The New Face of Government: How Public Managers Are Forging a New Approach to Governance

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-03-24
  • Publisher: Auerbach Pub

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Focusing on transformation at the federal, state, and local levels, this book reflects the changes that are currently taking place in government and nonprofit organizations. Processes such as strategic management, enterprise architecture, information and communications technology, and enterprise transformation are enabling agencies from both the public sector and the private sector to become cost-effective, performance-oriented learning organizations. Aimed at present and future administrators of public organizations, this resource includes a field-tested survey for diagnosing disequilibrium in organization as a first step in a transformational change initiative.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
The Authorp. xxi
List of Boxesp. xxiii
List of Figuresp. xxv
List of Tablesp. xxvii
Creating a New Face for Governmentp. 1
The Process of Changep. 2
A Federal Crisis Examplep. 2
An Emerging Crisis at the State and Local Levelsp. 3
The Global Change Movementp. 3
New Goals, New Strategiesp. 5
Themes of Government in Transformationp. 6
The "New" Public Managementp. 7
Guiding Change in the United Statesp. 8
Next-Generation Technologyp. 8
A Focus on Human Capital and Knowledge Managementp. 11
Enterprise Transformation Policyp. 11
Summaryp. 12
The Shape and Scope of Changes in Governmentp. 15
A Need for Transformationp. 16
Change at the Sandia National Laboratoriesp. 18
Five Important Change Success Factorsp. 18
The Need for Leadershipp. 19
Recognition of a Crisis and Its Urgencyp. 20
Developing a "Must Be" Visionp. 21
Applying the Necessary Resources and Will to Succeedp. 21
Selecting Appropriate Performance Metricsp. 22
Changing the Face of Governmentp. 23
Four Levels in the Transformation Processp. 24
Identifying and Assessing a Transformation Triggerp. 25
Evaluating and Improving Work Processesp. 26
Embracing Appropriate Transformation Perspectivesp. 28
The Social and Behavioral Perspective in Transformationp. 28
Achieving Desired Change Outcomesp. 29
Improving the Probability of Organizational Changep. 30
Summaryp. 31
Forces Driving Changes in Governmentp. 33
Environmental Forces Shaping the Face of Governmentp. 34
Declining Citizens' Trust in Governmentp. 34
New Policy Concerns and Performance Managementp. 36
Shift in Policy Prioritiesp. 36
Administrative Reformsp. 37
Declining Resources and Aging Technologyp. 38
Environmental Changes Hit Michigan Child Supportp. 38
Technology and Changep. 39
Retirements and the Hollowing Out of Governmentp. 40
The Explosion in Government Retirementsp. 41
Changes in Organizational Culture and Structurep. 41
Classifying Government Organizationsp. 42
Features of Public Organizationsp. 43
Forms of Government Organizationsp. 43
Bureaucratic Organizationsp. 43
Collegial Organizational Culturep. 44
Entrepreneurial Organizationsp. 44
Cooperation and Collaboration for New Delivery Systemsp. 45
Summaryp. 46
Preparing an Organization to Accept Changep. 47
Importance of Organizational Culturep. 48
Role of Culture and Climate in Organizational Transformationp. 48
Changes at the U.S. Postal Servicep. 49
Committing the Organization to Changep. 50
Commitment Antecedentsp. 51
How Cultural Factors Constrain Change Effortsp. 52
Impact on Government Agenciesp. 53
How Increasing Diversity Drives Organizational Changep. 53
Need for a New Operating Ethosp. 54
Three Strategies for Generating a Culture Changep. 54
The Shifting Character of Administrative Thinkingp. 55
Changing the Values of the Government Workforcep. 56
The Need to Involve the Entire Organization in the Changep. 57
A Way of Assessing Staff Attitudesp. 58
Steps to Follow in the Change Processp. 58
Identify Potential Culture-Based Problemsp. 58
Culture through the Organization Life Cyclep. 60
Identify Problem Issuesp. 60
Identify Optimal Change Strategiesp. 61
Build Bottom-Up Commitment for Changep. 63
Implement Change Strategiesp. 64
Assess Progress and Renew Commitmentp. 66
Plan, Do, Check, Actp. 67
Summaryp. 67
Patterns of Change in Governmentp. 69
Patterns of Change in Governmentp. 70
Changing the Rules of Governmentp. 71
Changing the Rules at the DOEp. 71
Changing the Rules at the U.K. Health Servicep. 72
Performance-Management Practicesp. 74
Market-Based Managementp. 76
Performance on Demandp. 76
Reengaging Citizensp. 78
Networks, Partnerships, and Coalitionsp. 79
Recommendations of the Task Forcep. 80
Factors Resisting the Patterns of Changep. 81
The Human Factorp. 82
A Choice of Change Strategiesp. 83
Summaryp. 84
How Public Managers Shape and Direct Changep. 85
The Role of Public Managers in Strategic Managementp. 86
Three Core Sets of Management Activitiesp. 87
Environmental Analysis, Vision, and Missionp. 87
Leadership and Valuesp. 89
The Agency Missionp. 91
Example Statementsp. 91
Managing Resources and Assetsp. 94
Three Types of Resourcesp. 94
Three Types of Assetsp. 94
Operational Systemsp. 95
Identifying and Selecting Strategiesp. 95
Planning Transformation Tacticsp. 96
Performance Outcome Measurements and Controlsp. 96
Summaryp. 102
How Technology Is Shaping the Face of Governmentp. 103
Technology and Transformational Changep. 104
Three Converging Trendsp. 104
How ICT Affects Government Operationsp. 105
Implementing Changes at HHSp. 106
Technology and the Nature of Workp. 107
Factors Limiting Changep. 108
Technology and Enterprise Architecture Initiativesp. 108
Enterprise Architecture at the State Levelp. 110
A State Case Examplep. 111
Enterprise Architecture at the Federal Levelp. 112
Federal Strategies to Upgrade ICTp. 113
Accelerated Pace of Adoptionp. 115
Technology and Organizational Reengineeringp. 115
Technology-Driven Change at the FAAp. 116
Federal Accomplishments in Enterprise Architecturep. 117
Summaryp. 118
Technology and Systems Changep. 119
Organizational Processesp. 120
The Difficulty of Changing a Functioning Systemp. 121
Process-Facilitating Systemsp. 122
Changing Work with Integrative, Enterprisewide Systemsp. 122
Changing Operating Systems: The Case of the DLAp. 125
Business Model Change Strategiesp. 126
Business System Modernizationp. 127
Business System Modernization-Energyp. 127
The Customer Relationship Management Systemp. 127
Integrated Data Environment Changesp. 128
Executive Agentp. 128
Programs for Changing the Workforcep. 128
Supply-Chain Transformationp. 129
Strengthening Relationships with Suppliersp. 129
Strategic Supplier Alliancesp. 129
National Inventory Management Strategyp. 130
Reutilization and Modernization Programp. 130
Customer Value-Chain Transformation Strategiesp. 131
The Distribution Planning and Management Systemp. 131
The Product Data Management Initiativep. 131
The Global Stock-Positioning Systemp. 131
Changes to the DLA's Governance and Structurep. 132
Planning for ICT Systems at the Municipal Levelp. 133
Summaryp. 133
People and the Changing Face of Governmentp. 135
Human Capital and Transformational Changep. 137
Human-Capital Management in Governmentp. 138
Challenges Facing Human Resources Managersp. 139
Challenges in Sustained Leadershipp. 142
A Human-Capital Leadership Challengep. 142
Strategic Human-Capital Planningp. 144
Activities at the First, Preplanning Levelp. 145
Planning Activities of Level Twop. 145
Strategic Directionp. 146
Environmental Analysisp. 146
Model the Current Workforcep. 146
Assess Future Needs and Project Future Supplyp. 146
Gap Analysis and Gap-Closing Strategiesp. 147
Implementation Activities of Level Threep. 147
Implementing Gap-Closing Strategiesp. 147
Evaluating Effectiveness and Strategy Revisionp. 148
Key Principles in Human-Capital Planningp. 148
Challenges in Acquiring, Developing, and Retaining Talentp. 150
Challenges in Reforming Organizational Culturesp. 151
Summaryp. 154
Changing Government Work Processesp. 157
Systems and Work Processesp. 158
Value Deficiencies as Drivers of Transformationp. 158
Improving Current Work Processesp. 159
BPI in Governmentp. 160
Changing How Work Gets Donep. 162
GSA: A Shared Services Pioneerp. 163
Outsourcing Government Servicesp. 163
Shared Services in State and Local Governmentp. 166
Shared Government Services in Australiap. 169
Transformation by Performing Different Workp. 169
Outsourcing Internal Servicesp. 171
Privatization, Contracting Out, and Public-Private Partnershipsp. 171
Summaryp. 173
How Delivery Changes Are Reshaping Governmentp. 175
What Is E-Government?p. 176
Evolution of E-Governmentp. 177
Monitoring E-Government Progressp. 180
A Single-Entry Point for E-Governmentp. 180
E-Government at the State and Local Levelsp. 181
The Global E-Government Movementp. 185
Government E-Learning Strategiesp. 186
Expanded Access to Informationp. 188
The Internet in E-Learning Strategiesp. 188
Summaryp. 189
Expanding the Delivery Structure of Governmentp. 191
Changes in Public Responsibilitiesp. 192
New Governance Strategiesp. 192
Governance Strategy Definedp. 193
Variations in Governance Strategyp. 193
Moving toward Greater Cooperationp. 194
Top-Down Governance Strategiesp. 195
Donor-Recipient Strategiesp. 195
Two New Governance Modelsp. 195
Collaborative Governance Modelsp. 196
Program/Project Partneringp. 197
Private/Public Collaboration Strategiesp. 199
Local Area Public/Public Collaborationp. 200
Federal/Local Public/Public Collaborationp. 201
Outsourcing Delivery of Servicesp. 202
The Downside of Government Outsourcingp. 203
Summaryp. 204
How Knowledge Facilitates Change in Governmentp. 207
What KM Can and Cannot Dop. 208
The KM Processp. 208
The Evolution of KM and KM Systemsp. 209
Early Problemsp. 209
The Drive for Controlp. 210
How KM Helps Reshape Governmentp. 210
The Two Worlds of KMp. 211
Developing KM Strategiesp. 212
Knowledge Mappingp. 213
Knowledge Capturep. 214
Transferring and Integrating Knowledgep. 214
Coding and Storing Knowledgep. 214
KM in Local Governmentp. 215
Use of Web Sites by Local Governmentsp. 215
Summaryp. 216
Preparing for Change: Trouble at the Sheriff's Officep. 219
Development of an Assessment Instrumentp. 220
Instrument Factors and Survey Administrationp. 221
Differences in the Department's Hierarchyp. 223
Administrative-Level Summariesp. 224
Gender Differencesp. 225
Organizational Climate and Readiness to Accept Changep. 226
Summaryp. 227
Referencesp. 229
Organizational Assessment Instrumentp. 253
URLs for Various Federal E-Government Transformation Reportsp. 269
Indexp. 271
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