Manufacturing Process and Equipment

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-08-09
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Manufacturing Processes and Equipment describes and explains existing production processes and machinery using powerful analytical tools of machine science, and applies them to the solution of manufacturing problems.

Author Biography

George Tlusty is a Graduate Research Professor at the University of Florida where he is Director of the Machine Tool Research Center.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Acknowledgmentsp. xxii
Background Mattersp. 1
Manufacturing Managementp. 3
Mechanical Productionp. 3
Industrial and Production Engineeringp. 12
Industrial Engineering: Production Planning and Controlp. 14
Group Technologyp. 20
Process Planning: Computer-Aided Process Planningp. 24
Manufacturing Resources Planningp. 33
Production Scheduling, Monitoring, and Controlp. 37
Just in Timep. 38
Conclusionp. 41
Referencesp. 42
Questionsp. 43
Engineering Materials and Their Propertiesp. 45
Introductionp. 45
Mechanical Propertiesp. 46
The Tensile Testp. 46
Hardness Testingp. 50
Notched Bar Impact Testsp. 51
High Temperature Testsp. 52
Fatigue Testingp. 52
Structures and Transformations in Metals and Alloysp. 53
Crystal Structuresp. 53
Crystal Imperfections: Dislocationsp. 54
Grain Boundaries and Deformationp. 56
Alloys: Phase Diagramsp. 56
Generalp. 56
The Fe-C Phase Diagramp. 60
Heat Treatment of Metalsp. 63
Allotropic Metals: Steelsp. 63
Phase Diagram for Al Alloys: Precipitation Hardeningp. 67
Solid Solution Treatmentp. 69
Summarizing Methods of Strengthening Metalsp. 70
Engineering Metalsp. 71
Steelsp. 71
Cast Ironsp. 76
Aluminum Alloys and Magnesium Alloysp. 78
Copper, Nickel, Zinc, and Their Alloysp. 80
Titanium Alloysp. 82
Superalloysp. 83
Refractory Metalsp. 84
Plasticsp. 85
Polymerization Methods, Bonding, and Structuresp. 86
Additivesp. 88
Thermoplasticsp. 89
Thermosetsp. 90
Elastomersp. 92
Special Applications of Polymersp. 92
Ceramicsp. 96
Composite Materialsp. 99
Referencesp. 102
Questionsp. 103
Primary Metalworkingp. 105
Introduction: Iron and Steel Industriesp. 105
Blast Furnace Operationsp. 111
Design of the Furnace: Inputs and Outputsp. 111
Chemistry of the Blast Furnace Reactions
Steel-Making Furnace Operationsp. 119
The Open-Hearth (OH) Processp. 119
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF)p. 122
Electric Furnacesp. 124
Summary of Steel Productionp. 126
Ingots: Continuous Casting of Slabsp. 127
Hot Forming: Open-Die Forging and Rollingp. 130
Primary Hot Rollingp. 131
Rolling Mill Configurationsp. 134
Hot Forming of Tubes and Pipesp. 139
Cold Rolling of Sheet Metalp. 142
Castingp. 142
Expendable Mold Processesp. 146
Permanent-Mold Castingp. 152
Casting Materialsp. 156
Aluminum: Manufacture, Use, and Processingp. 157
Manufacture and Usep. 157
Processingp. 160
Other Metalsp. 164
Powder Metallurgyp. 165
The Powderp. 166
Compactingp. 167
Sinteringp. 168
Referencesp. 171
Questionsp. 172
Traditional Processesp. 175
Metal Forming Technologyp. 177
General Operating Conditions, Machines, and Toolsp. 177
Hot Formingp. 178
Cold Work and Anneal Cyclep. 181
Basic Machines for Metal Formingp. 185
Forgingp. 201
Open-Die Forging (ODF)p. 201
Roll Forgingp. 204
Closed-Die Forging (CDF)p. 205
Hot and Cold Upsettingp. 209
Extrusionp. 215
Forgeability of Metalsp. 217
Sheet Metal Formingp. 218
Basic Operations and Pressesp. 218
Automation of Pressworkp. 223
Press Brake Workp. 229
Cold Roll Formingp. 230
Formability of Sheet Metalsp. 232
Numerical Control (NC) in Metal Formingp. 236
Numerically Controlled (NC) Bending on a Press Brakep. 236
NC Turret Punch Pressesp. 237
Referencesp. 240
Questionsp. 241
Metal Forming Mechanicsp. 242
Elementary Conceptsp. 242
The Stress-Strain Diagramp. 243
Stress in Three Dimensionsp. 246
Yielding: Plastic Deformationp. 249
Special Cases of Yieldingp. 251
Bulk Forming: Basic Approach--Forces, Pressuresp. 253
Wire Drawing: Work, Force, and Maximum Reduction Without Frictionp. 253
Wire Drawing: Pressure on the Die, and Axisymmetric Yieldingp. 254
Wire Drawing with Frictionp. 255
Extruding a Round Barp. 258
Rolling with Back and Forward Tension: Plane-Strain Yieldingp. 258
Bulk Forming: Effects of Redundant Work and of Frictionp. 260
Nonhomogeneous Deformation: Redundant Workp. 260
The Effect of Friction in Plane Strainp. 266
Effect of Friction in Upsetting a Cylindrical Workpiecep. 273
Summary of the Effect of Friction and Redundant Workp. 280
Force and Neutral Point in Cold Rollingp. 282
Material Failure in Bulk Formingp. 288
Analysis of Plate- and Sheet-Metal Formingp. 290
Simplified Analysisp. 290
Elastic and Plastic Bendingp. 293
Residual Stressesp. 299
Failures and Limitations in Bendingp. 302
Drawing of a Non-Strain-Hardening Materialp. 306
Radial Drawing of a Strain-Hardening Materialp. 308
Chatter in Cold Rollingp. 312
A Simple Rolling Chatter Theoryp. 312
Referencesp. 317
Questionsp. 317
Problemsp. 318
Processing of Polymersp. 324
Introduction: Properties Used in Processingp. 324
Summary of Selected Polymersp. 325
Thermoplasticsp. 330
Thermosetsp. 332
Elastomersp. 332
Thermal Properties: Viscosityp. 333
Newtonian Flow in a Rectangular Channel (Slit)p. 337
Non-Newtonian, Power-Law Flow in a Flat Channelp. 340
Flow in a Tubep. 345
Processing Methods and Operationsp. 347
General Considerationsp. 347
Castingp. 348
Compression (CM) and Transfer Molding (TM)p. 349
Extrusionp. 349
Injection Molding (IM)p. 356
Thermoformingp. 364
Analysis of the Plasticating Screwp. 366
Processing of Polymer-Based Compositesp. 368
Preformsp. 368
Hand Lay-Up and Spray-Up Moldingp. 370
Filament Windingp. 370
Pultrusionp. 374
Referencesp. 375
Questionsp. 375
Problemsp. 376
Cutting Technologyp. 377
Introductionp. 377
Single-Point Tool Operationsp. 378
Metal Removal Rate: Cutting Forcep. 379
The Toolsp. 381
The Machine Toolsp. 386
Drilling and Allied Operationsp. 390
Metal Removal Rate: Force, Torque, and Powerp. 393
Drilling Machinesp. 394
Multipoint Tool Operations: Millingp. 396
Mean Chip Thickness, MRR, and Powerp. 398
Design of Milling Cuttersp. 402
Milling Machinesp. 405
Broachingp. 408
Referencesp. 412
Questionsp. 413
Problemsp. 413
Cutting Mechanicsp. 415
The Cutting Forcep. 416
Chip Generationp. 418
Simplified Formulationsp. 425
Temperature Field in the Chip and in the Toolp. 427
Shear Plane Temperaturep. 427
Computing the Temperature Fieldp. 431
Cutting-Tool Materialsp. 443
High-Speed Steelsp. 447
Sintered Carbidesp. 450
Ceramic Toolsp. 455
Borazon and Polycrystalline Diamondp. 456
Tool Wear: Choice of Cutting Conditions, Machinability of Materialsp. 458
Tool Wearp. 458
Tool Wear Rate and Tool Lifep. 462
Optimizing Cutting Speed and Feed in a Single Cut Operation: Taylor-Type Tool Life Equationp. 465
Optimizing Cutting Speed and Feed in a Single Cut Operation: Tool Life Equation Non-Taylor-Typep. 468
Optimizing Speeds and Feeds for a Multi-Tool Operation: Tool Life Equation of the Taylor Typep. 469
General Conclusions for the Choice of Cutting Speeds and Feedsp. 475
Tool Breakage: Wear and Breakage in Millingp. 477
Breakage in Continuous Cuttingp. 477
Tool Wear and Breakage in Interrupted Cuttingp. 481
Flank Wear in Millingp. 483
Referencesp. 486
Questionsp. 486
Problemsp. 488
Machine Toolsp. 493
Design of Machine Tools: Drives and Structuresp. 495
General Description of Machine-Tool Designp. 495
Specifying the Characteristics of Main Drivesp. 501
Accuracy of Machine Toolsp. 506
Geometric Accuracy: Machine Tool Metrologyp. 507
Weight Deformationsp. 516
Deformations Under Cutting Forcesp. 519
Review of Fundamentals of Mechanical Vibrationsp. 525
Vibrations: Natural, Forced, Self-Excitedp. 525
Harmonic Variablesp. 527
Basics of Vibrations: Transfer Function of a System with a Single Degree of Freedomp. 529
Transfer Functions of a Selected System with Two Degrees of Freedom: Uncoupled Modes in Two Directionsp. 532
Forces and Forced Vibrations in Millingp. 537
Accuracy of End Milling: Straight Teeth, Static Deflectionp. 537
The Dynamics: Forced Vibrations, Straight Teethp. 538
Forced Vibrations and Their Imprint as Error of Location of the Machined Surfacep. 542
Forces on End Mills with Helical Teethp. 548
Errors of Surface Produced by End Mills with Helical Teeth: Static Deflectionsp. 556
Chatter in Metal Cuttingp. 559
General Featuresp. 559
Mechanisms of Self-Excitation in Metal Cuttingp. 560
The Condition for the Limit of Stability of Chatterp. 563
Analyzing Stability of a Boring Barp. 565
Another Way of Deriving the Limit of Stability, Using the Nyquist Criterionp. 568
Time Domain Simulation of Chatter in Turningp. 570
Chatter in Millingp. 575
Designing Machine- Tool Structures for High Stabilityp. 579
Effect of Cutting Conditions on Stabilityp. 586
Case Study: High-Speed Milling (HSM) Machine for Aluminum Aircraft Partsp. 594
High Speed Milling in General: Operations with a Lack of Stiffnessp. 594
Developing HSM Machine for Aluminum Aircraft Partsp. 598
Referencesp. 604
Questionsp. 605
Problemsp. 606
Automationp. 611
Automation of Machine Toolsp. 613
Rigid and Flexible Automationp. 616
Machine Tools with Rigid Automationp. 618
Single-Spindle Automatic Lathesp. 618
Multispindle Automatic Lathesp. 622
Dial-Index Machines and Transfer Linesp. 625
Numerically Controlled Machine Toolsp. 628
Basic Operationp. 628
Adaptive Controlp. 633
Turning Centersp. 634
Machining Centersp. 635
Computerized, Flexible Manufacturing Systemsp. 639
Positional Servomechanism: Reviewp. 647
Characteristics of the Servomotorp. 648
Step Input Response of the Servomotorp. 650
Time-Domain Simulation of the Servomotorp. 653
The Positional Servomechanismp. 654
Step Input Response of the Positional Servop. 656
Time-Domain Simulation of the Positional Servop. 657
Response to a Ramp Input of the Positional Servop. 659
Errors of Two-Dimensional Tool Pathp. 661
Adaptive Control for Constant Force in Millingp. 674
Analysis of Stabilityp. 674
Summary of Analyses of Numerical and Adaptive Controlp. 681
Positional Servo Driving a Spring-Mass Systemp. 681
Two Basic Specifications: MT and ROBp. 681
The Two Basic Alternatives, A and Bp. 682
The "Machine Tool" Case with SMD System in the Feedback Loop: MT/Ap. 683
Flexibility Outside of the Loop: Case MT/Bp. 687
The "Robot" Case with SMD System within the Loop: ROB/Ap. 689
Accelerometric Feedback Applied To the ROB/A Systemp. 691
Feedforward Compensationp. 694
Ideal Servodrivep. 694
Real Servodrivep. 697
Numerical Derivation of the Feedforward Compensationp. 701
Simplified Robot Kinematics and Dynamicsp. 709
Introduction: Types of Robots and Their Usesp. 709
Simplified Kinematicsp. 715
Dynamics of the 2D Polar Casep. 717
Conclusionp. 723
Referencesp. 724
Questionsp. 724
Problemsp. 725
Assembly and Nontraditional Processesp. 733
Assembly: Material Handling and Weldingp. 735
Introductionp. 735
Material Handlingp. 737
Mechanical Joiningp. 743
Assemblyp. 746
Design for Assemblyp. 756
Welding Processesp. 757
Introductionp. 757
Oxyacetylene Weldingp. 762
Arc Welding Processesp. 764
Other Welding Processesp. 775
Control of the Arcp. 784
Melting Ratesp. 784
Self Regulation of the Arc in SMAW and GMAWp. 787
Servo Control in SAWp. 793
Time Domain Simulationp. 799
Heat Transfer in Arc Weldingp. 803
Continuous Field Solution: Thick Plate Formulationp. 803
Gradients: Cooling Ratesp. 809
The 2D Case: The "Thin Plate" Line Heat Source q"p. 810
The Finite Difference Approach: Thin Plate (2D)p. 813
Residual Stresses and Distortionsp. 822
Referencesp. 828
Questionsp. 829
Problemsp. 830
Nontraditional Processesp. 833
Introductionp. 833
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)p. 836
Water Jet Cutting (WJC)p. 838
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)p. 839
Metal Removal Rate: Working Gapp. 841
Chemical Machining (CHM), Photochemical Machining (PCM)p. 853
Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM)p. 859
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)p. 864
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)p. 875
Oxygen Cutting (OC)p. 879
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)p. 881
Electronics Manufacturingp. 882
Additive CNC Manufacturing (Rapid Prototyping)p. 889
Rapid Modelingp. 890
Rapid Toolingp. 897
Conclusionp. 903
Referencesp. 904
Questionsp. 905
Problemsp. 907
Indexp. 909
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


Preface I spent the first half of my professional life as designer and researcher in the machine tool industry in Europe. In 19711 emigrated to Canada and joined the mechanical engineering faculty at McMaster University in the heavily industrial town of Hamilton, Ontario. While my primary theoretical background was in structural dynamics and controls, I also taught elasticity and plasticity, design, analytical methods, and heat transfer. However, my main responsibility was for the required course in Manufacturing Engineering (MfgE).At that time there were a number of very good textbooks in MfgE available. I used Doyle et al.,Manufacturing Processes and Materials for Engineers. It was an excellent comprehensive collection of descriptions of techniques, materials, processes, and machines including wellselected illustrations, accompanied by qualitative judgments. Several other books were similar. However, there was very little analytical development of the subjects and no connection or relationship was established between existing books and the traditional mechanical engineering textbooks on vibrations, controls, heat transfer, etc. On the other hand, those other "machine science" courses contained very little physical interpretation and application material that might help to better understand MfgE. Why should the students learn all of the theory if they were not shown that it was useful or needed in the vast and significant field of manufacturing engineering?MfgE was at that time not scientifically esteemed or well developed, and many of the teachers concentrated their lectures on little more than "shop practice:" Since then the situation has changed: There is now a large academic community engaged in extensive research in MfgE. The profile of the teachers has changed substantially and I am happy to have been heavily involved in that transition. Back then, however, I began to write analytical notes as handouts to complement the textbook in my teaching of the course. At the same time I started to learn about computational approaches to solve many of the problems and included them in my teaching. I continued the practice after moving to the University of Florida in 1984, where I met colleagues who joined me in using these handouts in teaching the MfgE course. I continued developing the material that finally was condensed to become the book presented here.It is important to teach students how to formulate problems in MfgE and to show them how to use all the knowledge gained in the specialty background courses to solve these problems. This belief stems from my experience as an industrial researcher and is also based on the 28 years of teaching the topic, giving homework assignments and exams based on analytical exercises, and finding favorable acceptance by the students. It is not enough to simply include large numbers of ready-made equations with little or no analytical development in otherwise descriptive texts on Mfg processes, as has been done by several authors. If the students do not understand how a formula has been obtained they will not be able to use it. It is necessary to present derivations in some detail and to involve the students in developing the corresponding computer programs. This enables them to creatively use other new theoretical and computational approaches to problems that will challenge them in their future work as production engineers.What is the essence of this book, and in what ways is it novel and different from the others on the market? One-half of its mission is to describe and explain existing production processes and machinery whereas the other half is to show how to use the powerful analytical tools of machine science and apply them to the solution of manufacturing problems to further development of the state of the art. In comparison with other books, there is more emphasis on analytical development and application of engineering theory to MfgE problems. This bo

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