Neuronal Mechanisms for Generating Locomotor Activity

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-03-01
  • Publisher: New York Academy of Sciences

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Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Presentation of Some of the Best Understood Simple Motor Systems
Vertebrate Locomotion--A Lamprey Perspectivep. 1
Central Circuits Controlling Locomotion in Young Frog Tadpolesp. 19
Basic Principles for Generating Motor Output in the Stomatogastric Ganglionp. 35
Analysis of the Central Pattern Generator for Swimming in the Mollusk Clionep. 51
Principles for Spinal Locomotor Generation in Higher Vertebrates
How Do We Approach the Locomotor Network in the Mammalian Spinal Cord?p. 70
Initiation of Locomotion in Mammalsp. 83
Cerebellar-induced Locomotion: Reticulospinal Control of Spinal Rhythm Generating Mechanism in Catsp. 94
Modulation of Information Forwarded to Feline Cerebellum by Monoaminesp. 106
Distribution of Central Pattern Generators for Rhythmic Motor Outputs in the Spinal Cord of Limbed Vertebratesp. 110
Mechanisms of Spontaneous Activity in the Developing Spinal Cord and Their Relevance to Locomotionp. 130
Spinal Motor Patterns in the Turtlep. 142
Neurotransmitter Control of Pattern Generating Networks
Distributed Effects of Dopamine Modulation in the Crustacean Pyloric Networkp. 155
GABAergic Control of Spinal Locomotor Networks in the Neonatal Ratp. 168
Neuromodulation Intrinsic to the Central Pattern Generator for Escape Swimming in Tritoniap. 181
NMDA Receptor-mediated Oscillatory Properties: Potential Role in Rhythm Generation in the Mammalian Spinal Cordp. 189
Relation between Afferents and Central Pattern Generators
Enhancement and Resetting of Locomotor Activity by Muscle Afferentsp. 203
Neuronal Basis of Afferent-evoked Enhancement of Locomotor Activityp. 216
Modeling Approaches to Understanding Motor Central Pattern Generators
Frequency Control of a Slow Oscillatory Network by a Fast Rhythmic Input: Pyloric to Gastric Mill Interactions in the Crab Stomatogastric Nervous Systemp. 226
Modeling of the Spinal Neuronal Circuitry Underlying Locomotion in a Lower Vertebratep. 239
Analysis and Modeling of the Locomotor Central Pattern Generator as a Newwork of Coupled Oscillatorsp. 250
Intersegmental Coordination of Swimmeret Movements: Mathematical Models and Neural Circuitsp. 266
Molecular Determinants of Pattern Generator Components
Differential Expression and Targeting of K+ Channel Genes in the Lobster Pyloric Central Pattern Generatorp. 281
Behavioral and Electrophysiological Analysis of Ca-activated K-channel Transgenes in Drosophilap. 296
Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Rhythmic Motor Activity
Reorganization of Locomotor Activity during Development in the Prenatal Ratp. 306
Development and Aminergic Neuromodulation of a Spinal Locomotor Network Controlling Swimming in Xenopus Larvaep. 318
Zebrafish as a Model System for Studying Neuronal Circuits and Behaviorp. 333
Clinical Aspects of Locomotion and Rehabilitation
Pharmacological Activation and Modulation of the Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion in the Catp. 346
Evidence for a Spinal Central Pattern Generator in Humansp. 360
Does Neurorehabilitation Play a Role in the Recovery of Walking in Neurological Populations?p. 377
Recovery of Locomotion following Transplantation of Monoaminergic Neurons in the Spinal Cord of Paraplegic Ratsp. 393
Engines, Accelerators, and Brakes on Functional Spinal Cord Repairp. 412
Poster Papers
Physiological and Molecular Characterization of Interneurons in the Developing Spinal Cordp. 425
Statistical Analysis and Intersegmental Delays Reveal Possible Roles of Network Depression in the Generation of Spontaneous Activity in the Chick Embryo Spinal Cordp. 428
Organization of Rhythmic Motor Patterns in the Lumbosacral Spinal Cord of Neonate Mousep. 432
Lumbar Spinoreticular Neurons in the Rat: Part of the Central Pattern Generator for Locomotion?p. 436
Lumbar Interneurons Involved in the Generation of Fictive Locomotion in Catsp. 441
Pattern Generators for Muscles Crossing More than One Jointp. 444
Coherence between Locomotor Drive Potentials and Neurograms of Motor Pools with Variable Patterns of Locomotionp. 448
Motor Patterns for Different Forms of Walking: Cues for the Locomotor Central Pattern Generatorp. 452
Segmental Afferent Regulation of Hindlimb Wiping in the Spinal Frogp. 456
Crossed REciprocal Inhibition and Scratch Rhythmogenesis in the Turtle Spinal Cordp. 458
Specificity of Neural Circuits that Inhibit Escape in Crayfishp. 461
Intestinal Peristalsis: A Mammalian Motor Pattern Controlled by Enteric Neural Circuitsp. 464
Comparison of NMDA-Induced Membrane Potential Oscillations and Spontaneous Rhythmic Activity in the Chick Spinal Cordp. 467
GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] Modulations of Synaptic Transmission between L1-L2 Locomotor Network and the Motoneurons in the Newborn Rat Isolated Spinal Cordp. 470
Influence of Glycinergic Inhibition on Spinal Neuron Excitability during Amphibian Tadpole Locomotionp. 472
A Novel Neurotransmitter System Involved in the Control of Motor Behavior by the Basal Gangliap. 475
Localization and Modulation of Rhythmogenic Locomotor Network in the Mudpuppy (Necturus maculatus)p. 480
Computer Simulation of Rhythm-Generating Networksp. 483
Evidence for Unstable Periodic Orbits in Intact Swimming Lampreys, Isolated Spinal Cords, and Intermediate Preparationsp. 486
Modeling the Lowering of Motoneuron Voltage Threshold during Fictive Locomotionp. 492
A Model of Sensorimotor Development Using a Neural Networkp. 496
Group I Disynaptic Excitation in Flexor and Bifunctional Motoneurons during Locomotionp. 499
The Stumbling Correction Reaction during Fictive Locomotion in the Catp. 502
Tonic Presynaptic Reduction of Monosynaptic Ia EPSPs during Fictive Locomotionp. 505
The Contribution of Cutaneous Inputs to Locomotion in the Intact and the Spinal Catp. 508
Bilateral Integration of Sensorimotor Signals during Pedalingp. 513
Differential Effects of the Noradrenergic Agonist Clonidine on the Locomotion of Intact, Partially and Completely Spinalized Adult Catsp. 517
Kinematic Analysis of Recovered Locomotor Movements of the Hindlimbs in Paraplegic Rats Transplanted with Monoaminergic Embryonic Neuronsp. 521
Transplant-mediated Locomotion Is Improved by Selective Serotonergic Agonistsp. 524
Stepping in Nonhuman Primates with a Complete Spinal Cord Transection: Old and New Data, and Implications for Humansp. 528
Selective Activation and Graded Recruitment of Functional Muscle Groups through Spinal Cord Stimulationp. 531
Effect of Locomotor Training Related to Clinical and Electrophysiological Examinations in Spinal Cord Injured Humansp. 536
Interlimb Coupling Patterns in Human Locomotion: Are We Bipeds or Quadrupeds?p. 539
Effects of Long-term Use of Benzodiazepines on Gait and Standing Balance in the Elderlyp. 543
Corticospinal Function during Human Walkingp. 546
Cortically Controlled Gait Adjustments in the Catp. 550
Pattern Generators and Cortical Maps in Locomotion of Spinal Injured Ratsp. 554
Efferent Pathways Involved in the Running Activity Originate in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus of the Ratp. 556
Locomotion and Head Scanning Initiated by Hypothalamic Stimulation Are Inversely Relatedp. 560
Vestibulo- and Reticulospinal Control of the Extensor Half-Center in Locomotionp. 563
Locomotor Behaviors in Generalized Convulsions Are Hierarchically Driven from Specific Brain-Stem Nuclei in the Network Subserving Audiogenic Seizurep. 566
Index of Contributorsp. 571
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