Multiple Paths to Literacy Assessment and Differentiated Instruction for Diverse Learners, K-12

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2013-06-13
  • Publisher: Pearson
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In this highly regarded resource, pre- and in-service teachers see how to recognize students’ literacy strengths and needs, identify students with special needs, and plan and differentiate instruction. With a goal of making literacy accessible to all students, and taking into account each learner’s talents and multiple intelligences, the book helps teachers meet the literacy needs of the diverse learners in today’s classrooms. Included are discussions for helping readers connect instruction to the Common Core State Standards, understand the relationship between the analytic process and RTI, work successfully with English Language Learners and students with special needs, more easily explore relevant websites, and more. A number of helpful pedagogical aids are included to ensure comprehension of the important ideas—among them Spotlight on English Language Learners, Arts Connection, MI margin notes, vocabulary alert, chapter objectives, assessment resources appendixes, and a glossary. Multiple Paths to Literacy provides the perfect combination of analytical approach and practical strategies in a new edition that is updated and more accessible than ever.

Author Biography

Joan P. Gipe is Research Professor Emeritus from the University of New Orleans and Lecturer Emeritus from California State University, Sacramento. She is currently engaged as a Contributing Faculty Member with Walden University, mentoring doctoral students working on their doctoral dissertations. Joan earned her degrees at the University of Kentucky (BA, MA), and Purdue University (Ph.D.), with an emphasis on reading education. She spent many years working with learners of all ages: in Kentucky as a reading specialist, in Indiana as a fifth-grade teacher, and in several university contexts as faculty, supervisor of student teachers, department chairperson, coordinator for teaching enhancement, liaison for professional development schools, coordinator of field-based teacher education cohorts, and now doctoral student mentor. In addition to many articles in professional journals and this text, Joan is co-author with Nancy Lee Cecil of Literacy in Grades 4–8: Best Practices for a Comprehensive Program, 2nd Ed. (2009 Holcomb Hathaway Publishers).

Table of Contents

P reface        x


PART I                 F oundations


C HAPTER 1            Fundamental Aspects of Literacy Learning        2

                                 OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               2

                                 Dimensions of Literacy            3

                                           Literacy Is a Language Process 4 • Literacy Is a Cognitive Process 5 • Literacy Is a Psychological

                                           or Affective Process 5 • Literacy Is a Social/Cultural Process 6 • Literacy Is a Physiological

                                           Process 6 • Literacy Is an Emerging Process 7 • Literacy Represents the Linguistic Intelligence  8

                                A rts Connection         10

                                Prevalent Views About Literacy Instruction         10

                                Two Major Goals of an Effective Literacy Program          13

                                            Academic Literacy 13 • Recreational Literacy      13

                                Summary    15

                                Recommended Websites          15


CHAPTER  2            T he Analytic Process: Preparation for Differentiating Instruction and Data-

                           Driven Decision Making                  1 6

                                    OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT                   16

                                     Justification for the Analytic Process     17

                                             Problems Associated with Assumptive Teaching 17 • The Analytic Process Paradigm and the

                                             RTI Framework               19

                                    Analytic Teaching: Teaching for Democracy and Social Justice     19

                                    The Analytic Teacher 20 • The Analytic Process and Multiple Intelligences Theory           21

                                    A rts Connection         24

                                    Analyzing Components of Literacy Learning to Assist Differentiated Instruction       25

                                               Levels of Analysis and Correlative Diagnostic Questions 25

                                    Basic Steps in the Analytic Process        31

                                               Analysis of Literacy Behaviors 31 • Generation of Possible Teaching Hypotheses 31 • Teaching

                                               32 • Reexamination of Literacy Behaviors               35

                                    From Teaching Hypotheses to Lesson Plans        35

                                                Distinguishing Teacher Objectives and Correlated Student Learning Objectives 36 • Writing

                                                Student Learning Objectives 37 • Learning Activities               39

                                    Summary    42

                                    Recommended Websites          44


CHAPTER  3            L inguistic Diversity in Literacy Education for English Language Learners     4 6

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT             46

                                   Communicative Competence 48

                                    Some Linguistic Variations      50

                                               Variations across Languages 50 • Variations within a Language 53 • Other Linguistic Variations     54

                                    Aspects of Second-Language Acquisition            55

                                    Some Diversity-Related Principles for Literacy Instruction               56

                                    A rts Connection         60

                                    Effective Instructional Practices for English Learners        61

                                                A Developmental Stage Approach for English Language Acquisition 61 • Additional

                                               Considerations when Planning Instruction for English Learners          64

                                    Summary    65

                                    Recommended Websites          66


C HAPTER 4            P hysical, Psychological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Literacy Development     6 8

                                    OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT           68

                                     Physical Factors         69

                                     A rts Connection         78

                                     Psychological Factors               80

                                     Environmental Factors             85

                                     Summary    92

                                     Recommended Websites          92


CHAPTER 5            F ormal Literacy Assessment: Summative Assessments  9 4

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               94

                                   Summative versus Formative Assessment

                                    Purposes of Testing

                                   Assessment and Evaluation: Basic Concepts      96

                                                Definitions 96 • Basic Measurement Concepts    98

                                   Purposes of Testing   101

                                   Administering Standardized Tests          101

                                                Standardized Reading Survey Tests 102 • Standardized Diagnostic Reading Tests 103 • Criterion

                                                -Referenced Tests        105

                                   Summary    107

                                   Recommended Websites          107


CHAPTER 6            I nformal Literacy Assessment: Formative Assessments            1 08

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               108

                                   Commonly Used Formative Assessment Tools   109

                                                Text-Related Tests 109 • Informal Reading Inventories 111 • Cloze Procedure 127 •

                                                Modifications for Emergent Readers 129 • Assessment by Observation, Conferences and

                                                Interviews, and Performance Samples     129

                                   A rts Connection         135

                                   Documentation and Record Keeping    138

                                   Vignette       139

                                   Summary    142

                                   Recommended Websites          142




CHAPTER 7            E arly Literacy Skills        1 44

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               144

                                   Early Literacy Development and Emergent Readers         145

                                   Oral Language Development  145

                                                Assessment Techniques for Oral Language 146 • Instruction for Oral Language Development        


                                   A rts Connection         149

                                    Print Conventions and Book Handling 150

                                                Assessment of Print Conventions and Book Handling 151 • Instruction for Print Conventions and

                                                Book Handling         151

                                    Phonemic Awareness                                152

                                                Assessment for Phonemic Awareness 152 • Instruction for Developing Phonemic Awareness         153

                                    Letter Recognition     155

                                                Assessment for Letter Recognition 156 • Instruction for Letter Recognition       157

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: Word Configuration Boxes               159

                                    Summary    160

                                    Recommended Websites          161


CHAPTER 8            T he Reading/Writing Connection: Best Practices and Strategies          162

                                    OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT              162

                                    The Role of Teachers in an Effective Writing Program      163

                                    Implementing the Writing Program        164

                                                Observations, Initial Assessments, and Instructional Decisions 165 • Nonstructured Writing 166

                                                • Structured Writing Lessons and Best Practices  167

                                    The Creative Writing Process   175

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: The Language Experience Approach              176

                                                 Prewriting            176

                                    A rts Connection         177

                                                 Drafting/Composing and Sharing for Feedback 179 • Revising and Editing 179 •

                                                 Publishing/Sharing              181

                                    Implementing a Spelling Program          181

                                                Nonstructured Spelling  183 • Structured Spelling Best Practices       183

                                    Writing Instruction and Assessment: A Continuous Process             185

                                                Shared Observations 188 • Postwriting Questionnaires 188 • Spelling Questionnaires 188 •

                                                Portfolios            189

                                    Summary    190

                                    Recommended Websites          191


CHAPTER 9            W ord Recognition                  1 92

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT          192

                                    Listening Vocabulary                194

                                                Assessment 195 • Instruction              195

                                    Sight Vocabulary       196

                                                Assessment 198 • Instruction              199

                                    Fluency        205

                                                Predictable Language Method 206 • Neurological Impress Method (NIM) 206 • Repeated Readings

                                                207 • Echo Reading 207 • Readers’ Theatre           207

                                    Word Recognition Processes    208

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: Choral Reading and Readers’ Theater           209

                                    Use of Context Clues 208 • Knowledge of Word Parts: Phonics and Structural Analysis  214

                                    A rts Connection         216

                                               Visual Analysis 219 • Blending and Synthesizing               226

                                    Summary    229

                                    Recommended Websites          230


CHAPTER 10         Reading Vocabulary              2 32

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               232

                                   Assessing Knowledge of Word Meanings              233

                                               Identification 234 • Multiple Choice 235 • Matching 235 • Checking  236

                                    Effective Instruction for Building Reading Vocabulary    237

                                              Choosing Words to Teach 238 • Teaching Individual Word Meanings               239

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: Homophones, Homographs, and Idioms       245

                                    Teaching Word Learning Strategies     247

                                    A rts Connection         250

                                    Developing Word Awareness 255 • Instruction for Specialized Vocabulary 256

                                    Summary    262

                                    Recommended Websites          263


CHAPTER 11          R eading Comprehension: Foundations   2 64

                                    OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT               264

                                    Factors Affecting the Comprehension Process    266

                                               Factors within the Reader 266 • Factors within the Written Text 269 • Environmental Factors          


                                    Theories and Models of the Comprehension Process         271

                                                Schema Theory 271 • Reading Comprehension as Cognitive-Based Processing 272 • Reading

                                                Comprehension as Sociocognitive Processing 273 • Reading Comprehension as Transactional 273 •

                                                Reading Comprehension as Transactional-Sociopsycholinguistic 274 • Reading Comprehension as

                                                Influenced by Attitude                275

                                    Skilled Versus Less Skilled Comprehenders          275

                                    Assessment and Instruction for General Comprehension  277

                                                Assessing the Ability to Organize Text 278 • Instruction for General Comprehension       280

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: The Experience-Text-Relationship Method   291

                                    A rts Connection         300

                                    Summary    304

                                    Recommended Websites          304


CHAPTER  12          S trategic Reading for Narrative Text    3 06

                                    OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT             306

                                    Assessment for Narrative Text: Retellings            307

                                    Instruction for Narrative Text     309

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: Generating Stories               320

                                    A rts Connection         321

                                    Adolescent Literacy  323

                                    Summary    325

                                    Recommended Websites          325


CHAPTER  13          S trategic Reading for Expository Text   3 28

                                   OBJECTIVES ┐VOCABULARY ALERT 328

                                    Assessing Awareness of Strategic Reading for Expository Text       330

                                    Instructional Techniques for Developing Strategic Reading for Expository Text         331

                                    A Framework for Strategic Expository Reading        331

                                    A Framework for Expository Writing

                                    Spotlight on English Learners: GIST—Generating Interaction Between Schemata and Text 340

                                    Expository Reading and the Internet    349

                                    A rts Connection         349

                                    Summary    352

                                    Recommended Websites          352


CHAPTER 14          S tudy Skills and Test-Taking Strategies  3 54

                                    OBJECTIVES Ï VOCABULARY ALERT             354

                                    Study Skills and Prerequisite Abilities    356

                                    Assessing Locational Skills      357

                                                Alphabetizing 357 • Book Parts 358 • Reference Materials 358 • Reference Skills             360

                                    Instruction for Developing Locational Skills        361

                                                General Teaching Procedures for Direct Instruction 363 • Specific Activities     364

                                   Assessing for Organizing Information   367

                                                Attentive Listening 367 • Classifying Words, Phrases, and Sentences 367 • Main Ideas and Supporting


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