Nutrition and Obesity Assessment, Management and Prevention

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-07-27
  • Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

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Nutrition and Obesity: Assessment, Management and Prevention is a necessary, timely, and comprehensive text that provides an up-to-date, scientifically accurate study of our current understanding of the causes, consequences, and potential of individual and public responses to the serious health issue of obesity. It presents major concepts about obesity including new knowledge gained from recent advances in research on health risks, energy balance, eating behaviors, the biology of hunger and satiety, and pharmacotherapy and surgery as treatments for obesity. Additionally, the text sets obesity in a public health context that includes local, national, and international environmental policy approaches to assessment and prevention.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
About the Authorsp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Epidemiology, Assessment, Causes, and Risks Associated with Presence of Overweight and Obesityp. 1
Current Obesity Trendsp. 3
Obesity Prevalence in the United Statesp. 4
Obesity Definitionp. 4
How Obesity Data Are Collectedp. 6
Trends in Obesity: Increasing or Levelling Off?p. 6
Extreme Obesityp. 7
Childhood Obesityp. 7
Disparities According to Sex and Ethnicityp. 8
Effects of Socioeconomic Statusp. 10
Global Trendsp. 10
Summaryp. 11
Assessment of Body Weight and Body Compositionp. 15
Anthropometric Assessment of Optimal Body Weightp. 16
Height-Weight Tablesp. 16
Calculating Ideal Body Weightp. 16
Comprehensive and Consistent Assessment of Overweight and Obesity Recommended by National Institutes of Health (NIH)p. 17
How is BMI Useful?p. 18
Calculating BMIp. 18
BMI Categoriesp. 19
BMI Variation According to Ethnicityp. 19
BMI Limitationsp. 21
Assessment of Body Composition and Fat Distributionp. 22
Air and Water Displacement Techniquesp. 22
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)p. 23
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)p. 24
Skinfold Measurementp. 25
What Is a Normal Body Fat Percentage?p. 25
Is Waist Circumference Measurement Better at Assessing Risk Than BMI?p. 25
Presence of Other Risk Factors or Disease Comorbiditiesp. 27
Methods to Assess Childhood and Adolescent Overweight and Obesityp. 29
Summaryp. 29
Causes of Obesityp. 33
Factors That Contribute to Obesityp. 34
Energy Balancep. 34
Metabolic Ratep. 35
Energy Expenditure Terminology, Measurement, and Equationsp. 37
Equations for Calculation of BMRp. 38
Thermic Effect of Foodp. 38
Energy Used During Physical Activityp. 39
Environmental Contributors to Increased Energy Intakep. 39
Food Availabilityp. 40
Beverages Add More Caloriesp. 40
Increased Portion Sizesp. 41
Eating Away from Homep. 41
Impact of Socioeconomic Statusp. 42
Reduced Opportunity for Physical Activityp. 42
Metabolic and Genetic Contributions to Eating Behaviorp. 42
Homeostatic Controlsp. 42
Hendonic Systemsp. 44
Genetic Contributions to Obesityp. 44
Summaryp. 45
Health and Economic Consequences of Obesityp. 51
Health and Economic Consequences of Obesityp. 52
Characteristics of Obesity Comorbiditiesp. 52
An Increase in Frequency and Severity of the Disease Occurs When Adiposity Is Presentp. 52
An Improvement or Resolution of the Disease Occurs with Weight Lossp. 52
A Plausible Explanation Exists for the Association of Obesity with the Disease Statep. 52
Obesity and Metabolic Syndromep. 53
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseasep. 54
Polycystic Ovary Syndromep. 55
Type 2 Diabetesp. 55
Cardiovascular Diseasep. 56
Respiratory Diseasep. 58
Obstructive Sleep Apneap. 58
Asthmap. 58
Malignanciesp. 58
Musculoskeletal Disordersp. 58
Longevityp. 59
Controversies About Obesity and Longevityp. 59
Psychosocial Correlates of Obesityp. 59
Quality of Lifep. 59
Discrimination and Biasp. 60
Psychological Implicationsp. 61
Economic Costs of Obesityp. 61
Summaryp. 62
Strategies and Research for Weight Management and Obesity Preventionp. 67
Dietary Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Managementp. 69
Energy Requirements for Weight Managementp. 70
Dietary Recommendations for Weights Managementp. 71
Food Groups and Energy Densityp. 72
Fruits and Vegetables Food Groupp. 72
Grains Food Groupp. 72
Dairy Food Groupp. 73
Protein Food Groupp. 73
Solid Fats and Added Sugarsp. 73
Alcoholic Beveragesp. 75
Portion Controlp. 75
Food Labelsp. 77
Timing of Mealsp. 78
Specific Diet Plansp. 78
Calorie-Reduced Dietsp. 78
Recommended Macronutrient Distributionp. 78
Low-Fat, High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber Dietsp. 79
High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Dietsp. 79
Medically Supervised Very-Low-Calorie Dietsp. 79
Research Comparison of Dietsp. 80
Popular Diet Plansp. 80
How Do We Know What Works?p. 82
Summaryp. 83
Physical Activityp. 87
Energy Balance and Physical Activityp. 88
Definitions of Physical Activityp. 88
Trends in Physical Activityp. 89
How Physical Activity Data Are Collectedp. 90
Recommendations for Physical Activityp. 93
Physical Activity for Good Health, Fitness, and Prevention of Obesityp. 93
Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Youthp. 94
Physical Activity for Weight Lossp. 94
Physical Activity to Prevent Weight Regainp. 95
Physical Activity and the National Weight Control Registry Participantsp. 96
Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Physical Activityp. 97
Metabolic Healthp. 97
Risksp. 98
Costsp. 99
Summaryp. 99
Pharmacologic Agents in Obesity Managementp. 103
Medications for Weight Lossp. 104
Incidence: How Many People Use Weight-Loss Medications?p. 104
How Are Prescription Weight-Loss Medications Regulated?p. 105
Pharmacological Mechanisms of Prescription Weight-Loss Medicationsp. 105
Products That Work Systematically as Appetite Suppressantsp. 105
Products That Inhibit Absorption of Fat from the Gastrointestinal Tractp. 107
Availability of Prescription Medications for Weight Loss/Managementp. 107
Appetite Suppressantsp. 107
Lipase Inhibitorsp. 109
Other Types of Medications Used for Obesity Treatmentp. 110
Potential Benefits of Weight-Loss Medicationsp. 110
Potential Risks Associated with Weight-Loss Medicationsp. 110
Treatment Guidelinesp. 111
Will Insurance Cover the Cost of Weight-Loss Medications?p. 112
Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medications for Weight Loss/Managementp. 112
Dietary Supplement Therapies for Weight Lossp. 114
Supplements Regulation and FDA Oversightp. 114
How is Advertising of Weight-Loss Products Regulated?p. 115
Red Flag Campaignp. 115
Summaryp. 115
Surgical Options for Obesityp. 119
Surgery for Severe Obesityp. 120
Historyp. 120
Incidencep. 120
Indicationsp. 120
Age Limitsp. 121
Contraindicationsp. 121
Before Surgeryp. 121
Weight Loss Before Surgeryp. 122
Categories of Proceduresp. 123
Malabsorptive Versus Restyrictivep. 123
Open Versus Laparoscopicp. 123
Gastric Bypass Surgeryp. 124
Complications and Risks of Gastric Bypass Surgeryp. 124
Centers of Excellencep. 126
Benefits/Outcomes of Gastric Bypass Surgeryp. 126
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Bandingp. 127
Outcomes Associated with Gastric Bandingp. 127
Long-Term Successp. 127
Insurance Coverage and Accessibilityp. 129
Future Techniquesp. 129
Summaryp. 131
Behavioral Aspects of Weight Managementp. 135
Behavior Therapy Assumptions and Characteristicsp. 136
Assess Readiness to Lose Weightp. 136
Set Goalsp. 136
SMART Goals for Weight Managementp. 137
Realistic Expectationsp. 137
Apply Behavior Modification Techniquesp. 139
Self-Monitoringp. 139
Stimulus Controlp. 141
Cognitive Behavior Therapyp. 142
Social Support Networkp. 143
Treatment Delivery Optionsp. 143
Individual Versus Group Therapyp. 143
Internet-Based Programsp. 144
Long-Term Weight Maintenancep. 144
Health at Every Sizep. 145
Summaryp. 146
Where Does Responsibility Lie?p. 151
Where Does Responsibility Lie?p. 152
Individualsp. 152
Familiesp. 152
Environment: Food and Physical Activity Accessibilityp. 153
Schoolsp. 153
Worksitesp. 154
Advertisingp. 154
Stakeholder Responses to Obesity Issuesp. 155
Healthcare Providersp. 155
Schoolsp. 156
Worksitesp. 157
Public Healthp. 159
State and Community Government and Organizationsp. 159
National Programsp. 162
Industryp. 164
Summaryp. 165
New Insights and Future Directions in Obesity Researchp. 171
New Insights for Future Obesity Researchp. 172
Links Between Intenstinal Bacteria and Obesityp. 172
Introduction to Microbiotap. 172
Variations in Microbiotap. 173
Mechanisms of Action Related to Obesityp. 175
New Discoveries Based on Microbial DNA Sequencingp. 175
Viruses Potentially Causes Obesityp. 177
Viruses and Obesity in Animalsp. 177
Adenovirus-36p. 177
Viruses and Obesity in Humansp. 177
Areas for Future Researchp. 178
Environmental Obesogensp. 179
Obesogen Exposurep. 179
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Mechanisms of Actionp. 180
Embryonic and Perinatal Exposuresp. 181
Sleep Disturbances and Energy Balancep. 183
Changes in Sleep over Timep. 183
Variations in Measurement of Sleep Durationp. 184
Causes of Short Sleepp. 184
Studies Relating Sleep Duration to Obesityp. 184
Obesity Spreads Within Social Networksp. 186
Framingham Heart Study Social Networkp. 186
Study Resultsp. 186
Reasons for Social Influence on Obesityp. 187
Glossaryp. 191
Indexp. 195
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