii
Note on Transcription and Other Conventions xxii
Qing Reign Periods xxiii
Introduction. The Problem with the Manchus 1(1)
Ethnic Sovereignty and Pax Manjurica
2(6)
The ``Manchu Way,''
8(5)
Manchu or Bannerman?
13(3)
Thinking Again about Ethnicity in Late Imperial China
16(4)
``Barharians'' and ``Chinese'': Competing Views of the Manchus in History
20(6)
Sinicization and the Manchus
26(6)
New Narratives
32(7)
PART ONE Structures of Eight Banner Society
The Eight Banners and the Origins of the Manchus
39(50)
What Was the Eight Banners?
39(3)
Myths of Manchu Origins
42(5)
Who Were the Jurchens?
47(5)
The Jianzhou Ascendancy
52(4)
Roots of Power: The Formation of the Eight Banners
56(7)
Roots of Identity: The Banners and the Manchu Nation Under Hong Taiji
63(9)
The Mongol and Chinese Banners
72(6)
Hierarchies of Ethnicity and Status in the Banners
78(11)
Manchu Cities: Tigers on the Mountain
89(44)
Garrisons Before the Conquest
90(3)
Outline of the Qing Occupation
93(5)
Manchu Apartheid and the Division of Beijing
98(7)
Manchu Cities in the Provinces
105(11)
Close Quarters
116(6)
The Idea of Occupation
122(6)
Garrison Dyarchy
128(5)
The Emperor's Men
133(42)
The Nature of the Banner Bureaucracy
134(4)
The Garrison General
138(8)
The Garrison Lieutenant General and Other Staff
146(6)
Relations with the Civil Bureaucracy
152(4)
Bannermen to the Rescue
156(4)
Rage and Praise: Letters to the Emperor
160(4)
Banner Administration and the Manchu Nation
164(11)
PART TWO Patterns of Banner Life
The Iron Rice Bowl of Banner Privilege
175(35)
At the Training Ground
175(7)
From Chase to Campaign
182(9)
Eating the Emperor's Rice
191(6)
A Privileged People
197(13)
Among the Nikan
210(24)
The Manchu-Han ``Family,''
212(4)
Family Quarrels
216(3)
Ethnic Transactions
219(6)
Mediating Between Manchu and Han
225(2)
Master and Slave
227(3)
Ethnic Tension and Coexistence
230(4)
Resident Aliens
234(41)
Manchu Shamanism
235(6)
Manchu Names and Naming Practices
241(5)
The Place of Manchu Women
246(9)
Dimensions of the Manchu Diaspora
255(2)
No Place Like Home
257(6)
Matters of Life and Death
263(5)
Resident Aliens
268(7)
PART THREE The Crises of the Eighteenth Century
Whither the Manchu Way?
275(30)
Acculturation and the Manchu Way
276(8)
Living the Good Life
284(6)
The ``National'' Language
290(4)
Slip of the Tongue
294(5)
Language and Identity
299(6)
Saving the Banner System
305(40)
The Costs of the Banner System
306(7)
The Ways of Poverty
313(9)
Secondary Status in the Banners
322(4)
Genealogy and the Reforms of Banner Household Registration
326(3)
Mutable Identities
329(4)
Poor Relations: The Eight Banner Chinese
333(4)
Sacrificing the Chinese Bannermen
337(5)
Bannerman and Manchu
342(3)
Conclusion. Manchu Identity and Manchu Rule in China 345(18)
How Did They Do It?
346(9)
What Did It Matter?
355(8)
Appendix A. Note on the Size of the Eight Banner Population 363(2)
Appendix B. Ranks in the Eight Banners 365(4)
Appendix C. Foundation and Expansion of Provincial Garrisons 369(4)
Notes 373(132)
Chinese Character Glossary 505(6)
References 511(40)
Index 551

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