Medical Geography, Third Edition

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-04-20
  • Publisher: The Guilford Press
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This essential text surveys the perspectives, methodologies, and theories that geographers use to address the subject of human health and disease. Wide ranging and international in scope, the volume synthesizes knowledge from across the social, physical, and biological sciences.

Author Biography

Melinda S. Meade, a medical geographer, is Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is also Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology, a member of the Institute of Environment, and a fellow of the Carolina Population Center. In addition to the first and second editions of Medical Geography, Dr. Meade has published journal articles on the disease ecology of tropical Asia and the United States. She is a member of the Association of American Geographers and other geographic, Asian studies, and population associations.
Michael Emch, a medical geographer, is Associate Professor of Geography at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he directs the Spatial Health Research Group. He is also Adjunct Associate Professor of Epidemiology and a fellow of the Carolina Population Center. Dr. Emch has published journal articles on disease ecology, primarily of infectious diseases of the tropical world. He is a member of the Association of American Geographers and is also an advisory editor for the international journal Social Science and Medicine.

Table of Contents

Questions of Medical Geographyp. 1
What's in a Name?p. 2
A Brief History of Medical Geographyp. 9
Definitions and Terminologyp. 17
The Challenge of Medical Geographyp. 21
Referencesp. 22
Further Readingp. 24
The Human Ecology of Diseasep. 26
Healthp. 27
The Triangle of Human Ecologyp. 30
Transmission and Creation of Infectious Diseasep. 44
Nutrition and Healthp. 55
Conclusionp. 65
Referencesp. 65
Further Readingp. 67
Biological Classifications of Importance to Healthp. 68
Maps and Geographic Information Systems in Medical Geographyp. 73
Cartography of Diseasep. 74
Types of Maps: Some Issuesp. 77
Geographic Information Systemsp. 83
Disease Maps on the Webp. 91
Conclusionp. 93
Referencesp. 94
Further Readingp. 95
Landscape Epidemiologyp. 98
Regionsp. 99
Transmissible Disease Systemsp. 100
The Landscape Epidemiology Approachp. 110
The Cultural Dimension of Water-Based Disease Transmissionp. 116
The Cultural Ecology of Tick-Borne and Other Transmissible Diseasesp. 131
Regionalizationp. 136
Ecological Complicationsp. 138
Conclusionp. 142
Referencesp. 142
Further Readingp. 143
Field Mapping for Landscape Epidemiologyp. 145
Transitions and Developmentp. 149
Ecologies of Population Change: Multiple Transitionsp. 150
Major Impacts of Population Changep. 162
Nutrition in Transitionp. 165
The Mobility Transition and Time-Space Geographyp. 168
Disease Ecologies of the Agricultural Frontierp. 173
Other Development Impacts on Rural Ecologiesp. 180
World Urbanization and Changing Disease Ecologiesp. 184
Globalization of Movementsp. 192
Conclusion: Emerging Diseases in Your Futurep. 195
Referencesp. 196
Further Readingp. 199
Age Standardizationp. 201
Microspatial Exposure Analysisp. 204
Climate and Weather: Influences on Healthp. 207
Direct Biometeorological Influencesp. 209
The Influences of the Weatherp. 215
Seasonality of Death and Birthp. 221
How Climate Change Is Likely to Affect Health and Diseasep. 227
Conclusionp. 232
Referencesp. 234
Further Readingp. 236
Monthly Indexesp. 236
Seasonality of Birthp. 238
Physical Zonation of Climates and Biomesp. 244
The Pollution Syndromep. 247
Toxic Hazards of Natural and Economic Originsp. 248
Outdoor Air Pollutionp. 249
Indoor Air Pollutionp. 259
Water Pollutionp. 260
Radioactive Pollutionp. 265
Risk Assessment and Preventionp. 271
Globalization and the Perception of Health Hazardsp. 272
The Geometry of Hazards, Power, and Policyp. 274
Conclusionp. 276
Referencesp. 276
Further Readingp. 279
Political Ecology of Noncommunicable Diseasesp. 281
The Dimension of Mortalityp. 283
The Poverty Syndromep. 288
Race in the Study of Health Risksp. 292
Gender: Women's Healthp. 294
Causal Reasoning and Epidemiological Designp. 300
Disease Ecology: Cancerp. 304
Disease Ecology: Cardiovascular Diseasep. 314
Unknown Etiology and Other Questionsp. 325
The Precautionary Principle and Some Political Ecology of Researchp. 329
Conclusionp. 333
Referencesp. 334
Further Readingp. 337
Neighborhoods and Healthp. 339
The Concept of Neighborhood Healthp. 339
Neighborhood Definition and Unitsp. 341
Analyzing Neighborhood Effects on Healthp. 345
Effects of the Built Environment on Healthp. 346
The Challenges of Neighborhood Health Studiesp. 347
Conclusionp. 348
Referencesp. 348
Further Readingp. 350
Disease Diffusion in Spacep. 351
Terminologyp. 352
Disease Diffusionp. 358
Modeling Disease Diffusionp. 359
Influenzasp. 375
Geographic Approaches to the Pandemic of AIDSp. 380
Other Epidemicsp. 398
Referencesp. 398
Further Readingp. 401
Diffusion Waves or Stochastic Simulation of Individual Contact?p. 403
Health Care and Promotionp. 407
Asclepius: Provision of Medical Carep. 409
Asclepius Unrobed: Cultural Alternatives and Perceptionsp. 431
Hygeia: Health Promotionp. 442
Referencesp. 444
Further Readingp. 447
Application of Spatial Statistics to Health Care Deliveryp. 448
Scale, Spatial Analysis, and Geographic Visualizationp. 453
Some Issues of Scalep. 454
The Ecological Fallacyp. 454
Scale of Analysis and Units of Observationp. 455
Sources for Spatial Disease Datap. 458
Visualizing and Summarizing Disease Distributionsp. 459
Spatial Analysisp. 463
Spatial Statisticsp. 466
Conclusionp. 468
Referencesp. 468
Further Readingp. 469
Chi-Square Statistical Testp. 471
Regression Analysisp. 474
Spatial Autocorrelationp. 479
Concluding Wordsp. 483
Indexp. 486
About the Authorsp. 498
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