Measuring Change in Counseling and Psychotherapy

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-07-30
  • Publisher: The Guilford Press

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What is included with this book?


This book provides researchers, clinicians, and students with a useful overview of the key issues involved in measuring client change within clinical practice. It reviews the history, conceptual foundations, and current status of trait- and state-based assessment models and approaches, exploring their strengths and limitations for measuring change across therapy sessions. Particular attention is given to the critical challenges of interpreting and using measurement and assessment data that can enable the provision of better clinical care and treatment evaluation. A series of exercises guides the reader to gather information about particular tests and evaluate their suitability for intended testing purposes.

Author Biography

Scott T. Meier is Professor and Chair of the Department of Counseling, School, and Educational Psychology at the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.

Table of Contents

Introduction and Rationalep. 1
Contemporary Psychological Testingp. 1
Contemporary Psychotherapy Research and Practicep. 2
The Implications of Research Stuckness for Clinical Practicep. 4
Summary and Conclusionsp. 7
A History of Traitsp. 9
The Seeds of Conflictp. 9
The Desire to Be Scientificp. 10
The Model of Physiologyp. 10
Biology and Individual Differencesp. 12
The Desire to Be Relevantp. 14
The Need for Classificationp. 14
The Consequences of the Adoption of a Trait-Based Measurement Paradigmp. 16
Loss of Experimental Methods Inhibits Recognition of Method Variancep. 17
The Gain of Traits and Loss of Situationsp. 19
Handling Error with Classical Test Theoryp. 20
Statistics Related to Measurementp. 21
Assessment as a Complement to Measurementp. 25
Deemphasizing Measurement Theoryp. 27
Loss of Precisionp. 30
The Wisdom and Tyranny of Traditionp. 35
The Success and Failure of the Marketp. 36
Summary and Implicationsp. 38
Reliability, Validity, and Systematic Errorsp. 42
Introductionp. 42
Thinking about Reliability and Validityp. 43
Types of Validityp. 43
Constructs, Theories, and Valid Measurementp. 46
Construct Explicationp. 47
Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices: Investigating the Effects of Method Variance on Validityp. 48
Campbell and Fiskep. 49
Criteria for Construct Validityp. 50
An MTMM Examplep. 51
Problems with Campbell and Fiske's Approachp. 56
The Factor Analytic Approach to Construct Validityp. 57
History of Self-Report and Interview Errorsp. 60
Self-Reportsp. 61
Interviews and Observational Methodsp. 63
Measurement Errorp. 64
Systematic Errors Associated with Self-Reportsp. 65
Dissimulation and Malingeringp. 65
Systematic Errors Associated with Ratings by Othersp. 69
Halo Errorsp. 70
Leniency and Criticalness Errorsp. 71
Hypothesis Confirmation Errorsp. 72
Causes of Inconsistencyp. 74
Cognitive Influencesp. 75
Item Comprehension Problemsp. 76
Test Cuesp. 77
Low Cognitive Abilityp. 80
Affective and Motivational Influencesp. 81
Test Anxietyp. 82
Negative Emotional Statesp. 83
Environmental and Cultural Influencesp. 84
Reactivityp. 84
Stereotype Threatp. 85
Summary and Implicationsp. 86
States, Traits, and Validityp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Historyp. 90
The Controversy of Mischel and Peterson: The Benefits of Conflictp. 93
The Rejection of Traits: Behavioral Assessmentp. 94
Reinforcing the Trait Argumentp. 96
Person-Environment Interactionsp. 98
Aptitude-by-Treatment Interactionsp. 101
Environmental Assessmentp. 103
Moderators of Cross-Situational Consistencyp. 105
Summary and Integrationp. 106
Context Effects and Validity
Introductionp. 110
Understanding Inconsistency: Clues from Psychophysics Measurementp. 111
The Limitations of Psychophysical Measurementp. 112
Conclusions and Implications from Psychophysical Researchp. 115
Improving the Principles of Construct Explicationp. 116
Test Purposep. 117
Test Contentp. 119
Test Contextp. 122
Shared Contexts and Method Variancep. 124
The Context of Positive and Negative Item Wordingp. 125
The Context of Item-Instruction Presentationp. 126
The Context of Response Formatp. 126
Context and Test Instructionsp. 128
Context and Item Contentp. 130
Shared Contexts and Systematic Errorsp. 131
Shared Contexts and Social Rolesp. 134
Conversational Rulesp. 134
Narrative Therapyp. 136
Shared Role Contextsp. 137
Applicationsp. 140
Recommendations Related to Test Purposep. 141
Recommendations Related to Test Contentp. 145
Recommendations Related to Test Contextsp. 147
Provide Testing Contexts That Help Test Takers Remember Betterp. 147
Summary and Implicationsp. 155
Nomothetic Approaches to Measuring Change and Influencing Outcomesp. 159
History and Backgroundp. 159
Examples of Nomothetic Measuresp. 161
Beck Depression Inventoryp. 161
State-Trait Anxiety Inventoryp. 161
Global Assessment of Functioningp. 162
Outcome Questionnairep. 162
Reliability of Nomothetic Measuresp. 163
Validity of Nomothetic Measuresp. 164
Change-Sensitive Testsp. 165
Using Outcome Data for Clinical Feedbackp. 169
Use Measures with a Strong Theoretical Basisp. 174
Use Brief Measuresp. 177
Applicationsp. 177
Creating Change-Sensitive Measuresp. 177
Psychometric Properties of Aggregate Scalesp. 186
Using Change-Sensitive Tests in Program Evaluationsp. 189
An Evidence-Based Approach to Supervisionp. 192
Summary and Integrationp. 196
Idiographic Approaches to Measuring Change and Influencing Outcomesp. 198
History and Backgroundp. 198
Reliability of Idiographic Measuresp. 199
Validity of Idiographic Measuresp. 200
Behavioral Assessmentp. 202
Self- and Other Monitoringp. 206
The Use of Natural Languagep. 208
Narrative Therapyp. 208
Pennebaker's Word Use Approachp. 212
Idiographically Based Feedback Proceduresp. 214
Applicationsp. 216
Begin with the Case Conceptualizationp. 216
Explicate Constructsp. 218
Measure Behaviorsp. 219
Collect as Much Data as Possiblep. 220
Analyze Idiographic Datap. 220
Consider Progress Notes for Process and Outcome Datap. 223
Summary and Implicationsp. 226
Summary, Integration, and Future Directionsp. 229
Major Ideasp. 229
Initial Findings and Future Researchp. 234
Nomothetic Outcome Measuresp. 234
Idiographic Outcome Measuresp. 235
Context Effectsp. 236
Innovative Research Methodsp. 237
Conclusionp. 239
Referencesp. 243
Author Indexp. 283
Subject Indexp. 295
About the Authorp. 303
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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