Nineteenth Century European Art

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-12-27
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This survey explores the history of nineteenth-century European art and visual culture. Focusing primarily on painting and sculpture, it places these two art forms within the larger context of visual cultureincluding photography, graphic design, architecture, and decorative arts. In turn, all are treated within a broad historical framework to show the connections between visual cultural production and the political, social, and economic order of the time.Topics covered include The Classical Paradigm, Art and Revolutionary Propaganda In France, The Arts under Napoleon and Francisco Goya and Spanish Art at the Turn of the Eighteenth Century.For art enthusiasts, or anyone who wants to learn more about Art History.

Author Biography

Petra ten-Doesschate Chu is a leading authority on nineteenth century art. She is a professor at Seton Hall University and the author of numerous articles and essays, as well as several books, including French Realism and the Dutch Masters, Courbet in Perspective, The Letters of Gustave Courbet, The Popularization of Images (with Gabriel P. Weisberg), The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture, and Twenty-First-Century Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Art (with Laurinda S. Dixon). The recipient of several awards, such as a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship, two National Endowment of the Humanities grants, and a Jane and Morgan Whitney Art History Fellowship, Chu is the past president of the Association of Historians of Nineteenth-Century Art and the Co-Founder and Managing Editor of Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide.

Table of Contents

Preface 13

Introduction 15


Chapter 1 Rococo, Enlightenment, and the Call for a New Art in the Mid Eighteenth Century 20

The Emergence of the Rococo during the Reign of Louis XV 21

Decorative Paintings, Sculptures, and Porcelains 23

The Enlightenment and the Encyclopédie 26

The Rococo outside France 28

Eighteenth-Century Art in Northern Europe 31

The Eighteenth-Century Artist: Between Patronage and the Art Market 33

The Education of the Artist and the Academy 36

Academy Exhibitions 37

Salon Critics and the Call for a New Art in France 38

Count d’Angiviller and the Promotion of Virtuous Art 39

Reynolds and the Call for a New Art in Britain 43


Reproducing Works of Art 33


Chapter 2 The Classical Paradigm 44

Winckelmann and Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture 45

Classical Art and Idealism 46

Contour 47

Archaeology and the Discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum 48

Winckelmann’s History of Ancient Art 49

Greece and Rome 50

The Beginnings of Neoclassicism 52

David 58

Sculpture 62

Canova 63

Thorvaldsen 66

Flaxman 67

The Industrial Revolution and the Popularization of Neoclassicism 69

The Neoclassical Home 71


The Elgin Marbles 50

The Grand Tour 53


Chapter 3 British Art during the Late Georgian Period 74

The Sublime 75

The Lure of the Middle Ages 76

Horace Walpole, William Beckford, and the Taste for the “Gothick” in Architecture 77

The Sublime and the Gothick in Painting: Benjamin West 80

Boydell’s Shakespeare Gallery 82

Henry Fuseli 83

William Blake 85

Visual Satire 92

Grand Manner and Bourgeois Portraits 94


Georgian Britain 76


Chapter 4 Art and Revolutionary Propaganda in France 98

Marie Antionette, Before and After 100

David’s Brutus 102

Commemorating the Heroes and Martyrs of the Revolution 104

Creating a Revolutionary Iconography 107

Pierre-Paul Prud’hon 108

Quatremère de Quincy, the Panthéon, and the Absent Republican Monument 109

Demolition as Propaganda 112


Major Events of the French Revolution 1789—1795 100


Chapter 5 The Arts under Napoleon 114

The Rise of Napoleon 116

Vivant Denon and the Napoleon Museum 117

Napoleonic Public Monuments 118

Empire Style 120

The Imperial Image 123

Antoine-Jean Gros and the Napoleonic Epic 131

The School of David and the “Crisis“ of the Male Nude 132

The Transformation of History Painting: New Subjects and Sensibilities 137

The Lesser Genres: Genre, Portraiture, and Landscape 139


Napoleonic Battles 117

Painting Genres and their Hierarchy 142


Chapter 6 Francisco Goya and Spanish Art at the Turn of the Eighteenth Century 144

Court Patronage under Carlos III: Tiepolo and Mengs 145

The Making of Francisco Goya 148

Goya as Court Painter 151

Goya’s Prints 153

The Execution of the Rebels 156

Quinta del Sordo 158

Spanish Art after Goya 158


Etching 154


Chapter 7 The Beginnings of Romanticism in the German Speaking World 160

The Romantic Movement 161

Early Nazarenes: Friedrich Overbeck and Franz Pforr 162

Peter Cornelius and the Transformation of Nazarene Art 166

German Painting in Context 167

Philipp Otto Runge 167

Caspar David Friedrich 173


Chapter 8 The Importance of Landscape–British Painting in the Early Nineteenth Century 178

Nature Enthusiasm in Great Britain 179

The Picturesque 180

The Popularity of Watercolor: Amateurs and Professionals 183

Thomas Girtin, John Sell Cotman, and the Pictorial Possibilities of Watercolor 184

Joseph Mallord William Turner 189

John Constable 195


Watercolor 183

Girtin and the Vogue for the Painted Panorama 184

Landscape Painting–Subjects and Modalities 188


Chapter 9 The Restoration Period and the Rejection of Classicism in France 200

Government Patronage and the Rejection of Classicism 201

The Academy 203

The Salons of the Restoration Period 204

Madame de Staël and the Introduction of

Romantic Ideas into France 205

Stendhal 205

Orientalism 206

Horace Vernet 207

Théodore Géricault 207

Eugène Delacroix 214

Ingres and the Transformation of Classicism 218

Classicism and Romanticism 221


Paris Salons 204

The Making of The Raft of the Medusa 210

Lithography 212


Chapter 10 The Popularization of Art and Visual Culture in France during the July Monarchy (1830—1848) 222

The Salons of the Second Republic 256

The Origins of Realism 256

Gustave Courbet’s A Burial at Ornans 258

Courbet, Millet, and an Art of Social Consciousness 261

Daumier and the Urban Working Class 263

Realism 265


Chapter 11 The Revolution of 1848 and the Emergence of Realism in France 254

Napoleon III and the “Hausmannization“ of Paris 267

The Opéra and Mid-Nineteenth-Century Sculpture 270

Salons and Other Exhibitions during the Second Empire 275

Popular Trends at the Second Empire Salons 275

History through a Magnifying Glass: Meissonier and Gérôme 277

Second Empire Orientalism–Gérôme, Fromentin, Du Camp, Cordier 279

The Nude 283

Landscape and Animal Painting: Courbet and Bonheur 283

Second Empire Peasant Painting: Millet and Jules Breton 286

Baudelaire and “The Painter of Modern Life” 289

Courbet, Manet, and the Beginnings of Modernism 291

Photography 298

New Roles for Photography 300


Emile Zola and Second Empire France 268

Viollet-le-Duc and France’s Gothic Heritage 270

Women’s Fashions and Women’s Journals 290


Chapter 12 Progress, Modernity, and Modernism–French Visual Culture during the Second Empire, 1852—1870 266

Classicism, Romanticism, and the Juste-Milieu 224

Louis-Philippe and the Museum of the History of France 225

Monumentalizing Napoleon 227

The Revival of Religious Mural Painting 229

The Salon during the July Monarchy 230

Historical Genre and Orientalist Painting 232

Landscape Painting: Corot and the Historical Landscape Tradition 235

Landscape: The Picturesque Tradition 236

Landscape Painting: The Barbizon School and Naturalism 238

Portraiture 240

Sculpture in the Salon 243

The Explosion of the Press and the Rise of Popular Culture 244

Honoré Daumier 245

Gavarni and Grandville 249

Louis Daguerre and the Beginnings of Photography in France 251


Wood Engraving 245

Physiognomy and Phrenology 246


Chapter 13 Art in the German-Speaking World from the Congress of Vienna to the German Empire, 1815—1871 302

Berlin and Munich 303

Official Nazarene Art in Munich 306

Biedermeier Culture 309

Biedermeier Painting 309

German Academies 312

Academic History Painting 313

Adolph Menzel 314

Realism and Idealism: Diverging Trends in the Early 1870s 317


Tableaux Vivants 315


Chapter 14 Art in Victorian Britain, 1837—1901 320

Social and Economic Conditions during the Victorian Age 322

The Victorian Art Scene 324

Painting during the Early Victorian Period: Anecdotal Scenes 325

Fairy Painting: Paton and Dadd 327

Early Victorian Landscape and Animal Painting: Martin and Landseer 329

Early Victorian Photography 331

Government Patronage and the Houses of Parliament 332

The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 336

The Pre-Raphaelites and Secular Subject Matter 338

Genre Painting and Photography in the Mid-Victorian Period 341

From Pre-Raphaelitism to the Aesthetic Movement 344

The Royal Academy 348


The Whistler—Ruskin Trial 348


Chapter 15 National Pride and International Rivalry–The Great International Expositions 350

Origins of the International Expositions 351

The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations 352

The Crystal Palace: A Revolution in Architecture 352

The Great Exhibition and the Design Crisis in Britain 354

New Attitudes toward Design: Owen Jones and John Ruskin 355

The International Exhibition in London, 1862 356

The Japanese Court at the Exhibition of 1862 358

The Universal Exposition of 1855 in Paris 360

The International Art Exposition 362

The French Show 362

Courbet’s Private Pavilion 362

Foreign Artists at the International Exposition of 1855 364

The Paris Universal Exposition of 1867 366

The Fine Arts Exhibition of 1867 367

The Japanese Pavilion 368

The Importance of the International Exhibitions of the 1850s and 1860s 369


Machines at the International Exhibitions 353

Major Nineteenth-Century International Exhibitions 360


Chapter 16 French Art after the Commune–Conservative and Modernist Trends 370

The Commune and Early Photo-Journalism in Europe 371

Republican Monuments 373

Mural Painting during the Third Republic 376

The Third Republic and the Demise of the State-Sponsored Salon 380

Academic and Realist Art at the Salons of 1873—1890 380

Naturalism at the Salons of 1870—1890 382

Manet at the Salons of the 1870s and 1880s 385

Salon Alternatives 387

Origin and Definition of the Term “Impressionism” 387

Claude Monet and the Impressionist Landscape 389

Other Impressionist Landscape Painters: Pissarro and Sisley 390

Monet’s Early Painting Series 393

Impressionist Figure Painting 395

Impressionism and the Urban Scene: Edgar Degas 397

Impressionists and the Urban Scene: Caillebotte 402

Women at the Impressionist Exhibitions 405

Impressionism and Modern Vision 407


Pastel 400

Eadweard Muybridge and Animal Locomotion 401


Chapter 17 French Avant-garde Art in the 1880s 408

Georges Seurat and Neo-Impressionism 409

Neo-Impressionism and Utopianism: Signac and Pissarro 415

The “Crisis” in Impressionism 417

Monet and the Later Series Paintings 418

Degas in the 1880s 420

Renoir in the 1880s 422

Paul Cézanne 425

Vincent van Gogh 430

Post-Impressionism 436


The Letters of Van Gogh 431


Chapter 18 When the Eiffel Tower Was New 438

The Eiffel Tower 439

The Gallery of Machines 440

The History of Habitation Pavilions 441

Colonial Exhibits 442

The Fine Arts on Exhibit 443

The Triumph of Naturalism 445

Nordic Naturalism: Nationalism and Naturism 447

Naturalism in Germany: Max Liebermann and Fritz von Uhde 451

Naturalism in Belgium 453

Jozef Israëls and the Hague School in the Netherlands 454

Russian Painting 456

The 1889 Exposition in Review 459


Nineteenth-Century Imperialism 443


Chapter 19 France during la Belle Epoque 460

Transport of Soul and Body: Sacré Coeur and the Metro 462

Art Nouveau, Siegfried Bing, and the Concept of Decoration 464

The Sources of Art Nouveau 465

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and the Art Nouveau Poster 466

Toulouse-Lautrec, the Painter 470

Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard: Cloisonnism and Synthetism 472

Paul Gauguin: The Passion for Non-Western Culture 474

Symbolism 480

Symbolism and Romanticism: Gustave Moreau and Odilon Redon 480

Symbolist Cult Groups: Rosicrucians and Nabis 483

Fin-de-Siècle Sculpture 486

Camille Claudel 493


Posters 467

The Techniques of Sculpture 490


Chapter 20 International Trends ca. 1900 494

New Art outside France 495

Art Nouveau in Belgium 496

Antoni Gaudí and Spanish Modernisme 496

Glasgow Style 500

Art Nouveau and Symbolism 502

Salons of the Rose + Croix 502

Les XX or The Group of Twenty 504

The Vienna Secession 506

Gustav Klimt 508

Ferdinand Hodler 511

The Berlin Secession 512

Edvard Munch 513

Stile Floreale and Italian Symbolism 515

The Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 517


Timeline 522

Glossary 526

Bibliography 530

Picture Credits 547

Index 549

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