Mass Spectrometry of Natural Substances in Food

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-05-01
  • Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

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Introducing the principles, practice and applications of mass spectrometric techniques in the study of natural substances in foods, this book conveys the depth and breadth of modern mass spectrometry in relation to food analysis. It covers traditional techniques such as electron and chemical ionisation and newer soft ionisation techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation and electrospray. All of these techniques are especially relevant in food quality and safety studies and in biopolymer analysis. The ability to analyse biopolymers by mass spectrometry is having a major impact on the study of food structure components, food proteins, food pathogens and food components produced from genetically modified organisms. The principles and practice of mass spectrometry are covered in the early chapters and are followed by applications in flavour analysis and the determination of non-nutrient, biologically-active, natural substances in foods. The analysis and metabolic studies of amino acids, peptides, proteins, lipids, sugars, carbohydrates and vitamins is also discussed, with separate chapters on mineral and micronutrient metabolism and techniques of pyrolysis mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry of Natural Substances in Food will be a valuable resource for food scientists, food analysts and others working in food research, nutrition and safety.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Principles and Practice of Mass Spectrometryp. 1
History of Mass Spectrometryp. 1
Ionisation of Moleculesp. 3
Ion Separationp. 18
Ion Detectionp. 22
Metastable Ions, Collision Induced Dissociation and Tandem Mass Spectrometryp. 23
Scanning Modesp. 29
Referencesp. 32
Interpretation of Organic Mass Spectrometric Datap. 33
Introductionp. 33
Formation of the Electron Ionisation Mass Spectrump. 34
Calibration of the Mass Scale and Determination of Molecular Massp. 37
Interpretation of High- and Low-resolution Datap. 39
An Empirical Approach to the Elucidation of Organic Structuresp. 40
Additional Information from the Mass Spectrump. 44
Classical Fragmentation Processes Occurring in EIMSp. 46
Some Useful Examples of Features of the Mass Spectrum by Chemical Classp. 52
Referencesp. 54
Food Flavourings and Taintsp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Flavour Analysesp. 63
Taints and Off-flavoursp. 76
Flavour Chemistryp. 77
Aroma Release From Foodsp. 81
Breath and Body Odoursp. 85
Authentication of Natural and Synthetic Food Componentsp. 85
Data Processing and Statistical Analysisp. 86
Referencesp. 87
Bioactive Non-nutrients in Foodsp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Alkaloidsp. 94
Coumarinsp. 105
Cyanogenic Compoundsp. 107
Glucosinolatesp. 109
Mutagenic Heterocyclic Amines Generated by Cookingp. 114
Mycotoxinsp. 117
Phytoalexinsp. 134
Phenolic Compoundsp. 134
Saponinsp. 153
Referencesp. 157
Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteinsp. 170
Introductionp. 170
Chemical and Enzymatic Studiesp. 174
Applications of Mass Spectrometry to Amino Acid, Peptide and Protein Analysis in Food, Nutrition and Agricultural Researchp. 175
The Amino Acid Sequencing of Peptides and Proteinsp. 179
Referencesp. 187
Lipidsp. 192
Introductionp. 192
Derived Lipidsp. 193
Simple Lipidsp. 196
Compounds Lipidsp. 203
Lipid Oxidation Productsp. 208
Referencesp. 210
Sugars and Carbohydratesp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Analysis of Sugar Residues: GC/MS of Derivatised Sugarsp. 215
Partially Methylated Alditol Acetate (PMAA) Analysis of Linkage and Sugar Typep. 216
Recent Methods for the Determination of Molecular Sizep. 217
The Separation of Oligosaccharides by LC/MSp. 220
Sequence Determination of Oligosaccharidesp. 220
Referencesp. 223
Quantification and Metabolism of Inorganic Nutrientsp. 225
Introductionp. 225
Sample Collection and Treatment for Inorganic Mass Spectrometryp. 226
Quantitative Applications of TIMSp. 227
Quantitative Applications of ICP-MSp. 228
Metabolic Studies of Inorganic Nutrientsp. 228
Sample Preparation for Inorganic Mass Spectrometryp. 230
Mass Spectrometric Techniques for Inorganic Nutrient Studiesp. 231
Referencesp. 242
Analysis and Metabolism of Vitamins in Foodsp. 244
Introductionp. 244
Water-soluble Vitaminsp. 245
Fat-soluble Vitaminsp. 258
General Conclusions and Recommendationsp. 268
Referencesp. 268
Stable Isotope Studies of Organic Macronutrient Metabolismp. 273
Introductionp. 273
Mass Spectrometric Techniques Used in Macronutrient Metabolism Studiesp. 273
Protein Metabolismp. 273
Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 275
Lipid Metabolismp. 278
Whole Body Energy Expenditurep. 279
General Conclusions and Recommended Methodsp. 280
Referencesp. 281
Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Foodsp. 283
Introductionp. 283
Practical Aspects of Py/MSp. 284
Mass Spectrometric Techniques for Analytical Pyrolysisp. 284
Analysis of Datap. 285
Selected Applications of Py/MS in Food Studiesp. 285
Conclusionsp. 288
Referencesp. 290
Subject Indexp. 291
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