Neuroscience : Exploring the Brain

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-02-07
  • Publisher: LWW
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Widely praised for its student-friendly style and exceptional artwork and pedagogy, Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain is a leading undergraduate textbook on the biology of the brain and the systems that underlie behavior. This edition provides increased coverage of taste and smell, circadian rhythms, brain development, and developmental disorders and includes new information on molecular mechanisms and functional brain imaging. Path of Discovery boxes, written by leading researchers, highlight major current discoveries. In addition, readers will be able to assess their knowledge of neuroanatomy with the Illustrated Guide to Human Neuroanatomy, which includes a perforated self-testing workbook. This edition's robust ancillary package includes a bound-in student CD-ROM, an Instructor's Resource CD-ROM, a Connection Website, and LiveAdvise: Neuroscience online student tutoring.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. vii
User's Guidep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xviii
Path of Discovery Authorsp. xix
Foundationsp. 1
Neuroscience: Past, Present, and Futurep. 3
Introductionp. 4
The Origins of Neurosciencep. 4
Neuroscience Todayp. 13
Concluding Remarksp. 20
Neurons and Gliap. 23
Introductionp. 24
The Neuron Doctrinep. 24
The Prototypical Neuronp. 28
Classifying Neuronsp. 45
Gliap. 46
Concluding Remarksp. 48
The Neuronal Membrane at Restp. 51
Introductionp. 52
The Cast of Chemicalsp. 53
The Movement of Ionsp. 59
The Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potentialp. 61
Concluding Remarksp. 71
The Action Potentialp. 75
Introductionp. 76
Properties of the Action Potentialp. 76
The Action Potential, in Theoryp. 80
The Action Potential, in Realityp. 82
Action Potential Conductionp. 93
Action Potentials, Axons, and Dendritesp. 97
Divergence and Convergence in Neurotransmitter Systemsp. 164
Concluding Remarksp. 164
The Structure of the Nervous Systemp. 167
Introductionp. 168
Gross Organization of the Mammalian Nervous Systemp. 168
Understanding CNS Structure Through Developmentp. 178
A Guide to the Cerebral Cortexp. 195
Concluding Remarksp. 199
An Illustrated Guide to Human Neuroanatomyp. 205
Sensory and Motor Systemsp. 249
The Chemical Sensesp. 251
Introductionp. 252
Tastep. 252
Smellp. 263
Concluding Remarksp. 98
Synaptic Transmissionp. 101
Introductionp. 102
Types of Synapsesp. 103
Principles of Chemical Synaptic Transmissionp. 111
Principles of Synaptic Integrationp. 122
Concluding Remarksp. 130
Neurotransmitter Systemsp. 133
Introductionp. 134
Studying Neurotransmitter Systemsp. 135
Neurotransmitter Chemistryp. 141
Transmitter-Gated Channelsp. 152
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors and Effectorsp. 157
Concluding Remarksp. 274
The Eyep. 277
Introductionp. 278
Properties of Lightp. 279
The Structure of the Eyep. 280
Image Formation by the Eyep. 283
Microscopic Anatomy of the Retinap. 288
Phototransductionp. 292
Retinal Outputp. 300
Concluding Remarksp. 306
The Central Visual Systemp. 309
Introductionp. 310
The Retinofugal Projectionp. 310
The Lateral Geniculate Nucleusp. 315
Anatomy of the Striate Cortexp. 318
Physiology of the Striate Cortexp. 324
Beyond Striate Cortexp. 333
From Single Neurons to Perceptionp. 337
Concluding Remarksp. 340
The Auditory and Vestibular Systemsp. 343
Introductionp. 344
The Nature of Soundp. 344
The Structure of the Auditory Systemp. 347
The Middle Earp. 348
The Inner Earp. 351
Central Auditory Processesp. 363
Encoding Sound Intensity and Frequencyp. 365
Mechanisms of Sound Localizationp. 368
Auditory Cortexp. 372
The Vestibular Systemp. 376
Concluding Remarksp. 384
The Somatic Sensory Systemp. 387
Introductionp. 388
Touchp. 388
Painp. 408
Temperaturep. 418
Concluding Remarksp. 421
Spinal Control of Movementp. 423
Introductionp. 424
The Somatic Motor Systemp. 424
The Lower Motor Neuronp. 426
Excitation-Contraction Couplingp. 432
Spinal Control of Motor Unitsp. 437
Concluding Remarksp. 449
Brain Control of Movementp. 451
Introductionp. 452
Descending Spinal Tractsp. 453
The Planning of Movement by the Cerebral Cortexp. 459
The Basal Gangliap. 464
The Initiation of Movement by Primary Motor Cortexp. 468
The Cerebellump. 472
Concluding Remarksp. 477
The Brain and Behaviorp. 479
Chemical Control of the Brain and Behaviorp. 481
Introductionp. 482
The Secretory Hypothalamusp. 484
The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 490
The Diffuse Modulatory Systems of the Brainp. 498
Concluding Remarksp. 507
Motivationp. 509
Introductionp. 510
The Hypothalamus, Homeostasis, and Motivated Behaviorp. 510
The Long-Term Regulation of Feeding Behaviorp. 511
The Short-Term Regulation of Feeding Behaviorp. 519
Why Do We Eat?p. 522
Other Motivated Behaviorsp. 527
Concluding Remarksp. 530
Sex and the Brainp. 533
Introductionp. 534
Sex and Genderp. 534
The Hormonal Control of Sexp. 537
The Neural Basis of Sexual Behaviorsp. 541
Why and How Male and Female Brains Differp. 546
Concluding Remarksp. 560
Brain Mechanisms of Emotionp. 563
Introductionp. 564
What is Emotion?p. 564
The Limbic System Conceptp. 568
The Amygdala and Associated Brain Circuitsp. 572
Concluding Remarksp. 582
Brain Rhythms and Sleepp. 585
Introductionp. 586
The Electroencephalogramp. 586
Sleepp. 594
Circadian Rhythmsp. 607
Concluding Remarksp. 615
Languagep. 617
Introductionp. 618
The Discovery of Specialized Language Areas in the Brainp. 618
Types of Aphasiap. 621
Asymmetrical Language Processing in the Cerebral Hemispheresp. 628
Language Studies using Brain Stimulation and Brain Imagingp. 632
Concluding Remarksp. 641
Attentionp. 643
Introductionp. 644
Physiological Effects of Attentionp. 649
How is Attention Directed?p. 656
Concluding Remarksp. 658
Mental Illnessp. 661
Introductionp. 662
Mental Illness and the Brainp. 662
Anxiety Disordersp. 665
Affective Disordersp. 673
Schizophreniap. 679
Concluding Remarksp. 684
The Changing Brainp. 687
Wiring the Brainp. 689
Introductionp. 690
The Genesis of Neuronsp. 691
The Genesis of Connectionsp. 697
The Elimination of Cells and Synapsesp. 704
Activity-Dependent Synaptic Rearrangementp. 708
Elementary Mechanisms of Cortical Synaptic Plasticityp. 716
Why Critical Periods Endp. 720
Concluding Remarksp. 722
Memory Systemsp. 725
Introductionp. 726
Types of Memory and Amnesiap. 726
The Search for the Engramp. 731
The Temporal Lobes and Declarative Memoryp. 738
The Striatum and Procedural Memoryp. 751
The Neocortex and Working Memoryp. 754
Concluding Remarksp. 758
Molecular Mechanisms of Learning and Memoryp. 761
Introductionp. 762
Procedural Learningp. 763
Simple Systems: Invertebrate Models of Learningp. 765
Vertebrate Models of Learningp. 772
The Molecular Basis of Long-Term Memoryp. 787
Concluding Remarksp. 792
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