9780534997601

Natural Hazards and Disasters

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780534997601

  • ISBN10:

    0534997600

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-03-17
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

1. Introduction. 2. Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards. 3. Earthquakes and Earthquake Waves. 4. Earthquake Prediction and Tectonic Environments. 5. Tsunami. 6. Volcanoes: Materials, Hazards, and Eruptive Mechanisms. 7. Volcanoes: Types, Behavior, and Risks. 8. Landslides. 9. Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling Soils. 10. Climate and Weather Related To Hazards. 11. Streams and Flood Processes. 12. Floods and Human Interactions. 13. Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion. 14. Hurricanes and Nor'easters. 15. Thunder Storms and Tornadoes. 16. Wildfires. 17. Impact of Asteroids and Comets. 18. The Future: Where Do We Go From Here?

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Natural Hazards and Disasters: Catastrophic Events in Nature
1(11)
Living in Harm's Way
1(2)
Avoiding Natural Disasters
3(1)
Land Use Planning
3(1)
Pointing the Blame Finger
3(1)
Predicting Catastrophe
4(1)
Randomness in Natural Events
5(1)
Hazard and Risk
6(2)
Population and Social Pressures
8(1)
The Role of Public Education
9(1)
Key Points
10(1)
Important Words and Concepts
11(1)
Questions for Review
11(1)
Further Reading
11(1)
Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards
12(23)
Development of the Theory
12(4)
Earth Structure
16(17)
Where Plates Pull Apart (Spreading Zones or Divergent Boundaries)
23(1)
Where Plates Come Together (Convergent Boundaries)
24(5)
Where Plates Slide Past Each Other (Transform Faults)
29(1)
Hotspot Volcanoes
30(3)
Box 2.1 The Scientific Method
33(1)
Summary
33(1)
Key Points
33(1)
Important Words and Concepts
34(1)
Questions for Review
34(1)
Further Reading
34(1)
Earthquakes and Their Damages: Shaking Ground, Collapsing Buildings
35(29)
Earthquakes Up Close
Loma Prieta, 1989
36(2)
Earthquakes and Earthquake Waves
38(1)
Frequency and Wavelength
38(1)
Seismographs
39(1)
Box 3.1 Movement of a Pendulum
39(2)
Faults and Earthquakes
41(3)
Causes of Earthquakes
42(2)
Locating Earthquakes
44(1)
Earthquake Size and Characteristics
44(6)
Mercalli Intensity Scale
45(2)
Richter Magnitude Scale
47(1)
Large-Earthquake Characteristics
47(1)
Earthquake Frequency
48(1)
Ground Acceleration, Shaking Time, and Displacement
48(2)
Ground Motion and Failure During Earthquakes
50(1)
Liquefaction
50(1)
Case in Point
Mexico City Earthquake, 1985
51(2)
Quick Clays
52(1)
Landslides
52(1)
Effect of Bedrock Structure
53(1)
Damage Control
53(1)
Case in Point
Armenian Earthquake, 1988
53(4)
Case in Point
Kobe Earthquake, Japan, 1995
57(2)
Earthquake Effects on Buildings
59(3)
Building Vibration and Oscillation
60(1)
Base Isolation
60(2)
Key Points
62(1)
Important Words and Concepts
63(1)
Questions for Review
63(1)
Further Reading
63(1)
Earthquake Prediction and Tectonic Environments
64(35)
Predicting Earthquakes
64(1)
Earthquake Predictions and Consequences
65(1)
Earthquake Precursors
65(1)
Case in Point
Haicheng and Tangshan Earthquakes, China, 1975 and 1976
66(7)
Seismic Gaps
67(1)
Migrating Earthquakes
68(1)
Earthquake Regularity
68(1)
Paleoseismology
69(1)
Water as a Triggering Mechanism?
69(2)
Early Warning Systems
71(1)
Long-Term Forecasts and Risk Maps
71(1)
Psychics
72(1)
Surviving Earthquakes
73(1)
The San Andreas Fault
73(12)
San Francisco Bay Area Earthquakes
77(2)
Hayward and Rodgers Creek Faults
79(2)
Los Angeles Area Earthquakes
81(4)
Tectonic Environments of Major Earthquakes
85(11)
Transform Faults
85(2)
Subduction Zones
87(1)
Blind Thrust Faults over an Active Subduction Zone
88(1)
Continent-Continent Collision Zones
88(2)
Blind Thrust Faults Associated with a Continental Collision Zone
90(1)
Continental Spreading Zones
91(2)
Intraplate Earthquakes without Obvious Tectonic Context
93(3)
The Potential for Still Larger Events
96(1)
Key Points
97(1)
Important Words and Concepts
97(1)
Questions for Review
98(1)
Further Reading
98(1)
Tsunami: The Great Wave
99(28)
Harbor Waves
99(5)
Sumatra Tsunami: December 2004
99(3)
Chile Tsunami: May 1960
102(2)
Tsunami Generation
104(2)
Earthquake-Generated Tsunami
104(1)
Volcano-Generated Tsunami
105(1)
Tsunami from Fast-Moving Landslides or Rockfalls
105(1)
Case in Point
Anchorage, Alaska, 1964
106(2)
Case in Point
Hokkaida, Japan, 1993
108(1)
Case in Point
Lituya Bay, Alaska, 1958
109(1)
Case in Point
Glacier Bay, Alaska
110(1)
Case in Point
Krakatau
111(3)
Tsunami from Volcano Flank Collapse
111(3)
Tsunami from Asteroid Impact
114(1)
Velocity and Height
114(2)
Coastal Effects and Vulnerability
116(6)
Tsunami from Great Earthquakes in the Pacific North west
118(4)
Tsunami Hazard Mitigation
122(1)
Surviving a Tsunami
122(1)
Tsunami Examples
122(1)
Seiches
122(2)
The Potential for Giant Tsunami
124(1)
Key Points
125(1)
Important Words and Concepts
126(1)
Questions for Review
126(1)
Further Reading
126(1)
Volcanoes: Materials, Hazards, and Eruptive Mechanisms
127(24)
Volcanoes Up Close
Mount St. Helens Eruption, 1980
128(2)
Mount St. Helens Eruption, May 18, 1980
130(4)
Preamble to the May 18 Eruption
131(3)
Types of Volcanic Hazards and Products
134(8)
Lava Flows
134(2)
Oceanic Ridges
136(1)
Continental Flood Basalts
136(1)
Ash Falls
137(1)
Ash Flows, Glowing Avalanches, and Surges
138(4)
Magma Chambers and the Driving Force behind Eruptions
142(7)
Magma Chambers
142(1)
Explosive Eruptions
143(1)
Volcanic Mudflows
143(2)
Poisonous Gases
145(1)
Volcanic Behavior: Relationships to Viscosity, Volatiles, and Volume
146(3)
Key Points
149(1)
Important Words and Concepts
150(1)
Questions for Review
150(1)
Further Reading
150(1)
Volcanoes: Types, Behavior, and Risks
151(36)
Basaltic Volcanoes
151(6)
Shield Volcanoes
151(4)
Cinder Cones
155(2)
Andesitic Volcanoes: Stratovolcanoes
157(1)
Case in Point
The High Cascades
157(8)
Mount St. Helens
159(1)
Mount Hood
159(1)
Mount Rainier
159(2)
Mount Lassen
161(1)
Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)
162(1)
Three Sisters
163(1)
Mount Shasta
164(1)
Rhyolitic Volcanoes
165(1)
Lava Domes
165(1)
Case in Point
Mount Pelee, Martinique, West Indies
166(4)
Giant Continental Calderas
168(2)
Case in Point
Yellowstone Volcano
170(1)
Volcanic Eruptions and Products
171(2)
Explosive Eruption Styles
172(1)
Assessment of Hazard and Risk of Volcanoes
173(1)
Ancient Eruptions
173(1)
Case in Point
Santorini, Greece
174(4)
Eruption Warnings: Volcanic Precursors
176(2)
Case in Point
Mount Pinatubo
178(2)
Case in Point
Vesuvius and Its Neighbors
180(5)
Violent Eruptions and Active Subduction Zones
185(1)
A Look Ahead
185(1)
Key Points
185(1)
Important Words and Concepts
186(1)
Questions for Review
186(1)
Further Reading
186(1)
Landslides and Other Downslope Movements: Falling Mountains
187(41)
Factors Controlling Downslope Movement of Landslides
187(1)
Landslides Up Close
La Conchita, California
188(2)
Load
189(1)
Slope
189(1)
Slope Material: Strength and Friction
190(8)
Friction
190(1)
A Little Water
191(1)
Too Much Water
191(2)
Clays and Clay Behavior
193(1)
Liquefaction and Earthquakes
194(1)
Quick Clays
194(1)
Earthquakes Trigger Many Landslides
195(1)
Internal Surfaces
196(2)
Old Landslides
198(1)
Types of Downslope Movement
198(2)
Rockfalls and Rock Avalanches
198(2)
Debris Avalanches
200(1)
Case in Point
Rockfall Hazards West of Denver
200(1)
Case in Point
Rockville Rockfall, Southwestern Utah
201(1)
Case in Point
Madison Slide, Montana
202(1)
Case in Point
Frank Slide, Alberta
203(1)
Case in Point
Elam, Switzerland
204(1)
Case in Point
Yungay, Peru
205(5)
Rotational Slides and Slumps
206(1)
Stresses on the Shear Surface: Method of Slices
207(1)
Sackung
208(1)
Translational Slides
208(2)
Case in Point
The Vaiont Landslide
210(6)
Lateral-Spreading Slides
212(1)
Debris Flows
212(4)
Case in Point
A Tropical Climate Debris-Flow and Flood Disaster
216(4)
Danger Signs: Evidence for Former Debris Flows
219(1)
Mudflows and Earthflows
220(2)
Soil Creep
221(1)
Rates of Downslope Movements
222(1)
Submarine Slides
222(2)
Volcano Flank Collapse
222(1)
Failure of Landslide Dams
223(1)
Landslide Influences and Hazard Maps
224(1)
Why Do People Build in Landslide-Prone Areas?
224(2)
Key Points
226(1)
Important Words and Concepts
227(1)
Questions for Review
227(1)
Further Reading
227(1)
Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling Soils
228(17)
Ground Collapse and Sinkholes
228(1)
Formation of Cavities in Limestone
228(3)
Collapsing Cavities
230(1)
Sinkholes in Different Regions
231(2)
Central Florida Sinkholes
231(1)
Sinkhole Problems in Central and Eastern Pennsylvania
232(1)
Sinkholes in Kentucky
233(1)
Collapse over a Salt Mine in Western New York
233(1)
Land Subsidence
233(2)
Mining Groundwater and Petroleum
233(2)
Case in Point
San Joaquin Valley of California
235(3)
Drainage of Organic Soils
237(1)
Ground Subsidence with Drying of Clays
237(1)
Case in Point
Venice, Italy
238(2)
Swelling Soils
240(2)
Case in Point
Denver's Swelling Soils
242(2)
Key Points
244(1)
Important Words and Concepts
244(1)
Questions for Review
244(1)
Further Reading
244(1)
Climate and Weather Related to Hazards: Storms on the Horizon
245(23)
Global Warming
245(3)
Atmospheric Cooling
248(1)
Case in Point
Mount Tambora
248(1)
Climatic Cycles?
248(3)
Days
249(1)
Seasons
249(1)
Precession of the Equinoxes: ~26,000 Years
249(1)
Change in the Tilt of Earth's Axis: ~41,000 Years
249(1)
Change in the Elliptical Shape of Earth's Orbit: ~100,000-Year Cycles
249(2)
Basic Elements of Weather
251(9)
Hydrologic Cycle and Humidity
251(1)
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
252(1)
Atmospheric Pressure and Weather
253(1)
Coriolis Effect
254(2)
Global Air Circulation
256(1)
Jet Stream
257(1)
Weather Fronts
258(2)
El Nino
260(2)
Normal Pattern
260(1)
El Nino Conditions
261(1)
Predicting El Nino
262(1)
North Atlantic Oscillation
262(1)
Climate Controls on Flooding
263(2)
Importance of Duration and Intensity of Rainfall
264(1)
Dry Climates
265(1)
Strong Winds Not Associated with Storms
265(1)
Chinook Winds
265(1)
Santa Ana Winds
265(1)
Key Points
265(1)
Important Words and Concepts
266(1)
Questions for Review
266(1)
Further Reading
267(1)
Streams and Flood Processes: Rising Waters
268(29)
Stream Flow and Sediment Transport Processes
269(1)
Stream Flow and Gradient
269(1)
Floods Up Close
Big Thompson Canyon, Northwest of Denver
270(7)
Bankfull Channel Width, Depth, and Capacity
272(1)
Sediment Transport and Stream Equilibrium
273(4)
Sediment Transport Mechanisms
277(1)
Stream Types
277(5)
Meandering Streams
277(3)
Braided Streams
280(1)
Bedrock Streams
281(1)
The Hydrograph
282(2)
Precipitation Intensity and Runoff
282(1)
Stream Order and Hydrograph Shape
283(1)
Flood Crests Move Downstream
283(1)
Floods on Frozen or Water-Saturated Ground
284(1)
Destructive Energy of Floods
285(1)
Stream Power
285(1)
Flood Frequency and Recurrence Intervals
285(1)
Recurrence Intervals and Discharge
285(1)
Case in Point
Spring Thaw from the South on a North-Flowing River
286(2)
Case in Point
Guadalupe River Upstream of New Braunfels, Texas
288(4)
Problems with Recurrence Intervals
290(2)
Floodplains and 100-Year Floodplains
292(2)
Flood Insurance
293(1)
Key Points
294(1)
Important Words and Concepts
295(1)
Questions for Review
295(1)
Further Reading
296(1)
Floods and Human Interactions
297(29)
Effects of Development on Floodplains
297(1)
Levees
297(9)
The Great Mississippi River Basin Flood of 1993
299(4)
Intentional Levee Breaks
303(1)
Levees, Safety, and Costs
304(1)
Avulsion
305(1)
Channelization
305(1)
Case in Point
Yellow (Huang-Ho) River of China
306(2)
Case in Point
New Orleans
308(2)
Case in Point
A Channelized Old World River
310(2)
Flood Control and Multipurpose Dams
311(1)
Floods Caused by Failure of Human-Made Dams
311(1)
Case in Point
Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley, California
312(3)
Urbanization
314(1)
Case in Point
Failure of the Teton Dam, Idaho
315(2)
Flash Flood Hazards
316(1)
Changes Imposed on Streams
317(3)
Forest Fires and Range Fires
317(1)
Logging and Overgrazing
317(1)
Hydraulic Placer Mining
317(1)
Dams and Stream Equilibrium
318(1)
Bridges
319(1)
Mining of Stream Sand and Gravel
319(1)
Paleoflood Analysis
320(1)
Early Postflood Evidence
320(1)
Case in Point
Channel Deepening and Groundwater Loss from Gravel Mining
321(2)
Paleoflood Markers
322(1)
Review of Factors That Influence Floods
323(1)
Complexity, or ``Coincident Criticality'' and Floods
324(1)
Key Points
324(1)
Important Words and Concepts
325(1)
Questions for Review
325(1)
Further Reading
325(1)
Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion: Rivers of Sand
326(25)
Living on Dangerous Coasts
326(1)
Waves
327(2)
Beaches
329(3)
Wave Refraction and Longshore Drift
329(2)
Waves on Rocky Coasts
331(1)
Beach Slope: An Equilibrium Profile
331(1)
Rip Currents
332(1)
Loss of Sand from the Beach
332(1)
People Move to the Beach
332(1)
Beach Erosion and Hardening
333(5)
Reduction of Sand Supply
333(1)
Artificial Barriers to Wave Action
333(4)
Areas of Severe Erosion
337(1)
Beach Replenishment
338(9)
Erosion of Gently Sloping Coasts and Barrier Islands
341(1)
Dunes
341(2)
Barrier Bars at Estuaries and Inlets
343(4)
Erosion Along Cliff-Bound Coasts
347(2)
Letting Nature Take Its Course
349(1)
Key Points
349(1)
Important Words and Concepts
350(1)
Questions for Review
350(1)
Further Reading
350(1)
Hurricanes and Nor'Easters: The Big Winds
351(46)
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones
351(1)
Hurricanes Up Close
Hurricane Hugo
352(3)
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale
355(1)
Formation of Hurricanes and Cyclones
355(2)
Case in Point
Hurricane Camille
357(1)
Case in Point
Hurricane Isabel
358(4)
Extratropical Cyclones, Including Nor'easters
362(3)
Winter Windstorms and Heavy Snow
364(1)
Case in Point
Superstorm, March 1993
365(1)
Case in Point
Tropical Storm Allison
365(3)
Storm Surges
368(4)
Case in Point
Galveston Hurricane
372(2)
Waves and Wave Damages
374(1)
Winds and Wind Damages
375(3)
Rainfall and Flooding
378(1)
Case in Point
Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd, 1999
379(3)
Deaths in Hurricanes
382(1)
Case in Point
Hurricane Andrew
383(1)
Poor Countries: Different Problems
384(1)
Building Restrictions
385(1)
Case in Point
Hurricane Mitch
386(3)
Case in Point
Cyclones of Bangladesh and Calcutta, India
389(2)
Hurricane Prediction and Warnings
391(3)
Categories of Hurricane Warning
392(2)
Hurricane Modification?
394(1)
A More Damaging Hurricane than Any in Historic Time?
394(1)
Key Points
395(1)
Important Words and Concepts
396(1)
Questions for Review
396(1)
Further Reading
396(1)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
397(18)
Thunderstorms
397(4)
Lightning
398(3)
Downbursts
401(1)
Hail
401(1)
Tornadoes
401(10)
The Fujita Scale
402(5)
Tornado Development
407(1)
Tornado Damage and Risks
407(4)
Case in Point
Oklahoma Tornado Outbreak
411(1)
Case in Point
Superoutbreak of 1974
412(1)
Key Points
413
Important Words and Concepts
141(273)
Questions for Review
414(1)
Further Reading
414(1)
Wildfires: Fanned Flames
415(13)
Wildfires Up Close
The Black Mountain Fire, Missoula, Montana
416(1)
Fire Process and Behavior
417(1)
Case in Point
Storm King Mountain, Colorado
418(2)
Case in Point
Southern California Firestorm, 2003
420(2)
Fire Suppression and Prevention
422(1)
Erosion Following Wildfires
422(1)
Some Concerns
423(1)
Case in Point
Bitterroot Valley Fires, Summer 2000
424(2)
Key Points
426(1)
Important Words and Concepts
426(1)
Questions for Review
427(1)
Further Reading
427(1)
Impact of Asteroids and Comets
428(16)
Projectiles from Space: The Ultimate Catastrophe?
428(2)
Chondrites
430(1)
Achondrites
430(1)
Identification of Meteorites
430(1)
Collision Course?
430(1)
Evolution of an Impact Crater
431(1)
Some Key Points and Evidence for an Impact
432(1)
Case in Point
Meteor Crater, Arizona
433(1)
Case in Point
Popigai Crater in Northern Siberia
434(2)
Case in Point
The Sudbury Complex, Ontario
436(1)
Case in Point
Ries Crater in Germany
437(1)
Chances of a Large Asteroid Impact on Earth
437(1)
Likely Consequences of Impacts with Earth
437(1)
Impact of a Large Asteroid
437(1)
Case in Point
Chicxulub Impact Crater
438(1)
A Modest-Sized Asteroid Impact
439(1)
Doomsday?
439(1)
What Could We Do About an Incoming Asteroid?
439(2)
Falling Rocks: Your Personal Chance of Being Hit by a Meteorite?
440(1)
Other Consequences of a Major Asteroid Impact
441(1)
Lunar Maria
441(1)
Case in Point
Tungusika, Siberia
441(1)
Summary
441(1)
Key Points
442(1)
Important Words and Concepts
442(1)
Questions for Review
442(1)
Further Reading
443(1)
The Future: Where Do We Go from Here?
444(7)
We Are the Problem
444(2)
Hazard Assessment and Mitigation
446(1)
Societal Attitudes
446(2)
Education
447(1)
Different Ground Rules for the Poor
448(2)
Key Points
450(1)
Important Words and Concepts
450(1)
Questions for Review
450(1)
Further Reading
450(1)
APPENDIX 1 Geological Time Scale
451(1)
APPENDIX 2 Mineral and Rock Characteristics Related to Hazards
452(11)
Igneous Rocks
452(1)
Sedimentary Rocks
452(1)
Metamorphic Rocks
453(1)
Weak Rocks and Strong Rocks
453(1)
Common Rock-Forming Minerals
453(4)
Common Rocks
457(5)
Granite
457(1)
Gabbro
457(1)
Rhyolite
458(1)
Andesite and Dacite
459(1)
Basalt
459(1)
Shale and Mudstone
460(1)
Sandstone
460(1)
Limestone
460(1)
Slate
460(1)
Schist
461(1)
Gneiss
461(1)
Serpentinite
462(1)
Rocks, Landscapes, and Hazards
462(1)
APPENDIX 3 Conversion Factors
463(2)
Glossary 465(15)
Index 480

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