9780495393269

Natural Hazards and Disasters, 2005 Hurricane Edition (with Errata Table of Contents and Index)

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  • ISBN13:

    9780495393269

  • ISBN10:

    0495393266

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-12-01
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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Summary

Written by a son-father team of prominent geologists, David and Donald Hyndman, NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS emphasizes earth and atmospheric hazards that appear suddenly or rapidly, without significant warning. The text further discusses ways to prevent or mitigate the damage caused by natural hazards, providing students with the latest scientific research related to these topics. Case in Point boxes generate discussion of individual cases to natural hazard processes and principles. The authors reinforce the need to become informed citizens and make educated living decisions. Students will find a balanced coverage of North American natural hazards, including earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, and volcanic eruptions. These hazards are illustrated using numerous four-color photos and diagrams.This new updated edition features a new chapter that extensively covers the devastating 2005 hurricane season, providing an in-depth look at the causes and effects of Hurricane Katrina.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Natural Hazards and Disasters: Catastrophic Events in Naturep. 1
Living in Harm's Wayp. 1
Avoiding Natural Disastersp. 3
Land Use Planningp. 3
Pointing the Blame Fingerp. 3
Predicting Catastrophep. 4
Randomness in Natural Eventsp. 5
Hazard and Riskp. 6
Population and Social Pressuresp. 8
The Role of Public Educationp. 9
Key Pointsp. 10
Important Words and Conceptsp. 11
Questions for Reviewp. 11
Further Readingp. 11
Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazardsp. 12
Development of the Theoryp. 12
Earth Structurep. 16
Where Plates Pull Apart (Spreading Zones or Divergent Boundaries)p. 23
Where Plates Come Together (Convergent Boundaries)p. 24
Where Plates Slide Past Each Other (Transform Faults)p. 29
Hotspot Volcanoesp. 30
The Scientific Methodp. 33
Summaryp. 33
Key Pointsp. 33
Important Words and Conceptsp. 34
Questions for Reviewp. 34
Further Readingp. 34
Earthquakes and Their Damages: Shaking Ground, Collapsing Buildingsp. 35
Earthquakes Up Close: Loma Prieta, 1989p. 36
Earthquakes and Earthquake Wavesp. 38
Frequency and Wavelengthp. 38
Seismographsp. 39
Movement of a Pendulump. 39
Faults and Earthquakesp. 41
Causes of Earthquakesp. 42
Locating Earthquakesp. 44
Earthquake Size and Characteristicsp. 44
Mercalli Intensity Scalep. 45
Richter Magnitude Scalep. 47
Large-Earthquake Characteristicsp. 47
Earthquake Frequencyp. 48
Ground Acceleration, Shaking Time, and Displacementp. 48
Ground Motion and Failure During Earthquakesp. 48
Liquefactionp. 50
Case in Point: Mexico City Earthquake, 1985p. 51
Quick Claysp. 52
Landslidesp. 52
Effect of Bedrock Structurep. 53
Damage Controlp. 53
Case in Point: Armenian Earthquake, 1988p. 53
Case in Point: Kobe Earthquake, Japan, 1995p. 57
Earthquake Effects on Buildingsp. 59
Building Vibration and Oscillationp. 60
Base Isolationp. 60
Key Pointsp. 62
Important Words and Conceptsp. 63
Question for Reviewp. 63
Further Readingp. 63
Earthquake Prediction and Tectonic Environmentsp. 64
Predicting Earthquakesp. 64
Earthquake Predictions and Consequencesp. 65
Earthquake Precursorsp. 65
Case in Point: Haicheng and Tangshan Earthquakes, China, 1975 and 1976p. 66
Seismic Gapsp. 67
Migrating Earthquakesp. 68
Earthquake Regularityp. 68
Paleoseismologyp. 69
Water as a Triggering Mechanism?p. 69
Early Warning Systemsp. 71
Long-Term Forecasts and Risk Mapsp. 71
Psychicsp. 72
Surviving Earthquakesp. 73
The San Andreas Faultp. 73
San Francisco Bay Area Earthquakesp. 77
Hayward and Rodgers Creek Faultsp. 79
Los Angeles Area Earthquakesp. 81
Tectonic Environments of Major Earthquakesp. 85
Transform Faultsp. 85
Subduction Zonesp. 87
Blind Thrust Faults over an Active Subduction Zonep. 88
Continent-Continent Collision Zonesp. 88
Blind Thrust Faults Associated with a Continental Collision Zonep. 90
Continental Spreading Zonesp. 91
Intraplate Earthquakes without Obvious Tectonic Contextp. 93
The Potential for Still Larger Eventsp. 96
Key Pointsp. 97
Important Words and Conceptsp. 97
Questions for Reviewp. 98
Further Readingp. 98
Tsunami: The Great Wavep. 99
Harbor Wavesp. 99
Sumatra Tsunami: December 2004p. 99
Chile Tsunami: May 1960p. 102
Tsunami Generationp. 104
Earthquake-Generated Tsunamip. 104
Volcano-Generated Tsunamip. 105
Tsunami from Fast-Moving Landslides or Rockfallsp. 105
Case in Point: Anchorage, Alaska, 1964p. 106
Case in Point: Hokkaida, Japan, 1993p. 108
Case in Point: Lituya Bay, Alaska, 1958p. 109
Case in Point: Glacier Bay, Alaskap. 110
Case in Point: Krakataup. 111
Tsunami from Volcano Flank Collapsep. 111
Tsunami from Asteroid Impactp. 114
Velocity and Heightp. 114
Coastal Effects and Vulnerabilityp. 116
Tsunami from Great Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwestp. 118
Tsunami Hazard Mitigationp. 122
Surviving a Tsunamip. 122
Tsunami Examplesp. 122
Seichesp. 122
The Potential for Giant Tsunamip. 124
Key Pointsp. 125
Important Words and Conceptsp. 126
Questions for Reviewp. 126
Further Readingp. 126
Volcanoes: Materials, Hazards, and Eruptive Mechanismsp. 127
Volcanoes Up Close: Mount St. Helens Eruption, 1980p. 128
Mount St. Helens Eruption, May 18, 1980p. 130
Preamble to the May 18 Eruptionp. 131
Types of Volcanic Hazards and Productsp. 134
Lava Flowsp. 134
Oceanic Ridgesp. 136
Continental Flood Basaltsp. 136
Ash Fallsp. 137
Ash Flows, Glowing Avalanches, and Surgesp. 138
Magma Chambers and the Driving Force behind Eruptionsp. 142
Magma Chambersp. 142
Explosive Eruptionsp. 143
Volcanic Mudflowsp. 143
Poisonous Gasesp. 145
Volcanic Behavior: Relationships to Viscosity, Volatiles, and Volumep. 146
Key Pointsp. 149
Important Words and Conceptsp. 150
Questions for Reviewp. 150
Further Readingp. 150
Volcanoes: Types, Behavior, and Risksp. 151
Basaltic Volcanoesp. 151
Shield Volcanoesp. 151
Cinder Conesp. 155
Andesitic Volcanoes: Stratovolcanoesp. 157
Case in Point: The High Cascadesp. 157
Mount St. Helensp. 159
Mount Hoodp. 159
Mount Rainierp. 159
Mount Lassenp. 161
Mount Mazama (Crater Lake)p. 162
Three Sistersp. 163
Mount Shastap. 164
Rhyolitic Volcanoesp. 165
Lava Domesp. 165
Case in Point: Mount Pelee, Martinique, West Indiesp. 166
Giant Continental Calderasp. 168
Case in Point: Yellowstone Volcanop. 170
Volcanic Eruptions and Productsp. 171
Explosive Eruption Stylesp. 172
Assessment of Hazard and Risk of Volcanoesp. 173
Ancient Eruptionsp. 173
Case in Point: Santorini, Greecep. 174
Eruption Warnings: Volcanic Precursorsp. 176
Case in Point: Mount Pinatubop. 178
Case in Point: Vesuvius and Its Neighborsp. 180
Violent Eruptions and Active Subduction Zonesp. 185
A Look Aheadp. 185
Key Pointsp. 185
Important Words and Conceptsp. 186
Questions for Reviewp. 186
Further Readingp. 186
Landslides and Other Downslope Movements: Falling Mountainsp. 187
Factors Controlling Downslope Movement of Landslidesp. 187
Landslides Up Close: La Conchita, Californiap. 188
Loadp. 189
Slopep. 189
Slope Material: Strength and Frictionp. 190
Frictionp. 190
A Little Waterp. 191
Too Much Waterp. 191
Clays and Clay Behaviorp. 193
Liquefaction and Earthquakesp. 194
Quick Claysp. 194
Earthquakes Trigger Many Landslidesp. 195
Internal Surfacesp. 196
Old Landslidesp. 198
Types of Downslope Movementp. 198
Rockfalls and Rock Avalanchesp. 198
Debris Avalanchesp. 200
Case in Point: Rockfall Hazards West of Denverp. 200
Case in Point: Rockville Rockfall, Southwestern Utahp. 201
Case in Point: Madison Slide, Montanap. 202
Case in Point: Frank Slide, Albertap. 203
Case in Point: Elam, Switzerlandp. 204
Case in Point: Yungay, Perup. 205
Rotational Slides and Slumpsp. 206
Stresses on the Shear Surface: Method of Slicesp. 207
Sackungp. 208
Translational Slidesp. 208
Case in Point: The Vaiont Landslidep. 210
Lateral-Spreading Slidesp. 212
Debris Flowsp. 212
Case in Point: A Tropical Climate Debris-Flow and Flood Disasterp. 216
Danger Signs: Evidence for Former Debris Flowsp. 219
Mudflows and Earthflowsp. 220
Soil Creepp. 221
Rates of Downslope Movementsp. 222
Submarine Slidesp. 222
Volcano Flank Collapsep. 222
Failure of Landslide Damsp. 223
Landslide Influences and Hazard Mapsp. 224
Why People Build in Landslide-Prone Areas?p. 224
Key Pointp. 226
Important Words and Conceptsp. 227
Questions for Reviewp. 227
Further Readingp. 227
Sinkholes, Land Subsidence, and Swelling Soilsp. 228
Ground Collapse and Sinkholesp. 228
Formation of Cavities in Limestonep. 228
Collapsing Cavitiesp. 230
Sinkholes in Different Regionsp. 231
Central Florida Sinkholesp. 231
Sinkhole Problems in Central and Eastern Pennsylvaniap. 232
Sinkholes in Kentuckyp. 233
Collapse over a Salt Mine in Western New Yorkp. 233
Land Subsidencep. 233
Mining Groundwater and Petroleump. 233
Case in Point: San Joaquin Valley of Californiap. 235
Drainage of Organic Soilsp. 237
Ground Subsidence with Drying of Claysp. 237
Case in Point: Venice, Italyp. 238
Swelling Soilsp. 240
Case in Point Denver's Swelling Soilsp. 242
Key Pointsp. 244
Important Words and Conceptsp. 244
Questions for Reviewp. 244
Further Readingp. 244
Climate and Weather Related to Hazards: Storms on the Horizonp. 245
Global Warmingp. 245
Atmospheric Coolingp. 248
Case in Point: Mount Tamborap. 248
Climatic Cycles?p. 248
Daysp. 249
Seasonsp. 249
Precession of the Equinoxes: -26,000 Yearsp. 249
Change in the Tilt of Earth's Axis: -41,000 Yearsp. 249
Change in the Elliptical Shape of Earth's Orbit: -100,000-Year Cyclesp. 249
Basic Elements of Weatherp. 251
Hydrologic Cycle and Humidityp. 251
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensationp. 252
Atmospheric Pressure and Weatherp. 253
Coriolis Effectp. 254
Global Air Circulationp. 256
Jet Streamp. 257
Weather Frontsp. 258
El Ninop. 260
Normal Patternp. 260
El Nino Conditionsp. 261
Predicting El Ninop. 262
North Atlantic Oscillationp. 262
Climate Controls on Floodingp. 263
Importance of Duration and Intensity of Rainfallp. 264
Dry Climatesp. 265
Strong Winds Not Associated with Stormsp. 265
Chinook Windsp. 265
Santa Ana Windsp. 265
Key Pointsp. 265
Important Words and Conceptsp. 266
Questions for Reviewp. 266
Further Readingp. 267
Streams and Flood Processes: Rising Watersp. 268
Stream Flow and Sediment Transport Processesp. 269
Stream Flow and Gradientp. 269
Floods Up Close: Big Thompson Canyon, Northwest of Denverp. 270
Bankfull Channel Width, Depth, and Capacityp. 272
Sediment Transport and Stream Equilibriump. 273
Sediment Transport Mechanismsp. 277
Stream Typesp. 277
Meandering Streamsp. 277
Braided Streamsp. 280
Bedrock Streamsp. 281
The Hydrographp. 282
Precipitation Intensity and Runoffp. 282
Stream Order and Hydrograph Shapep. 283
Flood Crests Move Downstreamp. 283
Floods on Frozen or Water-Saturated Groundp. 284
Destructive Energy of Floodsp. 285
Stream Powerp. 285
Flood Frequency and Recurrence Intervalsp. 285
Recurrence Intervals and Dischargep. 285
Case in Point: Spring Thaw from the South on a North-Flowing Riverp. 286
Case in Point: Guadalupe River Upstream of New Braunfels, Texasp. 288
Problems with Recurrence Intervalsp. 290
Floodplains and 100-Year Floodplainsp. 292
Flood Insurancep. 293
Key Pointsp. 294
Important Words and Conceptsp. 295
Questions for Reviewp. 295
Further Readingp. 296
Floods and Human Interactionsp. 297
Effects of Development on Floodplainsp. 297
Leveesp. 297
The Great Mississippi River Basin Flood of 1993p. 299
Intentional Levee Breaksp. 303
Levees, Safety, and Costsp. 304
Avulsionp. 305
Channelizationp. 305
Case in Point: Yellow (Huang-Ho) River of Chinap. 306
Case in Point: New Orleansp. 308
Case in Point: A Channelized Old World Riverp. 310
Flood Control and Multipurpose Damsp. 311
Floods Caused by Failure of Human-Made Damsp. 311
Case in Point: Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley, Californiap. 312
Urbanizationp. 314
Case in Point: Failure of the Teton Dam, Idahop. 315
Flash Flood Hazardsp. 316
Changes Imposed on Streamsp. 317
Forest Fires and Range Firesp. 317
Logging and Overgrazingp. 317
Hydraulic Placer Miningp. 317
Dams and Stream Equilibriump. 318
Bridgesp. 319
Mining of Stream Sand and Gravelp. 319
Paleoflood Analysisp. 320
Early Postflood Evidencep. 320
Case in Point: Channel Deepening and Groundwater Loss from Gravel Miningp. 321
Paleoflood Markersp. 322
Review of Factors That Influence Floodsp. 323
Complexity, or "Coincident Criticality" and Floodsp. 324
Key Pointsp. 324
Important Words and Conceptsp. 325
Questions for Reviewp. 325
Further Readingp. 325
Waves, Beaches, and Coastal Erosion: Rivers of Sandp. 326
Living on Dangerous Coastsp. 326
Wavesp. 327
Beachesp. 329
Wave Refraction and Longshore Driftp. 329
Waves on Rocky Coastsp. 331
Beach Slope: An Equilibrium Profilep. 331
Rip Currentsp. 332
Loss of Sand from the Beachp. 332
People Move to the Beachp. 332
Beach Erosion and Hardeningp. 333
Reduction of Sand Supplyp. 333
Artificial Barriers to Wave Actionp. 333
Areas of Severe Erosionp. 337
Beach Replenishmentp. 338
Erosion of Gently Sloping Coasts and Barrier Islandsp. 341
Dunesp. 341
Barrier Bars at Estuaries and Inletsp. 343
Erosion Along Cliff-Bound Coastsp. 347
Letting Nature Take Its Coursep. 349
Key Pointsp. 349
Important Words and Conceptsp. 350
Questions for Reviewp. 350
Further Readingp. 350
Hurricanes and Nor'easters: The Big Windsp. 351
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclonesp. 351
Hurricanes Up Close: Hurricane Hugop. 352
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scalep. 355
Formation of Hurricanes and Cyclonesp. 355
Case in Point: Hurricane Camillep. 357
Case in Point: Hurricane Isabelp. 358
Extratropical Cyclones, Including Nor'eastersp. 362
Winter Windstorms and Heavy Snowp. 364
Case in Point: Superstorm, March 1993p. 365
Case in Point: Tropical Storm Allisonp. 365
Storm Surgesp. 368
Case in Point: Galveston Hurricanep. 372
Waves and Wave Damagesp. 374
Winds and Wind Damagesp. 375
Rainfall and Floodingp. 378
Case in Point: Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd, 1999p. 379
Deaths in Hurricanesp. 382
Case in Point: Hurricane Andrewp. 383
Poor Countries: Different Problemsp. 384
Building Restrictionsp. 385
Case in Point: Hurricane Mitchp. 386
Case in Point: Cyclones of Bangladesh and Calcutta, Indiap. 389
Hurricane Prediction and Warningsp. 391
Categories of Hurricane Warningp. 392
Hurricane Modification?p. 394
A More Damaging Hurricane than Any in Historic Time?p. 394
Key Pointsp. 395
Important Words and Conceptsp. 396
Questions for Reviewp. 396
Further Readingp. 396
Thunderstorms and Tornadoesp. 397
Thunderstormsp. 397
Lightningp. 398
Downburstsp. 401
Hailp. 401
Tornadoesp. 401
The Fujita Scalep. 402
Tornado Developmentp. 407
Tornado Damage and Risksp. 407
Case in Point: Oklahoma Tornado Outbreakp. 411
Case in Point: Superoutbreak of 1974p. 412
Key Pointsp. 413
Important Words and Conceptsp. 141
Questions for Reviewp. 414
Further Readingp. 414
Wildfires: Fanned Flamesp. 415
Wildfires Up Close: The Black Mountain Fire, Missoula, Montanap. 416
Fire Process and Behaviorp. 417
Case in Point: Storm King Mountain, Coloradop. 418
Case in Point: Southern California Firestorm, 2003p. 420
Fire Suppression and Preventionp. 422
Erosion Following Wildfiresp. 422
Some Concernsp. 423
Case in Point; Bitterroot Valley Fires, Summer 2000p. 424
Key Pointsp. 426
Important Words and Conceptsp. 426
Questions for Reviewp. 427
Further Readingp. 427
Impact of Asteroids and Cometsp. 428
Projectiles from Space: The Ultimate Catastrophe?p. 428
Chondritesp. 430
Achondritesp. 430
Identification of Meteoritesp. 430
Collision Course?p. 430
Evolution of an Impact Craterp. 431
Some Key Points and Evidence for an Impactp. 432
Case in Point: Meteor Crater, Arizonap. 433
Case in Point: Popigai Crater in Northern Siberiap. 434
Case in Point: The Studbury Complex, Ontariop. 436
Case in Point: Ries Crater in Germanyp. 437
Chances of a Large Asteroid Impact on Earthp. 437
Likely Consequences of Impacts with Earthp. 437
Impact of a Large Asteroidp. 437
Case in Point: Chicxulub Impact Craterp. 438
A Modest-Sized Asteroid Impactp. 439
Doomsday?p. 439
What Could We Do About an Incoming Asteroid?p. 439
Falling Rocks: Your Personal Chance of Being Hit by a Meteorite?p. 440
Other Consequences of a Major Asteroid Impactp. 441
Lunar Mariap. 441
Case in Point: Tungusika, Siberiap. 441
Summaryp. 441
Key Pointsp. 442
Important Words and Conceptsp. 442
Questions for Reviewp. 442
Further Readingp. 443
The Future: Where Do We Go from Here?p. 444
We Are the Problemp. 444
Hazard Assessment and Mitigationp. 446
Societal Attitudesp. 446
Educationp. 447
Different Ground Rules for the Poorp. 448
Key Pointsp. 450
Important Words and Conceptsp. 450
Questions for Reviewp. 450
Further Readingp. 450
Hurricane Katrina: A Case Study of the Costliest Disaster in U.S. Historyp. 451
Hurricanes Up Close: Hurricane Katrinap. 452
Hurricane Katrinap. 453
Unfolding Eventsp. 453
Planning and Evacuationp. 453
Approach and Landfallp. 455
The Wind, Storm Surge, and Floodp. 456
The Pumps Failp. 459
Contamination, Disease, and Moldp. 460
Relief Came Slowlyp. 462
Deaths from the Hurricanep. 463
Financial Problems, Job Lossesp. 463
The Poor Have Additional Problemsp. 463
Impacts Farther South and East: The Hurricane Winds, Surge, and Wavesp. 464
Insurancep. 467
Predictions, Warnings, and Preparation for the Approaching Stormp. 468
Disaster Responsep. 468
What Went Wrong?p. 470
The Future of New Orleans?p. 471
Rebuilding?p. 471
Not the First Time nor the Lastp. 471
Geological Time Scalep. 451
Mineral and Rock Characteristics Related to Hazardsp. 452
Igneous Rocksp. 452
Sedimentary Rocksp. 452
Metamorphic Rocksp. 453
Weak Rocks and Strong Rocksp. 453
Common Rock-Forming Mineralsp. 453
Common Rocksp. 457
Granitep. 457
Gabbrop. 457
Rhyolitep. 458
Andesite and Dacitep. 459
Basaltp. 459
Shale and Mudstonep. 460
Sandstonep. 460
Limestonep. 460
Slatep. 460
Schistp. 461
Gneissp. 461
Serpentinitep. 462
Rocks, Landscapes, and Hazardsp. 462
Conversion Factorsp. 463
Glossaryp. 465
Indexp. 480
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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