9780138057152

Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780138057152

  • ISBN10:

    013805715X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-05-30
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Refreshingly contemporary, this beginning-level introduction to modern physics covers all the important topics of relativity, quantum mechanics, systems with two or more atoms, and subatomic physics--but does so in a manner that won't overwhelm readers who are new to the subject. Explanations of concepts are exceptionally readable (often enlivened with humor), and an abundance of high-quality worked examples and practice problems give readers the hands-on practice necessary to master applications. The Space and Time of Relativity. Relativistic Mechanics. Atoms. Quantization of Light. Quantization of Atomic Energy Levels. Matter Waves. The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension. The Three-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation. Electron Spin. Multielectron Atoms; the Pauli Principle and the Periodic Table. Atomic Transitions and Radiation. Molecules. Solids--Theory. Solids--Applications. Statistical Mechanics. The Structure of Atomic Nuclei. Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions. Elementary Particles. For anyone needing an introduction to, or refresher of, modern physics.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
To the Student xv
PART 1 Relativity
The Space and Time of Relativity
2(44)
Relativity
2(1)
The Relativity of Orientation and Origin
3(1)
Moving Reference Frames
4(3)
Classical Relativity and the Speed of Light
7(3)
The Michelson--Morley Experiment
10(2)
The Postulates of Relativity
12(2)
Measurement of Time
14(1)
The Relativity of Time; Time Dilation
15(4)
Evidence for Time Dilation
19(2)
Length Contraction
21(4)
The Lorentz Transformation
25(3)
Applications of the Lorentz Transformation
28(4)
The Velocity--Addition Formula
32(2)
The Doppler Effect
34(12)
Checklist for Chapter 1
39(1)
Problems for Chapter 1
40(6)
Relativistic Mechanics
46(40)
Introduction
46(1)
Mass in Relativity
46(1)
Relativistic Momentum
47(4)
Relativistic Energy
51(5)
Two Useful Relations
56(3)
Conversion of Mass to Energy
59(5)
Force in Relativity
64(3)
Massless Particles
67(3)
When Is Nonrelativistic Mechanics Good Enough?
70(1)
General Relativity
71(7)
The Global Positioning System: An Application of Relativity
78(8)
Checklist for Chapter 2
79(1)
Problems for Chapter 2
80(6)
PART 2 Quantum Mechanics
Atoms
86(39)
Introduction
86(1)
Elements, Atoms, and Molecules
86(3)
Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons
89(1)
Some Atomic Parameters
90(4)
The Atomic Mass Unit
94(2)
Avogadro's Number and the Mole
96(1)
Kinetic Theory
97(3)
The Mean Free Path and Diffusion
100(4)
Brownian Motion
104(2)
Thomson's Discovery of the Electron
106(2)
Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment
108(2)
Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom
110(6)
Derivation of Rutherford's Formula
116(9)
Checklist for Chapter 3
118(1)
Problems for Chapter 3
119(6)
Quantization of Light
125(19)
Quantization
125(1)
Planck and Blackbody Radiation
126(1)
The Photoelectric Effect
127(4)
X-rays and Bragg Diffraction
131(3)
X-ray Spectra
134(2)
The Compton Effect
136(3)
Particle--Wave Duality
139(5)
Checklist for Chapter 4
140(1)
Problems for Chapter 4
141(3)
Quantization of Atomic Energy Levels
144(24)
Introduction
144(1)
Atomic Spectra
145(2)
The Balmer--Rydberg Formula
147(2)
The Problem of Atomic Stability
149(1)
Bohr's Explanation of Atomic Spectra
149(2)
The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
151(3)
Properties of the Bohr Atom
154(3)
Hydrogen-like Ions
157(3)
X-ray Spectra
160(2)
Other Evidence for Atomic Energy Levels
162(6)
Checklist for Chapter 5
165(1)
Problems for Chapter 5
165(3)
Matter Waves
168(35)
Introduction
168(1)
De Broglie's Hypothesis
169(1)
Experimental Verification
170(3)
The Quantum Wave Function
173(5)
Which Slit Does the Electron Go Through?
178(1)
Sinusoidal Waves
179(2)
Wave Packets and Fourier Analysis
181(7)
The Uncertainty Relation for Position and Momentum
188(4)
The Uncertainty Relation for Time and Energy
192(2)
Velocity of a Wave Packet
194(9)
Checklist for Chapter 6
197(1)
Problems for Chapter 6
198(5)
The Schrodinger Equation in One Dimension
203(45)
Introduction
203(1)
Classical Standing Waves
204(2)
Standing Waves in Quantum Mechanics; Stationary States
206(2)
The Particle in a Rigid Box
208(3)
The Time-Independent Schrodinger Equation
211(3)
The Rigid Box Again
214(8)
The Free Particle
222(2)
The Nonrigid Box
224(6)
The Simple Harmonic Oscillator
230(4)
Tunneling
234(3)
The Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation
237(11)
Checklist for Chapter 7
242(1)
Problems for Chapter 7
243(5)
The Three-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation
248(39)
Introduction
248(1)
The Three-Dimensional Schrodinger Equation and Partial Derivatives
249(2)
The Two-Dimensional Square Box
251(8)
The Two-Dimensional Central-Force Problem
259(4)
The Three-Dimensional Central-Force Problem
263(2)
Quantization of Angular Momentum
265(5)
The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom
270(3)
Hydrogenic Wave Functions
273(6)
Shells
279(1)
Hydrogen-Like Ions
280(7)
Checklist for Chapter 8
282(1)
Problems for Chapter 8
283(4)
Electron Spin
287(20)
Introduction
287(1)
Spin Angular Momentum
287(3)
Magnetic Moments
290(2)
The Zeeman Effect
292(4)
Spin Magnetic Moments
296(1)
The Anomalous Zeeman Effect
297(2)
Fine Structure
299(2)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
301(6)
Checklist for Chapter 9
304(1)
Problems for Chapter 9
304(3)
Multielectron Atoms; the Pauli Principle and Periodic Table
307(27)
Introduction
307(1)
The Independent-Particle Approximation
308(2)
The IPA Energy Levels
310(2)
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
312(2)
Fermions and Bosons; the Origin of the Pauli Principle
314(2)
Ground States of the First Few Elements
316(4)
The Remaining Elements
320(4)
The Periodic Table
324(3)
Excited States of Atoms
327(7)
Checklist for Chapter 10
330(1)
Problems for Chapter 10
331(3)
Atomic Transitions and Radiation
334(34)
Introduction
334(1)
Radiation by Classical Charges
334(3)
Stationary States and Transitions
337(1)
More Quantum Formalism
338(5)
Transitions; Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory
343(6)
A Brief Review
349(1)
Spontaneous Emission
349(1)
Atomic Selection Rules
350(2)
Lasers
352(5)
Further Properties of Lasers
357(11)
Checklist for Chapter 11
362(1)
Problems for Chapter 11
363(5)
PART 3 Systems with Two or More Atoms
Molecules
368(41)
Introduction
368(2)
Overview of Molecular Properties
370(5)
The Ionic Bond
375(4)
The Covalent Bond
379(8)
Directional Properties of Covalent Bonds
387(2)
Excited States of Molecules
389(8)
Molecular Spectra
397(12)
Checklist for Chapter 12
403(1)
Problems for Chapter 12
403(6)
Solids -- Theory
409(45)
Introduction
409(2)
Bonding of Solids
411(4)
Crystals and Noncrystals
415(5)
Energy Levels of Electrons in a Solid; Bands
420(2)
Conductors and Insulators --- A Qualitative View
422(3)
The Drude Model of Conductivity
425(4)
Electron Collisions in Metals
429(3)
The Fermi Speed
432(4)
Degeneracy Pressure
436(2)
White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes
438(2)
Classical and Quantum Gases
440(5)
Bose--Einstein Condensation
445(9)
Checklist for Chapter 13
448(1)
Problems for Chapter 13
449(5)
Solids -- Applications
454(41)
Introduction
454(1)
Semiconductors
455(5)
The pn Junction Diode
460(3)
The Transistor
463(3)
Further Semiconductor Applications
466(4)
Integrated Circuits
470(3)
The Scanning Tunneling Microscope
473(6)
Superconductivity
479(6)
The Digital Information Age
485(10)
Checklist for Chapter 14
489(1)
Problems for Chapter 14
489(6)
Statistical Mechanics
495(39)
Introduction
495(1)
Temperature
496(3)
The Boltzmann Factor
499(4)
Counting Microstates: The Equal-Probability Hypothesis
503(5)
The Origin of the Boltzmann Relation
508(3)
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
511(2)
The Quantum Ideal Gas --- A Many-Particle System
513(3)
Energy and Speed Distributions in an Ideal Gas
516(5)
Heat Capacities
521(13)
Checklist for Chapter 15
526(1)
Problems for Chapter 15
527(7)
PART 4 Subatomic Physics
The Structure of Atomic Nuclei
534(34)
Introduction
534(1)
Nuclear Properties
535(4)
The Nuclear Force
539(2)
Electrons versus Neutrons as Nuclear Constituents
541(3)
The IPA Potential Energy for Nucleons
544(2)
The Pauli Principle and the Symmetry Effect
546(2)
The Semiempirical Binding-Energy Formula
548(5)
The Shell Model
553(7)
Mass Spectrometers
560(8)
Checklist for Chapter 16
562(1)
Problems for Chapter 16
563(5)
Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions
568(60)
Introduction
568(1)
Radioactivity
569(1)
The Exponential Decay Law
570(6)
Beta Decay and the Neutrino
576(5)
The Natural Radioactive Series
581(4)
Nuclear Reactions
585(6)
Nuclear Fission
591(5)
Nuclear Fusion
596(3)
Nuclear Weapons
599(2)
The Theory of Alpha Decay
601(7)
Accelerators
608(5)
Particle Detectors
613(5)
Units of Radiation
618(10)
Checklist for Chapter 17
620(1)
Problems for Chapter 17
621(7)
Elementary Particles
628(50)
Elementary Particles: The Story So Far
628(2)
Antiparticles
630(5)
Pions and Muons
635(5)
The Four Fundamental Forces
640(2)
Leptons
642(2)
Discovery of More Hadrons
644(5)
The Quark Model of Hadrons
649(8)
The Strong Force and QCD
657(3)
Electroweak Interactions: The W and Z Particles
660(3)
Summary and Outlook
663(3)
High-Energy Accelerators
666(12)
Checklist for Chapter 18
669(1)
Problems for Chapter 18
670(8)
Appendix A Physical Constants 678(3)
Appendix B Useful Mathematical Relations 681(3)
Appendix C Alphabetical Lists of the Elements 684(2)
Appendix D Atomic and Nuclear Data 686(11)
Suggestions for Further Reading 697(2)
Picture Credits and References 699(1)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 700(10)
Index 710

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