Media and Communication Research Methods : An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-11-02
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc
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In this new edition, Arthur Asa Berger employs his signature style - a practical focus, the use of numerous examples, a step-by-step approach, and humour - to update and enhance this must-have introductory text. Combining both qualitative and quantitative research methods, the book covers the topics thoroughly and is clearly written and engaging. This book is ideal for beginning research students both at the graduate and undergraduate level because it is clear, concise, and accompanied by many detailed examples.

Table of Contents

Round Up the Usual Suspects
How I Became a Man Without Quantities
Data Man Versus Data-Free Man
Introduction: Applications and Exercises
Conclusions of a Man Without Quantities, Who Is Also a Practicing Theoretician
Getting Started
What Is Research?
We All Do Research, All the Time
Scholarly Research Is Different From Everyday Research
Nietzsche on Interpretation
The Problem of Certainty
Diachronic and Synchronic Research
On the Way the Human Mind Works
Overt and Covert Oppositions
On Quantity and Quality in Media Research
Media and Communication
Why a Book That Teaches Both Methodologies?
Considering Research Topics
What is Research? Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Library Searches
Why Library Research Is So Important
Search Strategies
How To Read Analytically
Doing a Literature Review
Primary and Secondary Research Sources
Sources for Library Research in Media and Communication
Other Sources of Information
Searching on the Internet or The Game of "Find The Info If You Can!"
Analyzing Methodology in Research Articles
Library Searches: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Methods of Textual Analysis
Semiotic Analysis
Saussure's Division of Signs Into Signifiers and Signifieds
The Semiotics of Blondeness
Semiotics and Society
Peirce's Trichotomy: Icon, Index, and Symbol
Allied Concepts
Clotaire Rapaille on Culture Codes
Semiotics in Society: A Reprise
The Syntagmatic Analysis of Texts
The Paradigmatic Analysis of Texts
Humpty-Dumpty: A Paradigmatic Analysis
Applications of Semiotic Theory
Paul Ekman on Facial Expression
Semiotics: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Rhetorical Analysis
Aristotle on Rhetoric
Rhetoric and the Mass Media
A Brief Note on the Communication Process
Certeau on Subversions by Readers and Viewers
Applied Rhetorical Analysis
A Miniglossary of Common Rhetorical Devices
Other Considerations When Making Rhetorical Analyses
A Sample Rhetorical Analysis: A Saturn Advertisement
Rhetorical Analysis: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Ideological Criticism
Mannheim's Ideology and Utopia
Defining Ideology
Roland Barthes on Mythologies
The Problem of Hegemony
The Base and the Superstructure and the "Self Made Man and Woman."
Post Soviet Marxist Criticism
A Marxist Interpretation of the Fidji "Snake" Advertisement
John Berger on Glamour
Identity Politics
Marxist Criticism
Feminist Criticism of Media and Communication
The Social Conception of Knowledge
Phallocentric Theory: The Physical Basis of Male Domination
Pop Culture and Media Preferences in Four Political Cultures
Ideological Criticism: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Psychoanalytic Criticism
Freud's Contribution
The Oedipus Complex
Human Sexuality
The Id, Ego, and Superego
Applications of the Id, Ego and Superego Typology to Media and Culture
Defense Mechanisms
Jungian Theory
The Collective Unconscious
The Myth of the Hero
The Anima and the Animus
The Shadow Element in the Psyche
Psychoanalytic Criticism: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Qualitative Research Methods
What Is an Interview?
Four Kinds of Research Interviews
A Note on Problems With Focus Groups (Boxed Insert)
Why We Use Interviews
How to Interview People
Questions Investigative Reporters Ask (Boxed Insert?)
The Structure of Conversations and Interviews
Transcribing Tapes
Problems With Interview Material
Interviews: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Historical Analysis
What Is History?
History as Metadiscipline or Specialized Subject
Is History Objective or Subjective or a Combination of the Two?
Kinds of Historical Research
The Problem of Writing History
The Problem of Meaning
Historical Periods
Baudrillard and Jameson on Postmodernism
The Historical and the Comparative Approach
History Is an Art, Not a Science
Doing Historical Research
Historical Analysis: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Ethnomethodologlcal Research
Defining Ethnomethodology
Garfinkel's Ingenious and Mischievous Research
Using Ethnomethodology in Media and Communication Research
Humorists as Code Violators
On the Techniques of Humor
Ethnomethodology and the Communication Process
Ethnomethodological Research: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Participant Observation
Defining Participant Observation
Significant Considerations to Deal With When Doing Participant Observation
A Case Study of Participant Observation: Readers of Romance Novels
Problems Connected With Participant Observation
Benefits of Participant Observation Studies
Making Sense of Your Findings
An Ethical Dilemma
Ethics and Research Involving Human Beings
Participant Observation: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Quantitative Research Methods
Content Analysis
Defining Content Analysis
Why We Make Content Analyses
Methodological Aspects of Content Analysis
Aspects of Violence
Advantages of Content Analysis as a Research Method
Difficulties to Contend With in Making Content Analyses
A Simple Content Analysis Research Assignment
Doing a Content Analysis: A List of Steps to Take
Coding Sheet for Comics Content Analysis (Boxed Insert)
Content Analysis: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Defining Surveys
Kinds of Surveys: Descriptive and Analytic
Methods of Data Collection
The Nine American Lifestyles: The VALS Typology
Advantages of Survey Research
Problems With Using Surveys
A Note on Media Usage Surveys: Shares and Ratings
Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Survey Questions
Writing Survey Questions
Making Pilot Studies to Pretest Surveys
Conducting Online Surveys
On the Matter of Samples
Evaluating the Accuracy of Surveys
Surveys: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Everyday Experimentation
Defining Experiments
The Structure of an Experiment
Advantages of Experiments
Disadvantages of Experiments
A Checklist on Experimental Design
What's an Experiment and What Isn't?
Experiments: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
A Primer on Descriptive Statistics
Levels of Measurement
Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Dispersion
Standard Deviation
The Normal or Bell-Shaped Curve
The Problems With Ratings
A Cautionary Note on Statistics
Statistics and Comparisons
Data on Media Use in America in 2009
On the Problem of Interpretation
Statistics: Applications and Exercises
Further Reading
Putting it all Together
Nineteen Common Thinking Errors to Avoid
Common Fallacies
Further Reading
Writing Research Reports
Keeping a Journal
A Trick for Organizing Reports
Outlines, First Drafts and Revisions
Writing Research Reports
The IMRD Structure of Quantitative Research Reports
Writing Correctly: Avoiding Some Common Problems
Academic Writing Styles
A Checklist for Planning Research and Writing
Reports on Your Research
Further Reading
Name Index
Subject Index
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