McKeachie's Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers

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  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-11-02
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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This best-selling, practical handbook is an invaluable tool for all college instructors and for courses in instruction, workshops, and training seminars. McKeachie's Teaching Tips reflects the commitment and care that the author brings to his teaching and to this text. Book jacket.

Author Biography

Wilbert J. McKeachie, University of Michigan Barbara Hofer, Middlebury College Nancy Van Note Chism, Indiana University -- Purdue University, Indianapolis Erping Zhu and Matthew Kaplan, University of Michigan Brian Coppola, University of Michigan Andrew Northedge, The Open University Claire Ellen Weinstein, University of Texas at Austin Jane Halonen, James Madison University Marilla Svinicki, University of Texas at Austin

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
A Special Preface for Teaching Assistants and Graduate Student Instructorsp. xxi
Getting Startedp. 1
Introductionp. 2
The College or University Culturep. 3
Research Versus Teaching?p. 5
Teaching as Scholarshipp. 5
In Conclusionp. 6
Countdown for Course Preparationp. 9
Time: Three Months Before the First Classp. 9
Write Objectives, Goals, or Outcomesp. 9
What Goals?p. 11
Order Textbooks or Other Resources Students May Needp. 12
Choosing a Text or Reading Materialsp. 13
Time: Two Months Before the First Classp. 15
Begin Drafting a Syllabus for the Coursep. 15
Time: One Month Before the First Classp. 17
Begin Preparing Lesson Plansp. 17
Plan for Out-of-Class Learningp. 18
Choose Appropriate Teaching Methodsp. 18
Select Appropriate Technologyp. 19
Time: Two Weeks Before the First Classp. 19
Time: One Week Before the First Classp. 19
Meeting a Class for the First Timep. 21
Breaking the Icep. 22
Problem Postingp. 24
Introducing the Syllabusp. 24
Testing, Grading, and Fairnessp. 25
Introducing the Textbookp. 26
Assessing Prior Knowledgep. 26
Questionsp. 27
What About Subject Matter?p. 27
In Conclusionp. 28
Basic Skills for Facilitating Student Learningp. 29
Facilitating Discussion: Posing Problems, Listening, Questioningp. 30
A Little Bit of Theoryp. 31
Problems in Teaching by Discussionp. 31
Starting Discussionp. 32
Starting Discussion with a Common Experiencep. 32
Starting Discussion with a Controversyp. 32
Starting Discussion with Questionsp. 34
Starting Discussion with a Problem or Case Using Developmental Discussionp. 36
Stages of Developmental Discussionp. 37
Breaking a Problem into Subproblemsp. 37
Socratic Discussionp. 38
Barriers to Discussionp. 40
What Can I Do About Nonparticipants?p. 41
Buzz Groups--Peer Learningp. 44
The Inner Circle or Fishbowlp. 44
The Discussion Monopolizerp. 45
How Can We Have a Discussion If the Students Haven't Read the Assignment?p. 45
Handling Arguments and Emotional Reactionsp. 46
The Two-Column Methodp. 47
Emotional Reactionsp. 48
Teaching Students How to Learn Through Discussionp. 49
Taking Minutes or Notes, Summarizingp. 50
Online Discussionsp. 50
In Conclusionp. 51
How to Make Lectures More Effectivep. 52
Research on the Effectiveness of Lecturesp. 52
What Are Lectures Good For?p. 53
A Little Bit of Theoryp. 54
Planning Lecturesp. 55
Preparing Your Lecture Notesp. 56
Organization of Lecturesp. 57
The Introductionp. 58
The Body of the Lecturep. 59
How Can Lectures Be Improved?p. 62
Attentionp. 62
What Can Be Done to Get Attention?p. 63
Teaching Students How to Be Better Listenersp. 64
How Do Students Process the Content of a Lecture?p. 64
Should Students Take Notes?p. 65
How to Get Students Actively Thinking in a Lecture Situationp. 67
Distribution of Lecture and Discussion Timep. 68
In Conclusionp. 68
Assessing, Testing, and Evaluating: Grading Is Not the Most Important Functionp. 70
Reducing Student Frustration and Aggressionp. 71
Planning Methods of Testing and Assessmentp. 72
When to Testp. 74
Test Constructionp. 74
Choosing the Type of Questionp. 75
How Many Questions Should I Use?p. 80
Instructions to the Studentsp. 80
Helping Students Become Test-wisep. 81
Taking Multiple-Choice Testsp. 81
Taking Essay Testsp. 82
Why Teach Test Taking?p. 83
Administering the Testp. 83
After the Testp. 84
Grading Essay Questionsp. 84
Helping Students Learn from the Testp. 86
Helping Yourself Learn from the Testp. 87
Grading "on the Curve": Don't Do It!p. 87
Returning Test Papersp. 88
Dealing with an Aggrieved Studentp. 89
What Do You Do About the Student Who Missed the Test?p. 90
Other Methods of Assessing Learningp. 91
Performance Assessment (Authentic Assessment)p. 91
Graphic Representations of Conceptsp. 91
Journals, Research Papers, and Annotated Bibliographiesp. 92
Portfoliosp. 92
Peer Assessmentp. 94
Assessing Group Workp. 94
Classroom Assessmentp. 95
In Conclusionp. 95
What to Do About Cheatingp. 97
How Do Students Cheat?p. 97
Preventing Cheatingp. 98
Plagiarismp. 100
Handling Cheatingp. 100
In Conclusionp. 102
The ABC's of Assigning Gradesp. 103
Do Grades Provide Information Useful for Decision Making?p. 105
Contract Gradingp. 107
Competency-based Gradingp. 107
Assigning Gradesp. 109
Grading on the Curve: A Mild Reprisep. 110
What About the Student Who Wants a Grade Changed?p. 111
Relevant Researchp. 113
In Conclusionp. 114
Understanding Studentsp. 117
Motivation in the College Classroomp. 118
Motivation Theoryp. 119
Autonomy and Self-Determinationp. 119
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivationp. 120
Expectancy x Value Theoryp. 121
Mastery Versus Performance Goalsp. 122
Attribution Theoryp. 123
Social Goals and Social Motivationp. 123
Putting Motivation Theory into Practicep. 124
In Conclusionp. 126
Valuing Student Differencesp. 128
Feeling Welcome in the Classroomp. 133
Feeling Welcome Through the Curriculump. 135
Being Treated as an Individualp. 137
Full Participation in Learningp. 139
Learning Style Dimensions of Full Participationp. 140
Physical and Learning Disabilitiesp. 142
Age Differencesp. 143
Increasing Opportunities for Full Participationp. 143
Increasing Motivationp. 144
Being Treated Fairlyp. 145
In Conclusionp. 146
Problem Students (There's Almost Always at Least One!)p. 148
Angry, Aggressive, Challenging Studentsp. 149
Attention Seekers and Students Who Dominate Discussionsp. 151
Inattentive Studentsp. 152
Unprepared Studentsp. 153
The Flatterer, Disciple, Con Man (or Woman)p. 154
Discouraged, Ready-to-Give-Up Studentsp. 155
Students Who Are Strugglingp. 156
Students with Excusesp. 156
Students Who Want the TRUTH and Students Who Believe That Everything Is Relativep. 157
Students with Emotional Reactions to Sensitive Topicsp. 158
In Conclusionp. 159
Counseling, Advising, and Educatingp. 161
Counselingp. 161
E-Mailp. 163
Advising and Program Planningp. 163
Dealing with Psychological Problemsp. 164
Potential Suicidesp. 165
Individualized Teaching and Mentoringp. 165
In Conclusionp. 167
Adding to Your Repertoire of Skills and Strategies for Facilitating Active Learningp. 169
Teaching Students to Learn Through Writing: Journals, Papers, and Reportsp. 170
A Little Theoryp. 170
Low-Stakes Writingp. 171
The Student Log or Journalp. 171
The Paper That Counts Toward a Gradep. 172
Dealing with Plagiarismp. 174
Other Possibilities for Writing Assignmentsp. 175
Teaching Writing, Giving Feedback, and Correcting Papersp. 175
What to Do When a Paper Is to Be Gradedp. 177
What About Deadlines and Students Who Miss Them?p. 179
Portfoliosp. 179
In Conclusionp. 179
Reading as Active Learningp. 181
Textbooksp. 181
How Do You Get Students to Do the Assigned Reading?p. 182
Research on Learning from Readingp. 183
Teaching Students to Learn More from Readingp. 184
In Conclusionp. 185
Active Learning: Cooperative, Collaborative, and Peer Learningp. 187
Peer Learning and Teachingp. 188
Student-led Discussionsp. 189
How to Use Student-led Discussionsp. 189
Peer Tutoringp. 190
The Learning Cellp. 190
Team Learning: Syndicate and Jigsawp. 191
Student Characteristics and Peer Learningp. 192
Why Does Peer Learning Work?p. 193
In Conclusionp. 194
Problem-based Learning: Teaching with Cases, Simulations, and Gamesp. 196
Problem-based Learningp. 196
The Case Methodp. 198
Finding the Right Casesp. 199
Tips for Teaching with Casesp. 199
Games and Simulationsp. 200
In Conclusionp. 202
Technology and Teachingp. 204
How Will Technology Enhance Teaching and Learning?p. 204
Teaching with Technologyp. 206
Course Contentp. 206
The Instructorp. 209
Studentsp. 211
Technology Toolsp. 213
What Are the Effects of Technology on Teaching?p. 220
In Conclusionp. 221
Skills for Use in Other Teaching Situationsp. 225
Teaching Large Classes (You Can Still Get Active Learning!)p. 226
Facilitating Active Learningp. 227
Encouraging Student Writing in Large Classesp. 227
Other Ways to Maintain Student Involvementp. 228
Student Anonymityp. 230
Giving Tests in Large Classesp. 231
Outside Readingp. 232
Coordinating Multisection Coursesp. 232
Training and Supervising Teaching Assistantsp. 233
In Conclusionp. 234
Laboratory Instruction: Ensuring an Active Learning Experiencep. 235
Laboratory Instruction Stylesp. 236
Expository Instructionp. 236
Inquiry Instructionp. 237
Discovery Instructionp. 237
Problem-based Learningp. 238
Turning Novice Researchers into Practicing Scientistsp. 240
Link to Cognitive Developmentp. 242
What Research Saysp. 243
In Conclusionp. 243
Facilitating Experiential Learning: Service Learning, Fieldwork, and Collaborative Researchp. 245
Experiential Learningp. 246
What Are the Goals of Experiential Learning?p. 246
Are These Goals Achieved?p. 247
How Can We Get Better Outcomes from Experiential Learning?p. 247
In Conclusionp. 249
Using Project Methods, Independent Study, and One-on-One Teachingp. 250
The Project Methodp. 251
Small-Group Independent Studyp. 252
Research on Variations in Amount of Classroom Timep. 252
Time in Classp. 254
Senior Projectsp. 254
One-on-One Teachingp. 255
In Conclusionp. 257
Teaching by Distance Educationp. 258
Sketching Out the Shape of a Coursep. 259
Developing a Teaching Narrativep. 264
Making the Course Manageablep. 265
In Conclusionp. 266
Teaching for Higher-Level Goalsp. 269
Teaching Students How to Learnp. 270
The Importance of Goals and Self-Reflectionp. 271
Increasing Students' Self-Awarenessp. 272
Using Existing Knowledge to Learn New Thingsp. 273
Teaching Domain-specific and Course-specific Strategiesp. 274
Methods for Checking Understandingp. 278
Knowing How to Learn Is Not Enough--Students Must Also Want to Learnp. 279
Putting It All Together--Executive Control Processes in Strategic Learningp. 281
In Conclusionp. 282
Teaching Thinkingp. 284
Setting Goals for Thinkingp. 285
Improving Thinking Qualityp. 288
In Conclusionp. 289
Teaching Values: Should We? Can We?p. 291
Should We?p. 292
Can We?p. 293
What Values Should We Teach?p. 294
How Can We Teach Values?p. 298
Modeling Valuesp. 299
Service Learningp. 299
Dealing with Alternative Viewsp. 300
What Kinds of Teaching Methods Should We Use?p. 301
The Teacher as a Personp. 302
In Conclusionp. 303
Lifelong Learning for the Teacherp. 305
Ethics in College Teachingp. 306
Responsibilities to Studentsp. 309
To Encourage the Free Pursuit of Learningp. 310
To Demonstrate Respect for Studentsp. 311
To Respect Confidentialityp. 312
To Model the Best Scholarly and Ethical Standardsp. 313
To Foster Honest Academic Conduct and to Ensure Fair Evaluationp. 313
To Avoid Exploitation, Harassment, or Discriminationp. 314
Responsibilities to Colleagues, the Institution and the Disciplinep. 316
Making Ethical Choicesp. 316
In Conclusionp. 317
Vitality and Growth Throughout Your Teaching Careerp. 319
How Can You Develop Effective Skills and Strategies?p. 321
Looking for New Ideas, New Methods, and Alternative Strategies for Handling Problemsp. 322
Readingp. 322
Hearing, Discussingp. 322
Seeing, Experiencingp. 323
How Can You Get and Use Feedback to Continue to Improve Your Teaching?p. 323
Feedback from Student Performancep. 323
Feedback from Peersp. 324
Feedback from Faculty Development Specialistsp. 325
Feedback from Studentsp. 326
Keys to Improvement with Feedback from Studentsp. 328
Consultationp. 330
Classroom Assessment and Researchp. 331
Self-Evaluationp. 331
In Conclusionp. 332
Referencesp. 335
Indexp. 357
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