Medical Robotics

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-02-13
  • Publisher: Iste/Hermes Science Pub

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In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field. For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues. This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and mature clinical application areas. It also presents the major approaches in terms of design and control including man-machine interaction modes. A large state of the art is presented and many examples from the literature are included and thoroughly discussed. It aims to provide both a broad and summary view of this very active domain as well as keys to understanding the evolutions of the domain and to prepare for the future. An insight to clinical evaluation is also proposed, and the book is finished with a chapter on future developments for intra-body robots.

Author Biography

Jocelyne Troccaz gained her PhD in computer science and robotics from the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble in 1986. She currently holds a permanent research position at CNRS in France, and has worked in the field of medical robotics since 1990. Her collaborations with clinicians and companies have resulted in several systems which have been used in clinical routine for many years.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. xi
Characteristics and State of the Artp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Characteristics of medical roboticsp. 1
Potential advantages of using a robot in a medical procedurep. 5
State of the artp. 7
Surgery of the head and neckp. 8
Orthopedic surgeryp. 13
Mini-invasive or laparoscopic surgeryp. 17
Interventional radiology and percutaneous proceduresp. 23
Remote ultrasoundp. 29
Radiotherapy and radiologyp. 33
Other applicationsp. 39
Conclusionp. 42
Bibliographyp. 42
Medical Robotics in the Service of the Patientp. 55
Introductionp. 55
Medical robotics: a field in full developmentp. 55
How and why has there been such development?p. 56
Medical service: a complex notionp. 57
A cycle of medical service growthp. 58
The actorsp. 58
A model for the development of the medical servicep. 61
Development diagramp. 63
A case study: the ViKY robotic endoscope support systemp. 64
The contextp. 64
ViKY and the progression of medical servicep. 64
Relevance of the evaluation of the medical servicep. 66
Conclusionp. 67
Bibliographyp. 67
Inter-operative Sensors and Registrationp. 69
Introductionp. 69
Summary of the context and the problemp. 69
Notions of registration, calibration and trackingp. 70
Intra-operative sensorsp. 72
Imaging sensorsp. 72
Position sensorsp. 74
Surface sensorsp. 75
Other sensorsp. 76
Principles of registrationp. 76
Notations and definitionsp. 76
Nature of the transformationp. 77
Matched informationp. 78
Similarity metricsp. 79
3D/3D rigid registrationp. 84
Open questionsp. 86
Case studiesp. 87
Case no. 1 (interventional radiology)p. 87
Case no. 2p. 88
Case no. 3 (Velocityy)p. 90
Case no. 4p. 92
Discussion and conclusionp. 96
Bibliographyp. 97
Augmented Realityp. 101
Introductionp. 101
3D modeling of abdominal structures and pathological structuresp. 104
3D visualization system for planningp. 107
Interactive ARp. 108
Conceptp. 108
An example applicationp. 108
The limits of such a systemp. 110
Automatic ARp. 110
Augumented reality with fixed camera(s)p. 111
AR with a mobile camerap. 120
Taking distortions into accountp. 122
Case Studyp. 124
Percutaneous puncturesp. 124
Bronchoscopic Navigationp. 126
Neurosurgeryp. 127
Conclusionsp. 129
Bibliographyp. 130
Design of Medical Robotsp. 141
Introductionp. 141
From the characterization of gestures to the design of robotsp. 145
Analysis of the gesturep. 145
Kinematic and dynamic specificationsp. 145
Kinematic choicesp. 149
Design methodologiesp. 157
Concept selectionp. 158
Optimization of design parametersp. 161
Technological choicesp. 165
Actuatorsp. 165
Sensorsp. 166
Materialp. 167
Securityp. 167
Introductionp. 167
Security and dependabilityp. 168
Risks reduction in medical roboticsp. 168
Conclusionp. 171
Bibliographyp. 172
Vision-based Controlp. 177
Introductionp. 177
Configurations of the imaging devicep. 178
Type of measurementp. 179
Type of controlp. 181
Sensorsp. 183
Imaging devicesp. 184
Localizersp. 193
Acquisition of the measurementp. 193
Acquisition of geometric primitivesp. 194
Tracking of anatomical targetsp. 202
Review of methods for image processingp. 214
Controlp. 216
Modeling the visual servoing loopp. 216
Online identification of the interaction matrixp. 221
Control lawsp. 223
Perspectivesp. 224
Bibliographyp. 225
Interaction Modeling and Force Controlp. 233
Modeling interactions during medico-surgical proceduresp. 233
Introductionp. 233
Properties of tissues with small displacementsp. 234
Non-viscoelastic modelsp. 237
Estimation of force modelsp. 238
Case study: needle-tissue interactions during a percutaneous interventionp. 239
Force controlp. 243
Force control strategiesp. 244
Implicit force controlp. 244
Explicit force controlp. 247
Stabilityp. 250
Choice of a control architecturep. 251
Application examplesp. 251
Conclusionp. 263
Bibliographyp. 263
Tele-manipulationp. 269
Introductionp. 269
The limitations of autonomyp. 269
Non-autonomous modes of interventionp. 270
Tele-manipulation in the medical field: interest and applicationsp. 270
Tele-manipulation and medical practicesp. 271
Backgroundp. 271
Action and perception modalitiesp. 273
Technologyp. 275
Tele-manipulation with force feedbackp. 278
Introductionp. 278
Modeling master-slave tele-manipulators (MST)p. 279
Transparency and stabilityp. 281
Bilateral tele-operation control schemesp. 284
Improvement of existing techniques for medical issuesp. 292
Example: tele-operated needle insertion in interventional radiologyp. 294
Prospectsp. 298
Bibliographyp. 298
Comanipulationp. 303
Introductionp. 303
Tele-manipulate, but without the distancep. 303
Definitionsp. 305
Features and applications in medical and surgical roboticsp. 307
A word about terminologyp. 308
Contentsp. 308
General principles of comanipulationp. 309
Serial comanipulationp. 309
Parallel comanipulationp. 313
Serial comanipulation: intelligent active instrumentationp. 316
Dexterous instruments for minimally-invasive surgeryp. 316
Tremor filtering in microsurgeryp. 322
Compensation of physiological movementsp. 326
Parallel comanipulationp. 331
Comanipulation in transparent modep. 331
Passive, active, static and dynamic guidesp. 334
Increase the quality of the tactile perceptionp. 340
A human in the loopp. 343
Bibliographyp. 346
Towards Intracorporeal Roboticsp. 351
Introductionp. 351
Mini-manipulators/tele-operated instrument holdersp. 352
Objectivesp. 352
General descriptionp. 353
Challengesp. 356
Robotized colonoscopes and autonomous capsulesp. 357
Objectivesp. 357
General descriptionp. 358
Challengesp. 360
Active cathetersp. 362
Objectivesp. 362
General descriptionp. 363
Challengesp. 363
Evolution of surgical roboticsp. 366
Towards more autonomous robotsp. 366
Towards a much less invasive surgeryp. 369
Towards the bio-nanoroboticsp. 371
Additional informationp. 386
Preamblep. 386
The shape memory alloys (SMA)p. 387
Electroactive polymersp. 387
Bibliographyp. 388
Conclusionp. 397
Notationsp. 399
Medical Glossaryp. 401
List of Authorsp. 407
Indexp. 409
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