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Marriages and Families : Diversity and Change

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130979568

ISBN10:
0130979562
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $90.67

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Summary

Taking an historical, cross-cultural, and global approach, this book focuses on the link between social structure and the everyday lives of people's diverse experiences of marriages, families, and intimate relationships. It shows how contemporary families go well beyond the traditional, heterosexual, two-parent, white, middle class family and heterosexual legally-sanctioned marriage; challenges the assumption that one culture's way of doing things is the "natural" or "right" way; shows how marriage and family life have changed historically over time and from place to place; and how political and economic globalization impacts families worldwide. Features extensive boxed material accompanied by questions for personal reflection. Marriages and Families Over Time. Ways of Studying and Explaining Marriages and Families. Understanding Gender: Its Influence In Intimate Relationships. The Many Faces of Love. Dating, Coupling, and Mate Selection. Sexuality and Intimate Relationships. Nonmarital Lifestyles. The Marriage Experience. Reproduction and Parenting. Evolving Work and Family Structures. Violence and Abuse. The Process of Uncoupling: Divorce in the United States. Remarriage and Remarried Families. Families in Later Life. Marriages and Families in the Twenty-first Century: U.S. and World Trends. For anyone interested in marriage and family dynamics, including individuals, counselors, nurses, social workers, home economists, etc.

Table of Contents

Boxes xvi
Preface xviii
About the Authors xxiv
Marriages and Families over Time
1(29)
Contemporary Definitions of Marriages and Families
2(2)
What Is Marriage?
2(1)
What Is a Family?
3(1)
Race, Class, and Gender
4(1)
Family Functions and the Debate over Family Values
4(4)
Social Functions of Families
5(1)
Contrasting Views of Families
6(2)
Debunking Myths about Marriages and Families
8(5)
The Universal Nuclear Family
9(1)
The Self-Reliant Traditional Family
9(2)
The Naturalness of Different Spheres for Wives and Husbands
11(1)
The Unstable African American Family
11(1)
The Idealized Nuclear Family of the 1950s
12(1)
Families In Early America
13(6)
Colonial Families
13(2)
African American Families under Slavery
15(2)
Free African American Families
17(1)
Slavery's Hidden Legacy: Racial Mixing
17(1)
Native American Families
18(1)
Families in the Nineteenth Century
19(3)
Emergence of the Good Provider Role
19(1)
The Cult of Domesticity
19(1)
Changing Views of Childhood
19(1)
The Impact of Class and Ethnicity
19(1)
Immigration and Family Life
20(1)
The Economic Roles of Women and Children
20(1)
Ethnic and Racial Family Patterns
20(1)
Mexican American Families
21(1)
Families in the Early Twentieth Century
22(2)
The Emergence of the Companionate Family
22(1)
The Great Depression
22(1)
World War II and Its Aftermath
22(1)
Changing Patterns of Immigration
23(1)
Lessons from History
24(1)
Contemporary Patterns in Marriages and Families
24(1)
Looking Ahead: Marriages and Families in the Future
25(1)
The Sociological Imagination
25(1)
Writing Your Own Script
26(1)
Summary
27(1)
Key Terms
28(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
28(1)
Additional Resources
28(2)
Ways of Studying and Explaining Marriages and Families
30(29)
The Sociology of Marriages and Families
32(1)
Studying Marriages and Families: The Link between Research and Theory
32(2)
Methodological Techniques in the Study of Marriages and Families
34(4)
Surveys
35(1)
Observation
36(1)
Case Studies
36(1)
Ethnography
37(1)
Scientific Methodologies Used by Feminist Researchers
38(1)
A Critical Look at Traditional Research on Marriages and Families
38(4)
A More Inclusive Sociology
39(2)
Contemporary Marriage and Family Scholarship
41(1)
Theoretical Perspectives
42(12)
Structural Functionalism
43(3)
Conflict Theory
46(1)
Symbolic Interactionism
47(1)
Social Constructionism
48(1)
Social-Exchange Theory
49(1)
The Developmental Family Life Cycle Model
50(1)
Feminist Theories and Perspectives
51(3)
Men's Studies and Marriage and Family Research
54(2)
Men in Families
54(2)
Summary
56(1)
Key Terms
57(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
57(1)
Additional Resources
57(2)
Understanding Gender: Its Influence in Intimate Relationships
59(27)
Distinguishing Sex and Gender Roles
61(3)
The Process of Sex Differentiation
61(1)
Gender Differences: The Nature-Nurture Debate
61(3)
Traditional Meanings of Femininity and Masculinity
64(1)
Traditional Gender Roles: Female and Male
64(1)
Gender Variations: Race, Class, and Culture
65(1)
Gender Roles in Transition
65(2)
Theories of Gender Role Socialization
67(4)
Psychoanalytic/Identification Theory
68(1)
Social-Learning Theory
69(1)
Cognitive-Development Theory
70(1)
Enculturated-Lens Theory
70(1)
Agents of Socialization
71(6)
Parents
71(1)
Language
72(1)
Peers
72(1)
Play and Organized Sports
73(1)
Teachers
73(1)
The Mass Media
74(3)
Consequences of Gender Stereotyping
77(6)
Lifestyle Choices
77(1)
Self-Esteem
77(2)
Self-Confidence
79(1)
Mental Health
80(1)
Women, Men, and Friends
81(1)
Patterns of Communication
82(1)
Changing Realities, Changing Roles
83(1)
Key Summary
83(1)
Key Terms
84(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
84(1)
Additional Resources
85(1)
The Many Faces of Love
86(31)
What Is This Thing Called Love?
87(7)
Love as a Social Construction
88(1)
How Does Romantic Love Develop in Contemporary Society?
89(1)
Love in Western Society: A Historical Perspective
89(3)
The Importance of Love
92(2)
How Do People Express Love?
94(2)
Lee's Six Styles of Loving
95(1)
Love versus Friendship, Infatuation, and Liking
96(3)
Close Friendship versus Love
96(3)
Infatuation versus Love
99(1)
Liking versus Love
99(1)
Some Theories of love
99(2)
The Wheel Theory of Love
100(1)
The Theory of Love as a Story
101(3)
Love Stories
101(2)
Love as a Social Exchange
103(1)
Love as Limerence
103(1)
Love Across Gender, Sexuality, and Race
104(5)
Gender Differences in Love Relationships
104(3)
Lesbian and Gay Love Relationships
107(1)
Female-Male Relationships among African Americans
108(1)
Obstacles to Love and Loving Relationships
109(4)
Traditional Gender Role Socialization
109(1)
Patriarchy as an Obstacle to Lesbian Love
109(1)
Lack of Trust
110(1)
Jealousy and Envy
110(3)
Romantic Love Today
113(1)
Summary
114(1)
Key Terms
115(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
115(1)
Additional Resources
116(1)
Dating, Coupling, and Mate Selection
117(36)
Mate Selection in Cross-Cultural and Historical Perspective
119(7)
Mate Selection Cross-Culturally
119(2)
Mate Selection in the United States: A Historical Perspective
121(4)
Functions of Dating: Past and Present
125(1)
The Intersections of Race, Gender, Class, and Sexual Orientation
126(5)
Dating Patterns among African Americans
127(1)
The Impact of Gender
128(1)
The Impact of Social Class on the Dating Process
128(2)
Lesbian and Gay Dating
130(1)
Theories of Mate Selection
131(2)
Exchange Theories
131(2)
Filter Theories
133(1)
Mate Selection: Finding and Meeting Partners
133(7)
The Marriage Market and the Pool of Eligibles
133(1)
Freedom versus Constraint in Mate Selection
134(4)
Other Factors That Affect Mate Selection
138(1)
Personal Qualities and Mate Selection
139(1)
The Life Cycle and Mate Selection
140(1)
Meeting Partners: Where and How
140(6)
School, Church, and Work
141(1)
Singles' Bars and Gay Bars
141(1)
Self-Advertising: Personal Ads
141(1)
Dating Clubs and Dating Services
142(1)
Computer Dating and the Internet
143(1)
Dating in Cyberspace
143(3)
The Future of Dating
146(1)
Violence in Dating and Intimate Relationships
146(3)
Physical Abuse
146(2)
Date and Acquaintance Rape
148(1)
Breaking Up
149(2)
Summary
151(1)
Key Terms
151(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
151(1)
Additional Resources
152(1)
Sexuality and Intimate Relationships
153(47)
Human Sexuality: Past and Present
155(10)
Jewish Traditions and Human Sexuality
156(1)
Christian Traditions and Human Sexuality
157(1)
Sexuality in the United States: An Overview
157(1)
Sexual Attitudes and Behavior in the Twentieth Century and Beyond
158(7)
Sexuality as Social Learning
165(6)
Sources of Sexual Learning
165(6)
Sexual Orientations
171(4)
Heterosexuality
171(1)
Homosexuality
171(4)
Bisexuality
175(1)
The Physiology of Sexuality
175(1)
The Sexual Response Cycle
175(1)
Human Sexual Expression
176(4)
Autoeroticism
176(3)
Interpersonal Sexual Behavior
179(1)
Sexual Expression among Lesbians and Gays
180(1)
Sexuality Across the Life Cycle
180(8)
Nonmarried Sexuality and Pregnancy
180(5)
Marital Sexuality: Does Good Sex Make Good Marriages?
185(1)
Extramarital Sexuality
185(1)
Postmarital Sexuality
186(1)
Sexuality and Aging
186(1)
Women, Aging, and Sexuality
187(1)
Sexual Dysfunctions
188(1)
Sexual Responsibility: Protecting yourself from AIDS and Other STDs
189(8)
AIDS
189(8)
Summary
197(1)
Key Terms
198(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
198(1)
Additional Resources
199(1)
Nonmarital Lifestyles
200(26)
Historical Perspectives
201(3)
Singlehood in Early America
202(1)
Singlehood in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
202(1)
Singlehood Today: Current Demographic Trends
203(1)
Demystifying Singlehood
204(3)
Individual Decision Making
204(1)
The Influence of Social and Economic Forces
204(1)
Types of Singles
205(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Singlehood
206(1)
Single Lifestyles
207(4)
Income
208(1)
Support Networks
209(1)
Life Satisfaction
209(1)
The Never-Married in Later Life
210(1)
Heterosexual Cohabitation
211(7)
Historical Perspectives
211(1)
The Meaning of Cohabitation Today
211(2)
Reasons for Cohabitation
213(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohabitation
215(1)
Cohabitation and the Division of Labor
215(1)
Cohabitation and Marital Stability
215(1)
Cohabitation: International Perspectives
216(1)
Cohabitation and the Law
217(1)
Lesbian end Gay Relationships
218(4)
Methodological Issues
218(1)
Demystifying Lesbian and Gay Relationships
219(1)
Living Together: Domestic Tasks, Finances, and Decision Making
219(1)
The Social and Legal Context of Lesbian and Gay Relationships
219(2)
Life Satisfaction: Elderly Lesbians and Gays
221(1)
Communal Living and Group Marriage
222(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Communal Lifestyle
222(1)
Communes, Shared Housing, and the Future
222(1)
Group Marriages
223(1)
Summary
224(1)
Key Terms
224(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
224(1)
Additional Resources
225(1)
The Marriage Experience
226(36)
Why Do People Marry?
228(2)
Sociological Perspective
230(1)
The Meaning of Marriage
230(6)
Marriage as a Commitment
230(1)
Marriage as a Sacrament
231(1)
Marriage as a Legal Contract
231(1)
Some Legal Aspects of the Marriage Contract
232(4)
Change and Continuity in the Meaning of Marriage
236(8)
Provisions of the Modern Marriage Contract
236(1)
The Marriage Contract Today
237(3)
Marriage Traditions in the United States
240(2)
The Wedding
242(2)
Marriage and Gender
244(1)
``Her'' Marriage
245(1)
``His'' Marriage
245(1)
Transitions and Adjustments to Marriages
245(2)
A Typology of Marital Relationships
246(1)
Heterogamous Marriages
247(6)
Interracial Marriages
247(4)
Interethnic Marriages
251(1)
Interfaith Marriages
252(1)
Marital Satisfaction, Communication, and Conflict Resolution
253(6)
Summary
259(1)
Key Terms
260(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
260(1)
Additional Resources
260(2)
Reproduction and Parenting
262(44)
Historical Overview: Fertility Trends in the United States
263(2)
Current Fertility Patterns
264(1)
To Parent or Not?
265(3)
The Costs of Parenthood
265(1)
The Benefits of Parenthood
266(1)
The Social Pressures to Procreate
266(1)
The Child-Free Option
266(1)
Delayed Parenting
267(1)
Controlling Fertility
268(1)
Reasons for Not Using Contraceptives
269(1)
Abortion
269(2)
Historical Perspectives
270(1)
Race, Class, and Age
270(1)
Public Attitudes toward Abortion
271(1)
Infertility
271(1)
Causes of Infertility
272(1)
Consequences of Infertility
272(1)
Reproduction without Sex: The New Technologies
272(2)
The Choice to Parent
274(1)
Conception
275(2)
Multiple Conception and Births
275(1)
Sex Preference and Selection
276(1)
Pregnancy
277(4)
Prenatal Development and Care
277(1)
Prenatal Problems and Defects
278(3)
Expectant Fathers
281(2)
The Cultural Double Bind
281(2)
Parental Adjustments, Adaptations, and Patterns of Child Rearing
283(20)
Parental Roles
284(3)
Gender Differences in the Experience of Parenthood
287(2)
Styles of Parenting
289(2)
Race and Class
291(7)
Lesbian and Gay Parents
298(1)
Single Parents
299(2)
Teenaged Parents
301(2)
Summary
303(1)
Key Terms
304(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
304(1)
Additional Resources
305(1)
Evolving Work and Family Structures
306(30)
The Transformation of Work and Family Roles
308(2)
Reasons Women Work
309(1)
Work and Family Structures
310(2)
Traditional Nuclear Families
310(1)
The Two-Person Career
311(1)
Dual-Earner Families
311(1)
Commuter Marriages
312(1)
The Impact of Work on Family Relationships
312(6)
Marital Power and Decision Making
313(1)
Marital Happiness
313(1)
Husbands and the Division of Household Labor
314(2)
Child Care
316(2)
Integrating Work and Family Life: Resolving Role Conflict
318(1)
Strategies for Conflict Resolution
318(1)
Inequities in the Workplace: Consequences for Families
318(4)
Occupational Distribution
319(1)
The Race-Gender Gap in Earnings: Good News and Bad News
320(1)
Sexual Harassment
321(1)
The Economic Well-Being of Families
322(8)
An Uncertain Future: The Widening Income Gap
323(1)
Who Are the Poor?
324(1)
Unemployment and Underemployment
324(3)
Homelessness
327(2)
The Welfare Debate
329(1)
Restructuring the Workplace
330(3)
Workplace Changes
331(1)
Family Leave
331(2)
Summary
333(1)
Key Terms
334(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
334(1)
Additional Resources
335(1)
Violence and Abuse
336(39)
The Roots of Family Violence: A Historical Context
338(2)
Violence against Women
338(1)
Violence against Children
339(1)
Violence against the Elderly
339(1)
Violence against Siblings
340(1)
Family Violence and U.S. Culture
340(3)
The Media
341(2)
Myths about Violence and Abuse
343(3)
Physical Assault: The Case of Battered Women
346(6)
What Is Woman Battering?
347(1)
How Prevalent Is Woman Battering?
347(2)
Theories of Spousal or Partner Abuse
349(1)
Why Do Women Remain in Abusive Relationships?
350(2)
Confronting Intimate Violence
352(1)
The Sexual Assault of Women
352(3)
Rape Myths
354(1)
Marital Rape
354(1)
The Criminal Justice Response to Woman Assault
355(3)
Attitudes and Behaviors
357(1)
Have We Made Progress?
358(1)
The Effects of Physical and Sexual Assault on Women
358(1)
Coping and Survival Strategies
358(2)
A Comparative Look at Battered Men
360(2)
Child Assault and Abuse
362(7)
The Physical Assault of Children
363(3)
The Sexual Assault of Children
366(3)
Elder Abuse in the United States
369(1)
What Is Elder Abuse?
369(1)
Who Are the Abused and the Abusers?
370(1)
Sibling Abuse
370(2)
Summary
372(1)
Key Terms
373(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
373(1)
Additional Resources
373(2)
The Process of Uncoupling: Divorce in the United States
375(29)
Historical Perspectives
377(4)
Divorce in Early America
377(1)
Divorce in Nineteenth-Century America
377(2)
Twentieth-Century America: Efforts at Reform
379(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Divorce
379(2)
Who Gets Divorced, and Why?
381(3)
Factors Affecting Marital Stability
381(3)
The Process of Divorce
384(1)
Stages in the Divorce Process
384(1)
The Six Stations of Divorce
384(1)
The Causes of Divorce
385(2)
Societal Factors
385(1)
From the Perspective of Divorced People
386(1)
From the Perspective of Family Therapists
387(1)
The Impact of Divorce on Spouses
387(6)
Common Consequences of Divorce
387(2)
Gender Differences in Divorce
389(4)
Recovering from Divorce
393(1)
The Impact of Divorce on Children
393(5)
Short-Term versus Long-Term Effects
394(1)
Children and Divorce in Other Countries
395(1)
Changing Patterns in Child Custody
395(3)
Reaching Accord: Counseling, Collaborative Law, and Mediation
398(1)
Attempts at Reform: Covenant Marriage
399(1)
Other Forms of Marital Disruption
400(1)
Summary
401(1)
Key Terms
402(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
402(1)
Additional Resources
403(1)
Remarriage and Remarried Families
404(23)
Historical Perspective
406(1)
Cultural Images of Stepfamilies
407(1)
The Process of Remarriage
407(5)
Dating and Courtship Patterns
407(1)
The Decision to Remarry
408(1)
Patterns of Remarriage
409(1)
The Stations of Remarriage
410(2)
Stages in the Development of Remarried Families
412(1)
Remarried Families: Roles, Interactions, and Reactions
412(7)
Children and the Remarriage Service
412(1)
Children in Remarried Families
412(5)
Stepmothers: A Bad Rap?
417(1)
Stepfathers: Polite Strangers?
418(1)
Lesbian and Gay Stepfamilies
419(1)
Ex-Spouses: Do They Fade Away?
419(1)
The Strengths and Benefits of Remarried Families
419(1)
The Quality of the Remarital Relationship
420(4)
Stability in Remarriage
421(3)
Recommendations for Social Policy
424(1)
Clarification of Legal Norms
424(1)
Modification of the Tax Code
424(1)
Education
424(1)
Summary
425(1)
Key Terms
425(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
426(1)
Additional Resources
426(1)
Marriages and Families in Later Life
427(28)
Characteristic of Later-Life Families
428(3)
The Sandwich Generation
429(1)
Diversity in the Family Life Cycle
430(1)
Changing Age Norms
431(1)
The Demographics of Aging: Defining ``Old''
431(3)
Age Categories of the Elderly
431(1)
Gender and Marital Status
432(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Class
433(1)
Poverty among the Elderly
434(1)
Living Arrangement:
434(2)
Housing Patterns
435(1)
Marriages in Later Life
436(3)
Marital Quality and Satisfaction
437(1)
Adjustment to Retirement
437(2)
Intergenerational Relationships
439(3)
Quality of Relationships
440(1)
Patterns of Support
440(2)
Evolving Pattern: of Kinship: Grandparenthood
442(3)
Styles of Grandparenting
442(1)
Benefits and Conflicts
443(1)
Great-Grandparenthood
444(1)
The Child-Free Elderly
445(1)
Sibling Relationships
445(1)
Health and Illness
446(1)
Family Caregiving
446(2)
The Spouse as Caregiver
447(1)
Adult Children as Caregivers
447(1)
The Experience of Widowhood
448(4)
Stages of Widowhood
448(2)
Gender Differences in Widowhood
450(1)
Beyond Widowhood
451(1)
Lesbian and Gay Elderly
451(1)
Implications for Social Policy
452(1)
Summary
453(1)
Key Terms
453(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
453(1)
Additional Resources
454(1)
Marriages and Families in the Twenty First Century: U.S. And World Trends
455(45)
Challenges of a World Economy
457(1)
Inequities in Income and Wealth
458(1)
Health and Health Care
459(9)
Trends in Drug Use and Associated Health Problems
465(1)
Alcohol
466(1)
Addiction and the Family
467(1)
Meeting the Needs of Children: Foster Care and Adoption
468(4)
Problems within the Child Welfare System
468(1)
Characteristics of Adoptive Parents
469(1)
International Adoptions
470(1)
Transracial (Interracial) Adoptions
471(1)
The Challenge of Racism and Ethnic and Religious Discrimination in family Life
472(5)
Racism in the United States
473(3)
Racism in a Global Context
476(1)
Safety and Security: Gangs, Street Violence, and Violence in America's Schools
477(6)
Terrorism and War
483(8)
Terrorism in the United States
484(1)
War
485(4)
A World of Refugees
489(2)
Families Coping with Loss: Dying and Death
491(5)
The Process of Dying
491(1)
The Needs and Tasks of the Dying
491(1)
National Mourning
492(2)
The Right-to-Die Movement
494(2)
Strengthening Marriages and Families: The Ongoing Challenges of Living in a Global World
496(1)
Summary
497(1)
Key Terms
498(1)
Questions for Study and Reflection
498(1)
Additional Resources
499(1)
Appendix A Sexual Dysfunctions and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 500(4)
Appendix B Human Anatomy and Reproduction 504(3)
Appendix C Methods of Abortion 507(1)
Appendix D Methods of Birth Control 508(4)
Glossary 512(7)
References 519(39)
Photo Credits 558(1)
Name Index 559(9)
Subject Index 568

Excerpts

In this fourth edition ofMarriages and Families: Diversity and Change,there is a conscious effort to present a continuity of major issues, concerns, and themes on contemporary marriages, families, and intimate relationships. Our initial resolve when writing the first edition of this textbook has not changed, and it informs this fourth edition as well. The subtitle of this book,Diversity and Change,continues to be the major thematic framework that runs through all 15 chapters and is informed by the scholarship of a wide variety of scholars, most notably scholars of color and feminist scholars in sociology and from across a number of other academic disciplines. The emphasis on diversity helps students to understand that there are many different forms of intimate relationships beyond the traditional heterosexual, two-parent, white, middle-class family and the legally sanctioned heterosexual marriage. As we show throughout this textbook, marriages and families more generally include single-parent families, headed by women or men; lesbian or gay families with or without children and with or without a live-in partner; adoptive and foster families; biracial and multiracial families; cohabiting couples involving heterosexual or homosexual partners; and blended families that emerge following divorce, remarriage, or simply when people bring to a new relationship children from a previous intimate relationship. In this context, we treat marriages and families as social constructs whose meanings have changed over time and from place to place. Consistent with this position, we continue to give high priority to framing our discussions of marriages and families in historical context. Most, if not all, aspects of our lives, are shaped by larger historical circumstances. To be born during a particular historical period is to experience intimacy, marriage, family life, childbearing and child rearing, family decision making, household labor, and marital and family satisfaction (to name a few) in particular ways that are germane to the time, place, and social structure within which we find ourselves. For example, the economic growth and prosperity of the 1950s, a period during which the nuclear family was idealized, encouraged or made possible this particular family structure. During this period both women and men married at early ages, had children within a relatively short interval from the wedding, and generally stayed married until the death of one spouse. For many families, a husband's income was sufficient to support the family. Thus, wives and mothers typically remained at home fulfilling domestic and child-care roles. Although economic conditions have changed, now often requiring multiple wage earners, this 1950s "idealized" image continues to dominate popular discourse on marriages and families. In the 1990s, however, most children were growing up either in single-parent families or in families where both parents worked outside the home. Framing our discussion of marriages and families in historical context not only provides students with knowledge about marriages and families in earlier periods of U.S. history but also enables them to understand and interpret the changes that are occurring around them in marriages and families today. Our objectives in this fourth edition are simple yet significant: to help students recognize and understand the dynamic nature of marriages, families, and intimate relationships; to enable students to recognize, confront, and dispel prominent myths about marriages, families, and intimate relationships; to help students see the interactive relationships of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation; to encourage an informed openness in student attitudes that will empower them to make informed choices and decisions in their own marriage, family, and intimate relationships; to enable students to see how marriages, families, and intimate re


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