Marketing : Real People, Real Choices

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  • Edition: 5th
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  • Copyright: 2009-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Meet Joe... (in Chapter 13). Director of public relations for BzzAgent, Inc., a word-of-mouth marketing and media firm based in Boston. First job out of school Victim/Witness Advocate for the Massachusetts Parole Board. What I do when I'm not working Ski with my wife; play fantasy sports; struggle to train an incorrigible cat. Don't do this when Interviewing with me Don't say "like" or "ya know." In this book, you will meet a lot of different people-because after all, marketing is about real people who make... cMeet Qode... (in Chapter 2). Qode leverages mobile platforms and allows marketers to deliver the best content to the right person at the right time-with just a cell phone and a bar code. Although widely popular in Asia, Qode is just breaking onto the scene in the United States. All it needs is a well-executed marketing strategy, and it will soon be in the hands of consumers across the nation. From companies like Qode breaking into new markets, to M entrepreneurial ventures like BzzAgent just getting started, to giants like Reebok taking their marketing to the next level to stay on top... it is real choices made by real people that A pave the way. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxiii
Making Marketing Value Decisionsp. 3
Welcome to the World of Marketing: Creating and Delivering Valuep. 3
Real people, real choices: Meet Bill Bieberbach, a Decision Maker at Ron Jon Surf Shop Inc.p. 3
Welcome to a Branded Worldp. 5
Welcome to Brand Youp. 5
The Who and Where of Marketingp. 6
Marketing's Role in the Firm: Working Cross-Functionallyp. 7
Where Do You Fit In? Careers in Marketingp. 7
The Value of Marketingp. 9
Marketing Is About Meeting Needsp. 9
Marketing Is About Creating Utilityp. 10
Marketing Is About Exchange Relationshipsp. 11
When Did Marketing Begin? The Evolution of a Conceptp. 12
The Production Erap. 13
The Selling Erap. 13
The Consumer Erap. 14
The New Era: Make Money and Act Ethicallyp. 14
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 16
Measuring Valuep. 16
What can be Marketed?p. 16
Consumer Goods and Servicesp. 17
Business-to-Business Goods and Servicesp. 17
Not-for-Profit Marketingp. 18
Idea, Place, and People Marketingp. 18
The Marketing of Valuep. 19
Value from the Customer's Perspectivep. 19
Value from the Seller's Perspectivep. 20
Value from Society's Perspectivep. 24
The Dark Side of Marketingp. 25
Marketing as a Processp. 26
Marketing Planningp. 26
Real people, other voices: Advice for Ron Jon Surf Shop Inc.p. 27
Marketing's Tools: The Marketing Mixp. 28
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at Ron Jon Surf Shopp. 30
Chapter Summaryp. 31
Key Termsp. 32
Chapter Reviewp. 32
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 34
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 34
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Virgin Galacticp. 34
Strategic Market Planning: Capturing the Big Picturep. 37
Real people, real choices: Meet Rick Szatkowski, a Decision Maker at NeoMedia Technologiesp. 37
Business Planning: Composing the Big Picturep. 40
The Three Levels of Business Planningp. 41
Strategic Planning: Framing the Picturep. 42
Define the Missionp. 42
Evaluate the Internal and External Environmentp. 43
Set Organizational or SBU Objectivesp. 45
Establish the Business Portfoliop. 46
Develop Growth Strategiesp. 48
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 48
Real people, other voices: Advice for Qodep. 50
Marketing Planning: Selecting the Camera Settingp. 51
Perform a Situation Analysisp. 51
Set Marketing Objectivesp. 51
Develop Marketing Strategiesp. 52
Implement and Control the Marketing Planp. 54
Creating and Working with a Marketing Plan: Snapping the Picturep. 56
Make Your Life Easier!: Use the Marketing Planning Templatep. 57
Operational Planning: Day-to-Day Execution of Marketing Plansp. 57
The Value of a Marketing Culturep. 57
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Qodep. 58
Chapter Summaryp. 60
Key Termsp. 60
Chapter Reviewp. 61
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 62
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 62
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at NeoMedia Technologiesp. 63
Thriving in the Marketing Environment: The World Is Flatp. 65
Real people, real choices: Meet Rick Goings, a Decision Maker at Tupperware Brands Corporationp. 65
Welcome to the New Era of Marketingp. 67
Doing Good: Ethical Behavior in the Marketplacep. 68
Business Ethicsp. 68
Consumerism: People Fighting Backp. 69
Ethics in the Marketing Mixp. 71
Doing it Right: Promoting Social Responsibilityp. 72
Serving the Environmentp. 73
Serving Society: Cause Marketingp. 74
Serving the Community; Promoting Cultural Diversityp. 74
Playing on an International Stage: The Complicated World of Global Marketingp. 75
World Tradep. 75
Making the Decision to Go Globalp. 76
Road Blocks at the Bordersp. 77
The Global Marketing Environmentp. 80
The Economic Environmentp. 80
The Competitive Environmentp. 82
The Technological Environmentp. 84
The Political and Legal Environmentp. 84
The Sociocultural Environmentp. 87
Real people, real choices: Advice for Tupperware Corporationp. 89
Is the World Flat or Not? How "Global" Should a Global Marketing Strategy Be?p. 91
Company-Level Decisions: Choosing a Market-Entry Strategyp. 91
Born-Global Firmsp. 93
Product-Level Decisions: Choosing a Marketing Mix Strategyp. 94
Standardization versus Localizationp. 94
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Tupperwarep. 97
Chapter Summaryp. 98
Key Termsp. 99
Chapter Reviewp. 100
Real people, real choices: exploring the webp. 102
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 102
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at New Balancep. 102
Understanding Consumers' Value Needp. 105
Marketing Research: Gathering, Analyzing, and Using Informationp. 105
Real people, real choices: Meet Cindy Tungate, a Decision Maker at Plan-it Marketingp. 105
Knowledge is Powerp. 107
The Marketing Information Systemp. 107
Marketing Decision Support Systemsp. 111
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 111
Searching for Gold: Data Miningp. 112
What Marketers Can Do with Data Miningp. 112
Steps in the Marketing Research Processp. 113
Define the Research Problemp. 113
Determine the Research Designp. 115
Choose the Method for Collecting Primary Datap. 120
Real people, other voices: Advice for Plan-it Marketingp. 122
Design the Samplep. 128
Collect the Datap. 129
Analyze and Interpret the Datap. 130
Prepare the Research Reportp. 130
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Plan-it Marketingp. 131
Chapter Summaryp. 133
Key Termsp. 133
Chapter Reviewp. 134
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 135
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 136
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Acxiomp. 136
Consumer Behavior: How and Why People Buyp. 139
Real people, real choices: Meet Danny Grossman, a Decision Maker at Wild Planetp. 139
Decisions, Decisionsp. 141
Steps in the Consumer Decision-Making Processp. 141
Extended Problem Solving versus Habitual Decision Makingp. 141
Problem Recognitionp. 143
Information Searchp. 144
Evaluation of Alternativesp. 145
Product Choicep. 145
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 145
Postpurchase Evaluationp. 146
Internal Influences on Consumers' Decisionsp. 147
Perceptionp. 147
Motivationp. 149
Learningp. 150
Attitudesp. 151
Personalityp. 152
Age Groupp. 153
The Family Life Cyclep. 154
Lifestylep. 154
Situational Influences on Consumers' Decisionsp. 155
The Physical Environmentp. 156
Timep. 157
Social Influences on Consumers' Decisionsp. 157
Culturep. 157
Subculturep. 159
Social Classp. 159
Group Membershipp. 160
Real people, other voices: Advice for wild Planetp. 161
Opinion Leadersp. 162
Gender Rolesp. 162
Consumer-to-Consumer E-Commercep. 163
Blogsp. 164
Real people, real choices: How it worked Out at Wild Planetp. 165
Chapter Summaryp. 166
Key Termsp. 167
Chapter Reviewp. 167
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 169
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 169
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Facebook.comp. 170
Business-to-Business Markets: How and Why Organizations Buyp. 173
Real people, real choices: Meet Vicki Holt, a Decision Maker at PPG Industriesp. 173
Business Markets: Buying and Selling When Stakes are Highp. 175
Characteristics That Make a Difference in Business Marketsp. 176
Multiple Buyersp. 177
Number of Customersp. 177
Size of Purchasesp. 177
Geographic Concentrationp. 177
Business-to-Business Demandp. 178
Derived Demandp. 178
Inelastic Demandp. 178
Fluctuating Demandp. 179
Joint Demandp. 179
Types of Business-to-Business Marketsp. 179
Producersp. 180
Resellersp. 180
Organizationsp. 180
North American Industry Classification Systemp. 181
The Nature of Business Buyingp. 182
The Buying Situationp. 182
The Professional Buyerp. 184
The Buying Centerp. 184
Real people, other voices: Advice for PPG Industriesp. 185
The Business Buying Decision Processp. 186
Business-to-Business E-Commercep. 190
Intranets, Extranets, and Private Exchangesp. 191
Security Threatsp. 192
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at PPG Industriesp. 193
Chapter Summaryp. 194
Key Termsp. 194
Chapter Reviewp. 195
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 197
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 197
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Airbusp. 198
Sharpening the Focus: Target Marketing Strategies and Customer Relationship Managementp. 201
Real people, real choices: Meet Que Gaskins, a Decision Maker at Reebokp. 201
Target Marketing Strategy: Selecting and Entering a Marketp. 203
Segmentationp. 203
Segmenting Consumer Marketsp. 204
Segmenting Business-to-Business Marketsp. 216
Targetingp. 216
Evaluating Market Segmentsp. 216
Real people, other voices: Advice for Reebokp. 217
Developing Segment Profilesp. 218
Choosing a Targeting Strategyp. 218
Positioningp. 220
Developing a Positioning Strategyp. 220
Bringing a Product to Life: The Brand Personalityp. 222
Customer Relationship Management: Toward a Segment of Onep. 224
Four Steps in One-to-One Marketingp. 224
CRM: A New Perspective on an Old Problemp. 224
Characteristics of CRMp. 226
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Reebokp. 228
Chapter Summaryp. 229
Key Termsp. 229
Chapter Reviewp. 230
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 231
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 232
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Oraclep. 232
Creating the Value Prepositionp. 235
Creating the Productp. 235
Real people, real choices: Meet Eleni Rossides, a Decision Maker at Black & Deckerp. 235
Build a Better Mousetrap: The Value Propositionp. 237
Layers of the Product Conceptp. 238
The Core Productp. 238
The Actual Productp. 239
The Augmented Productp. 239
Classifying Productsp. 241
Classifying Goods: How Long Does the Product Last?p. 242
Classifying Goods: How Do Consumers Buy the Product? 242 Business-to-Business Productsp. 244
"New and Improved!": The Process of Innovationp. 245
It's Important to Understand How Innovations Workp. 246 Types of
Developing New Productsp. 249
Idea Generationp. 250
Product Concept Development and Screeningp. 251
Marketing Strategy Developmentp. 253
Business Analysisp. 253
Real people, other voices: Advice for Black & Deckerp. 254
Technical Developmentp. 254
Test Marketingp. 255
Commercializationp. 256
Adoption and Diffusion of New Productsp. 256
Stages in Consumer Adoption of a New Productp. 257
The Diffusion of Innovationsp. 260
How Organizational Differences Affect Adoptionp. 263
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at Black & Deckerp. 264
Chapter Summaryp. 266
Key Termsp. 266
Chapter Reviewp. 267
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 268
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 268
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Kodakp. 269
Managing the Productp. 271
Real people, real choices: Meet Angela Daros, a Decision Maker at Grendha Shoes Corporationp. 271
Product Planning: Taking the Next Stepp. 273
Using Product Objectives to Decide on a Product Strategyp. 273
Objectives and Strategies for Individual Productsp. 274
Objectives and Strategies for Multiple Productsp. 275
Quality as a Product Objectivep. 278
Marketing Throughout the Product Life Cyclep. 281
The Introduction Stagep. 282
The Growth Stagep. 282
The Maturity Stagep. 283
The Decline Stagep. 284
Real people, other voices: Advice for Grendha Shoesp. 285
Creating Product Identity: Branding Decisionsp. 286
What's in a Name (or a Symbol)?p. 286
The Importance of Brandingp. 287
Branding Strategiesp. 290
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 291
Creating Product Identity: Packaging and Labeling Decisionsp. 293
Packaging Functionsp. 293
Designing Effective Packagingp. 294
Labeling Regulationsp. 295
Organizing for Effective Product Managementp. 295
Management of Existing Productsp. 295
Organizing for New-Product Developmentp. 296
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at Grendha Shoesp. 297
Chapter Summaryp. 298
Key Termsp. 299
Chapter Reviewp. 299
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 301
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 301
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Sonyp. 302
Services and Other Intangibles: Marketing the Product That Isn't Therep. 305
Real people, real choices: Meet Robyn Eichenholz, a Decision Maker at Universal Orlandop. 305
Marketing What Isn't Therep. 307
Does Marketing Work for Intangibles?p. 307
What Is a Service?p. 309
Characteristics of Servicesp. 309
Classifying Servicesp. 312
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 312
Core and Augmented Servicesp. 315
Services on the Internetp. 316
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 316
The Service Encounterp. 317
Providing Quality Servicep. 319
Service Quality Attributesp. 319
Measuring Service Qualityp. 320
Strategic Issues in Service Qualityp. 322
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 322
The Future of Servicesp. 323
Real people, other voices: Advice for Universal Orlandop. 324
Marketing People, Places, and Ideasp. 325
Marketing Peoplep. 325
Marketing Placesp. 327
Marketing Ideasp. 327
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Universal Orlandop. 328
Chapter Summaryp. 329
Key Termsp. 330
Chapter Reviewp. 330
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 331
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 332
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at XM Satellite Radiop. 332
Pricing the Productp. 335
Real people, real choices: Meet Danielle Blugrind, a Decision Maker at Taco Bellp. 335
"Yes, But What Does It Cost?"p. 337
Develop Pricing Objectivesp. 338
Sales or Market Share Objectivesp. 338
Profit Objectivesp. 339
Competitive Effect Objectivesp. 339
Customer Satisfaction Objectivesp. 340
Image Enhancement Objectivesp. 340
Estimate Demandp. 340
Demand Curvesp. 340
Price Elasticity of Demandp. 343
Determine Costsp. 345
Types of Costsp. 345
Break-Even Analysisp. 347
Marginal Analysisp. 348
Evaluate the Pricing Environmentp. 349
The Economyp. 350
The Competitionp. 350
Consumer Trendsp. 351
Choose a Pricing Strategyp. 351
Pricing Strategies Based on Costp. 351
Pricing Strategies Based on Demandp. 352
Pricing Strategies Based on the Competitionp. 354
Pricing Strategies Based on Customers' Needsp. 354
New-Product Pricingp. 355
Develop Pricing Tacticsp. 356
Pricing for Individual Productsp. 356
Pricing for Multiple Productsp. 356
Distribution-Based Pricingp. 357
Discounting for Channel Membersp. 357
Pricing and Electronic Commercep. 358
Dynamic Pricing Strategiesp. 359
Auctionsp. 359
Pricing Advantages for Online Shoppersp. 359
Psychological Issues in Pricingp. 360
Buyers' Pricing Expectationsp. 360
Psychological Pricing Strategiesp. 361
Real people, other voices: Advice for Taco Bellp. 362
Legal and Ethical Considerations in Pricingp. 363
Deceptive Pricing Practicesp. 363
Unfair Sales Actsp. 363
Illegal Business-to-Business Price Discriminationp. 364
Price-Fixingp. 364
Predatory Pricingp. 364
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at Taco Bellp. 365
Chapter Summaryp. 366
Key Termsp. 367
Chapter Reviewp. 367
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 369
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 369
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at True Religion Jeansp. 370
Communicating the Value Propositionp. 373
Catching the Buzz: Promotional Strategy and Integrated Marketing Communicationp. 373
Real people, real choices: Meet Vince O'Brien, a Decision Maker at General Motors R*Worksp. 373
Tailoring Marketing Communication to Customersp. 375
The Communication Modelp. 377
Encoding by the Source (the Marketer)p. 377
The Messagep. 378
The Mediump. 378
Decoding by the Receiverp. 379
Noisep. 379
Feedbackp. 379
Marketing Communication Strategy and the Promotion Mixp. 380
Mass Appealsp. 380
Personal Appealsp. 381
Buzz Appealsp. 383
Real people, other voices: Advice for General Motors R*worksp. 383
Integrated Marketing Communicationp. 387
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 387
Characteristics of IMCp. 388
IMC and Database Marketingp. 390
Developing the IMC Planp. 391
Identify the Target Audiencesp. 391
Establish the Communication Objectivesp. 392
Determine and Allocate the Marketing Communication Budgetp. 394
Design the Promotion Mixp. 396
Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Communication Programp. 397
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at General Motors R*Worksp. 398
Chapter Summaryp. 400
Key Termsp. 401
Chapter Reviewp. 401
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 402
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at American Expressp. 403
Advertising, Sales Promotion, and Public Relationsp. 405
Real people, real choices: Meet Joe Chernov, a Decision Maker at BzzAgentp. 405
Advertising: The Image of Marketingp. 407
Types of Advertisingp. 408
Who Creates Advertising?p. 409
Developing the Advertising Campaignp. 411
Identify the Target Audiencep. 411
Establish Message and Budget Objectivesp. 412
Design the Adsp. 412
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 412
Pretest What the Ads Will Sayp. 415
Choose the Media Type(s) and Media Schedulep. 415
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 417
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 419
Evaluate the Advertisingp. 422
Sales Promotionp. 422
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 422
Sales Promotion Directed toward the Tradep. 423
Sales Promotion Directed toward Consumersp. 425
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 425
Public Relationsp. 429
Objectives of Public Relationsp. 430
Real people, real voices: Advice for BzzAgentp. 431
Planning a Public Relations Campaignp. 432
Public Relations Activitiesp. 432
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at BzzAgentp. 436
Chapter Summaryp. 437
Key Termsp. 438
Chapter Reviewp. 438
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 440
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 440
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Amazon.comp. 440
Personal Selling, Sales Management, and Direct Marketingp. 443
Real people, real choices: Meet Esther Ferre, A Decision Maker at IBMp. 443
Advertising is Not the Only Game in Town!p. 445
Personal Sellingp. 445
The Role of Personal Sellingp. 446
Technology and Personal Sellingp. 447
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 448
Types of Sales Jobsp. 448
Approaches to Personal Sellingp. 449
The Creative Selling Processp. 449
Sales Managementp. 453
Setting Sales Force Objectivesp. 453
Creating a Sales Force Strategyp. 453
Recruiting, Training, and Rewarding the Sales Forcep. 454
Real people, other voices: Advice for IBMp. 455
Evaluating the Sales Forcep. 456
Direct Marketingp. 457
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 457
Mail Orderp. 457
Direct-Response Advertisingp. 458
M-Commercep. 459
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at IBMp. 460
Chapter Summaryp. 460
Key Termsp. 461
Chapter Reviewp. 461
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 462
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 462
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Eli Lillyp. 462
Delivering the Value Propositionp. 465
Delivering Value Through Supply Chain Management: Channels of Distribution and Logisticsp. 465
Real people, real choices: Meet Jim Lawrence, a Decision Maker at Darden Restaurantsp. 465
Place: The Final Frontierp. 467
The Value Chainp. 468
Links in the Supply Chainp. 469
The Importance of Distribution: You Can't Sell What Isn't There!p. 471
Functions of Distribution Channelsp. 471
The Internet in the Distribution Channelp. 473
Real people, other voices: Advice for Darden Restaurantsp. 474
Channel Composition: Types of Wholesaling Intermediariesp. 475
Independent Intermediariesp. 475
Manufacturer-Owned Intermediariesp. 478
Types of Distribution Channelsp. 478
Consumer Channelsp. 480
Business-to-Business Channelsp. 481
Dual Distribution Systensp. 481
Hybrid Marketing Systensp. 482
Planning a Channel Strategyp. 482
Develop Distribution Objectivesp. 482
Evaluate Internal and External Environmental Influences 483 Step 3 Choose a Distribution Strategyp. 484
Develop Distribution Tacticsp. 487
Distribution Channels and the Marketing Mixp. 489
Logistics: Implementing the Supply Chainp. 489
The Lowdown on Logisticsp. 490
Logistics Functionsp. 490
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 493
Real people, real choices: How It Worked Out at Darden Restaurantsp. 494
Chapter Summaryp. 495
Key Termsp. 496
Chapter Reviewp. 496
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 497
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 497
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at Procter & Gamblep. 498
Retailing: Bricks and Clicksp. 501
Real people, real choices: Meet Stan Clark, a Decision Maker at Eskimo Joe'sp. 501
Retailing: Special Deliveryp. 503
Retailing: A mixed (Shopping) Bagp. 503
The Evolution of Retailingp. 504
Real people, other voices: Advice for Eskimo Joe'sp. 506
The Evolution Continues; What's "In Store" for the Future?p. 507
From Mom-and-Pop to Super Wal-Mart: Classifying Retail Storesp. 510
Classifying Retailers by What They Sellp. 510
Classifying Retailers by Level of Servicep. 511
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 511
Classifying Retailers by Merchandise Selectionp. 511
Nonstore Retailingp. 516
Direct Sellingp. 516
Automatic Vendingp. 517
B2C E-Commercep. 518
Benefits of B2C E-Commercep. 518
Limitations of B2C E-Commercep. 520
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 521
Measuring value: Marketing Metricsp. 522
B2C's Effect on the Future of Retailingp. 522
Developing a Store Positioning Strategy: Retailing as Theaterp. 522
Store Imagep. 524
Building the Theater: Store Locationp. 527
Real people, real choices: How it Worked Out at Eskimo Joe'sp. 530
Chapter Summaryp. 531
Key Termsp. 531
Chapter Reviewp. 532
Real people, real surfers: exploring the webp. 533
Marketing Plan Exercisep. 534
Marketing in Action Case: Real Choices at IKEAp. 534
Qode in Action: Implementing a Marketing Planp. 537
Sample Marketing Plan: The S&S Smoothie Companyp. 543
Marketing Mathp. 555
Notesp. 565
Glossaryp. 579
Photo Creditsp. 594
Indexp. 595
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