Mod Egypt Pt2:Orientalism V 6

  • ISBN13:


  • ISBN10:


  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-02-23
  • Publisher: Routledge

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: $575.00 Save up to $86.25
  • Rent Book $488.75
    Add to Cart Free Shipping


Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.
  • The Rental copy of this book is not guaranteed to include any supplemental materials. Typically, only the book itself is included. This is true even if the title states it includes any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Table of Contents

PART III (Continued) THE SOUDAN 1882-1907
The Fail of Khartoum October 5, 1884-January 26, 1885
Murder of Colonel Stewart---Difficulties of the Expedition---News from General Gordon---Occupation of Jakdul---The batle of Abu Klea---Death of Sir Herbert Stewart---The column reaches the Nile---Two steamers leave for Khartoum---They arrive too late---Events at Khartoum---General Gordon's character---Capitulation of Omdurman---General Gordon's death---Effect on public opinion
The Evacuation of the Soudan January 26, 1885-December 30, 1886
Lord Wolseley urges the necessity of an autumn campaign---The Government hesitate---And then agree---Sir Redvers Buller retreats to Korti---Battle of Kirbekan---The movement on Berber arrested---Operations at Suakin---Action at Hashin---And at Tofrik---Suspension of the Suakin operations---The autumn campaign abandoned---Question of holding Dongola---Change of Government in England---Evacuation of Dongola---Death of the Mahdi---Battle of Ginniss---Review of British policy
The Debris of the Soudan
The outlying providences:---1. Darfour: Surrender of the providence---The Senoussieh sect---The revolt of Abu Gemaizeh. 2. Bahr-el-Ghazal: Lupton Bey surrneders---His death. 3. Equatoria: Emin Pasha summoned to surrender---He maintains his position---The Stanley expedition. 4. Sennar: The garrison surrenders. 5. Kassala: The garrison surrenders. 6. The Abyssinian Frontier Garrisons: The Hewett treaty---The garrisons of Amadib, Senhit, Galabat, Gera, and Dedaref. 7. Berbera: Its political status---It is occupied by British troops. 8. Harrar: Withdrawal of the Egyptian garrison---Installation of the Emir Abdullah---King Menelek occupies the providence. 9. Zeyla: It is occupied by British troops. 10. Tajourrah: The French occupy it. 11. Massowah: Its political status---Attitude of the British Government---The Italians occupy Massowah
The Defence of Egypt 1886-1892
The Egyptian army---Negotiations with the Dervishes---Fighting on the frontier---The siege of Suakin---Defeat of Osman Digna---Wad-el-Nejumi---Nejumi advances---The battle of Argin and of Toski---Death of Wad-el-Nejumi---Results of the battle---Situation at Suakin---The reoccupation of Tokar---Defeat of Osman Digna
The Reconquest of Khartoum October 1895-September 1898
Necessity of reconquering the Soudan---Danger of premature action---The Italian defeat at Adua---It is decided to advance on Dongola---Provision of funds---Sir Herbert Kitchener---Indian expedition to Suakin---Railway construction---Battle of Firket---Capture of Dongola---The Egyptian Government repay the money advanced by the Commissioners of the Debt---The British Government advanced £800,000---Question of a further offensive movement---Capture of Abu Hamed and Berber---Reoccupation of Kassala---British troops sent to the Soudan---The battle of the Atbara---The battle of Omdurman---Cost of the campaign---The War Office---The policy of reconquest
The New Soudan
Question of the future political status of the Soudan---Anomalies of the British position---Objections to annexation---And to complete incorporation with Egypt---Intricacy of the problem---The two flags---Speech at Omdurman---The right of couquest---The Agreement of January 19, 1899---Its unusual nature---Its reception by Europe---Advantages of a Free Trade policy
The Dwellers in Egypt
The Englishman's mission---Conditions under which it was undertaken---Population of Egypt---Its mixed character---Hostility to England---Main tenets of Islam---Its failure as a social system---Degradation of women---Immutability of the law---Slavery---Intolerance---Incidents of religious belief and ceremonial---Mental and moral attributes---Seclusion of women---Polygamy---Divorce---Coarseness of literature and conversation---Filial piety---Government---Conservatism---Spirit of the laws---Language---Art---Music---Customs---Obstacles to England's mission
The Moslems
Classification of the population---The Turco-Egyptians---The Egyptians---The hierarchy---The Grand Mufti---The head of the El-Azhar University---The Grand Kadi---The Sheikh el-Bekri---Mohammed el-Saadat---Abdul-Khalik el-Saadat---Mohammed Abdu---Mohammed Beyram---The Omdehs and Sheikhs---Their submissiveness to the Pashas---Their sympathy with Arabi---Their tyranny over the fellaheen---Their fellings towards England---The Fellaheen---The Bedouins
Appendix.---Translation of a Letter from a Sheikh of Keneh to a Sheikh of the Mosque of Seyyidna-Hussein at Cairo
The Christians
The Copts---The conservatism of their religion---Their character---Their attitude towards the English---The reform movement---The Syrians---Their position---Their unpopularity---Their attitude towards the English---The Armenians---Their subserviency to the Turks---Nubar Pasha---His son Boghos---Yacoub Pasha Artin---Tigrane Pasha---The Egyptians should not be weighed in European Scales
Tge Europeanised Egyptians
The Europeanised Egyptians are generally Agnostics---Effects of Europeanising the East---Gallicised Egyptians---Attractions of French Civilisation---Unsuitability of the French system to form the Egyptian character---The official classes generally hostile to England
The Europeans
Number of Europeans---The Levantines---Their characteristics---The Greeks---Their commercial enterprise---The English---The Army of Occupation---Anglo-Egyptian officials---Feelings entertained by other Europeans towards the English---Summary of the classes friendly and hostile to England
The Machinery of Government
Nature of the machinery---Parts of the machine---1. The Sultan---The Firman of 1892---The Sinai Peninsula---2. The Khedive---Rescript of August 28, 1878---Constitutionalism of Tewfik Pasha---3. The Ministers---The Departments---Position of an Egyptian Minister---4. The Organic Law of May 1, 1883---The Provincial Councils---The Legislative Council---The Legislative Assembly
The British Officials
Qualifications required of an Anglo-Egyptian official---Positions of the civil and military officials---The French in Tunis---The Financial Adviser---Sir Edgar Vincent---The Judicial Adviser---History of his appointment---Sir Raymond West---Justice under Egyptian management---Sir John Scott---The Public Works Department---Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff---Sir William Garstin---The Financial Secretary---Blum Pasha---Lord Milner---Sir Eldon Gorst---Sub-Departments of Finance---The Interior---Public Instruction---European and Egyptian officials
The International Administrations
Internationalism---1. The Commission of the Public Debt---Functions of the Commission---The Egyptian Accounts---The Reserve Fund---Uselessness of the Commission---?. The Railway Administration---3. The Daira Sanieh---4. The Domains Administration
The Judicial System
The Mixed Courts---Nubar Pasha's objects in creating them---Attributes and composition of the Mixed Courts---Defects in the institution---The Consular Courts---The Native Tribunals and the Kadi's Courts---Summary of jurisdictions in Egypt
The Workers of the Machine
Importance of persons rather than of systems---The British Consul-General---Tewfik Pasha---The Prime Ministers---Cherif Pasha---Nubar Pasha---Riaz Pasha---Mustapha Pasha Fehmi
The Struggle for a Policy 1882-1883
Intentions of the British Government---Proposal to reduce the garrison---Sir Edward Malet's opinion---Difficulty of combining reform and evacuation---I recommend reduction and concentration at Alexandria---The Government approve of this recommendation---The reduction is countermanded
Appendix.---Despatch from Sir Evelyn Baring to Earl Granville, dated October 9, 1883
The Northbrook Mission September-November 1884
It is decided to send a Special Commissioner to Cairo---The policy of reporting---Lord Northbrook arrives in Egypt---His financial proposals---His General Report---The Government reject his proposals
The Wolff Conventions August 1885-October 1887
Sir Henry Wolff appointed Special Commissioner---Convention of October 24, 1885---Moukhtar Pasha---Convention of May 22, 1887---Comparison of the two conventions---Frontier affairs---The army---Civil reforms---Evacuation---France and Russia oppose the Convention---The Sultan refuses to ratify it---Moukhtar Pasha permanently located in Egypt---Results of the Wolff mission
The Neutralisation of the Suez Canal
Neutralisation of Egypt---Neutralisatio of the Canal---The word neutrality---Circular of January 3, 1883---The Suez Canal Commission of 1885---The Commission dissolved---The Wolff Convention---Signature of the Canal Convention---Its application
The Anglo-French Agreement of 1904
Apparent insolubility of the Egyptian question---Gradual change in public opinion---Statement of Lord Ellenborough---The Business of diplomacy---The main facts of the problem---The events of 1904---Morocco---Signature of the Anglo-French Agreement---Remarks on the Agreement
The Courbash
Universal use of the courbash---Lord Dufferin's Circular---It was partially inoperative---Final abolition of the courbash
The Corvee
Connection between the courbash and the corvee---Merits and demerits of the corvee system---The corvee law---Dredging the canals---Proposed reduction of the land-tax---Proposal to abolish the corvee instead of reducing the land-tax---The Powers object---Action of the British Government---The corvee is not called out---A Decree is issued partially abolishing the corvee---Final settlement of the question in 1892
Universality of corruption---Steps taken to arrest it---Example of British officials---Diminution of corrupt practices
European Privilege
Origin of the Capitulations---Difference between Turkey and Egypt---Abuse of the Capitulations---Raison d'etre of European privilege---Anomaly of the British position---Impossibility of arriving at any general solution---Minor changes---The right to enact by-laws---The House Tax---The Professional Tax---Proposal to create a local legislature---Internationalism
The first bankruptcy of Egypt---Risk of a second bankruptcy---The Race against bankruptcy---The era of reform---Fiscal relief---Reduction of taxation---Increase of revenue---Expenditure---Aggregate surplus since 1888---The indebtedness of the fellaheen---Distribution of land---Importance of the financial question
Nature's bounty to Egypt---The work of the Pharaohs---Turkish neglect---Progress under British guidance---Programme of the future---Causes of the progress---Qualifications of the officers selected---Absence of international obstruction---Loan of £1,800,000---Support of the public---Importance of the work
The Army
Disbandment of the army in 1882---History of the army---Mehemet Ali's Syrian campaigns---Ismail Pasha---The Abyssinian campaign---Tel-el-Kebir---It is decided to form a felaheen army officered by Englishmen---The black battalions---Will the army fight?---Reasons why the reorganisation has been successfully conducted
The Interior
Uncertainty of British policy---Difficulties of administrative reform---Lord Dufferin's Police proposals---Mr. Clifford Lloyd---Changes made in the Police organisation---Nubar Pasha's conflict with Mr. Clifford Lloyd---The latter resigns---Friction in the Interior---Appointment of an Adviser---And of Inspectors---Difficulties of the present moment
Sub-Departments of the Interior
Prisons---State of the prisons in 1882---Reform---Slavery---The Slave Trade and slavery---The Convention of 1877---The Slave Home---Change of opinion in Egypt---Success of the Convention---Medical and Sanitary Administration---Egyptian superstitions---Clot Bey---State of things in 1883---Improvements effected---Sanitary reform---Impediments to Progress---Treatment of epidemics
Sir Edward Malet's opinion---The Mixed and Consular Courts---The Kadis' Courts---The Native Tribunals---Justice prior to 1883---The French system taken as a model---The judicial machinery---Reforms instituted by Sir John Scott and Sir Malcolm McIlwraith---Opposition to these reforms---The personnel of the Courts---Result of the reforms
Educational policy---Obstacles to progress---Want of money---The Pashas---Intellectual awakening of Egypt---The Mosque schools---Primary and Secondary education---Progress made in forming the characters of the Egyptians---Female education
The Soudan
The Nature of the Soudan problem---Extent---Population---Results obtained by the Convention of 1899---Executive agency---Finance---Railways---Slavery
Sumamry of this work---Changes since the time of Ismail---The British reformers---Their Egyptian allies---Stability of the reforms
The Future of Egypt
Quo Vadis?---The question of the occupation---Its duration Egyptian autonomy---The Capitulations---Desirability of training the Egyptians---Importance of finance---Display of sympathy---Conclusion
Khedives of Egypt---British Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs---British Agents and Consuls-General in Egypt---Chronological Table of Events
Index 585

Rewards Program

Write a Review