Odyssey : From Paragraph to Essay

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Longman
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Odyssey focuses on helping students build paragraph and essay writing skills while treating the writing process as a voyage of self-discovery, confidence building, and competence building. As with most traditional paragraph to essay writing books, Odyssey begins with a thorough overview of the writing process, introduces the various patterns of development, then demonstrates each pattern of development with various essay samples. Parts IV VI focus on improving grammar and paragraph development. The book concludes with an anthology of readings that take students on a "reading odyssey," where selections cross genres and professions. All exercises have been reorganized and streamlined in the fourth edition. Students will find newly titled "Comprehension and Practice" exercises that begin with a focus on fundamental concepts and then move into invention and the writing of short pieces. Students can then proceed to "Challenge" exercises that call for critical thinking, drafting, and revision. Interspersed throughout these questions sets are " Collaboration" exercises, which are ideal for pairs and/or groups of students. Grammar, mechanics, and punctuation chapters conclude with "Chapter Quick Check" and " Summary Editing" exercises that test students understanding of all the grammar and sentence skills they have learned.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
About the Authorsp. xxix
Starting Outp. 1
Ensuring Success in Writingp. 2
Overview: Understanding the Importance of Good Writing Skillsp. 2
Recognizing the Stages of the Writing Processp. 2
Understanding the Dynamics of Writingp. 4
Focusing on the Readerp. 5
Examining the Purpose behind Your Writingp. 7
Understanding the Important Relationship between Writing and Readingp. 8
Recap Ensuring Success in Writingp. 11
Generating Ideas through Prewritingp. 13
Overview: Seeing Prewriting as a Way to Explore Ideasp. 13
Understanding Prewritingp. 13
Freewritingp. 14
Brainstormingp. 16
Clusteringp. 18
Branchingp. 20
Idea Mappingp. 22
Maintaining a Journalp. 24
Recap Generating Ideas through Prewritingp. 27
Composing: Creating a Draftp. 29
Overview: Understanding Composingp. 29
Recognizing the Structure of a Paragraphp. 30
Identifying an Effective Topicp. 33
Writing a Clear, Specific Topic Sentencep. 35
Providing the Best Support for the Topic Sentencep. 40
Deciding on the Most Effective Arrangementp. 42
Making Your Material Reader Centeredp. 43
Using a Reader Evaluation Checklistp. 45
Developing a Complete Draftp. 47
Recap Composing: Creating a Draftp. 49
Refining and Polishing Your Draftp. 51
Overview: Understanding the Revising Stagep. 51
Reassessing: Reseeing Your Workp. 52
Maintaining Unityp. 52
Providing Coherencep. 54
Transitionp. 54
Organizing Sentences Effectivelyp. 57
Choosing Effective Languagep. 63
Keeping Your Writing Specificp. 63
Keeping Your Writing Concisep. 64
Getting Feedback from an Objective Readerp. 67
Redraftingp. 69
Acknowledging Your Sourcesp. 71
Editingp. 73
Developing a Personal Proofreading Systemp. 73
Using Computer Tools to Your Advantagep. 74
Examining a Revised Draftp. 75
Recap Refining and Polishing Your Draftp. 78
Using the Patterns of Paragraph Developmentp. 81
Narrationp. 82
Overview: Understanding the Modes, Purposes, and Importance of Telling Your Storyp. 82
Writing a Clear Topic Sentence That Establishes a Contextp. 83
Relying on Chronological Orderp. 84
Choosing the Most Effective Point of Viewp. 85
Recap Narrationp. 90
Descriptionp. 91
Overview: Creating a Picture in Wordsp. 91
Previewing the Focus of Description through the Topic Sentencep. 91
Using Sensory Detailsp. 92
Relying on Objective and Subjective Descriptionp. 94
Using Spatial Orderp. 95
Recap Descriptionp. 99
Examplep. 100
Overview: Illustrating Your Pointp. 100
Providing a Topic Sentence That States the Point You Will Illustratep. 100
Providing Specific Examplesp. 101
Ensuring That Your Examples Are Relevantp. 103
Providing an Effective Presentationp. 104
Recap Examplep. 108
Processp. 109
Overview: Explaining How It Happens or How to Do Itp. 109
Including a Topic Sentence That Clearly States the Processp. 109
Using the Imperative Mood: Youp. 110
Dividing the Process into Simple, Logical Stepsp. 111
Relying on Linear Orderp. 112
Recap Processp. 116
Definitionp. 118
Overview: Making Meaning Crystal Clearp. 118
Providing a Topic Sentence That Highlights the Term to Be Definedp. 118
Understanding the Pattern of an Effective Definitionp. 119
Recognizing the Full Effect of the Term Definedp. 121
Enhancing Definition through Synonyms, Negation, and Etymologyp. 122
Recap Definitionp. 126
Comparison and Contrastp. 128
Overview: Expressing Similarities and Differencesp. 128
Providing a Topic Sentence That Specifies Both Subjects and Indicates the Focusp. 129
Establishing Your Basis for Comparisonp. 129
Providing a Thorough and Specific Presentationp. 131
Arranging Your Ideas Effectivelyp. 132
Recap Comparison and Contrastp. 136
Cause and Effectp. 138
Overview: Explaining Reasons and Consequencesp. 138
Providing a Topic Sentence That Focuses on Cause and Effectp. 139
Distinguishing between Direct and Related Causes and Effectsp. 139
Avoiding Oversimplification of Causes and Effectsp. 141
Providing an Effective Arrangementp. 141
Recap Cause and Effectp. 145
Division and Classificationp. 147
Overview: Analyzing the Whole in Terms of the Partsp. 147
Specifying Scope and Emphasis through a Topic Sentencep. 148
Establishing a Logical Method of Analysisp. 148
Maintaining a Consistent Presentationp. 150
Using Distinct and Complete Groupingsp. 151
Recap Division and Classificationp. 155
Argumentp. 157
Overview: Understanding Persuasionp. 157
Providing a Topic Sentence That Expresses a Clear Stance on the Issuep. 158
Developing Sufficient Support through Sound Reasonsp. 158
Using a Reasonable, Convincing Tonep. 162
Using Sound Logicp. 162
Arranging Your Support in Emphatic Orderp. 165
Recap Argumentp. 170
Moving On to the Essayp. 173
Developing an Essayp. 174
Overview: Understanding the Essayp. 174
Understanding the Structure of an Essayp. 175
The Introductionp. 175
The Bodyp. 175
The Conclusionp. 175
Examining an Effective Essayp. 176
Examining the Process of Writing an Essayp. 178
Prewriting: Generating Ideas and Identifying a Manageable Focusp. 180
Developing an Effective Thesisp. 181
Composingp. 184
Creating an Effective Introduction and Conclusionp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Conclusionp. 186
Understanding the Relationship between Topic Sentences and the Thesisp. 187
Developing a Solid First Draftp. 188
Revisingp. 189
Reassessingp. 189
Revising for Unityp. 189
Revising for Coherencep. 190
Revising for Effective Languagep. 191
Seeking Help from an Objective Readerp. 193
Redraftingp. 194
Editing: Eliminating Errorsp. 194
Looking Again at the Final Draftp. 196
Recap Developing an Essayp. 200
Examining Types of Essaysp. 202
Overview: Understanding How to Use the Modes to Develop Essaysp. 202
The Relationship between Your Purpose and the Modesp. 203
Using Narration to Develop an Essayp. 203
Examining a Narrative Essayp. 203
Using Description to Develop an Essayp. 206
Examining a Descriptive Essayp. 206
Using Example to Develop an Essayp. 209
Examining an Example Essayp. 209
Using Process to Develop an Essayp. 212
Examining a Process Essayp. 212
Using Definition to Develop an Essayp. 215
Examining a Definition Essayp. 215
Using Comparison and Contrast to Develop an Essayp. 218
Examining a Comparison and Contrast Essayp. 218
Using Cause and Effect to Develop an Essayp. 221
Examining a Cause and Effect Essayp. 221
Using Division and Classification to Develop an Essayp. 224
Examining a Division and Classification Essayp. 225
Writing an Argument Essayp. 228
Examining an Argument Essayp. 228
Recap Examining Types of Essaysp. 231
Adjusting Your Process: Timed Writing and Summariesp. 233
Overview: Understanding How to Deal with the Pressure of Timed Writingp. 233
Answering an Essay Question Effectivelyp. 234
Preparationp. 234
Active Readingp. 234
Effective Note-Takingp. 235
Anticipationp. 236
Rehearsalp. 236
Drawing Up a Practice Questionp. 236
Developing a Sample Essay Answerp. 237
Completing a Writing Assessment Effectivelyp. 241
Understanding the Five-Paragraph Essayp. 242
Examining a Sample Writing Assessmentp. 244
Writing an Effective Summaryp. 249
Examining the Summarizing Process of Preparing a Summaryp. 250
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 253
Recap Adjusting Your Process: Timed Writing and Summariesp. 255
Developing Sentence Sensep. 257
The Sentencep. 258
Overview: Understanding Sentence Basicsp. 258
Understanding Verbsp. 258
Recognizing Subjectsp. 261
Chapter Quick Check: Sentence Basicsp. 265
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 266
Summary Exercise: Sentence Basicsp. 267
Recap The Sentence
Fragmentsp. 271
Overview: Recognizing and Writing Complete Sentencesp. 271
Correcting Fragments with Missing Subjects or Verbsp. 271
Correcting Phrase Fragmentsp. 275
Correcting Subordinate Clause Fragmentsp. 277
Correcting Appositive Fragmentsp. 280
Chapter Quick Check: Fragmentsp. 282
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 282
Summary Exercise: Fragmentsp. 284
Recap Fragmentsp. 286
Subordination and Coordinationp. 288
Overview: Combining Clauses for Sentence Complexityp. 288
Using Subordinationp. 289
Using Coordinationp. 291
Achieving Coordination by Using Coordinating Conjunctionsp. 292
Achieving Coordination by Using Semicolonsp. 294
Chapter Quick Check: Subordination and Coordinationp. 297
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 297
Summary Exercise: Subordination and Coordinationp. 299
Recap Subordination and Coordinationp. 300
Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 303
Overview: Understanding Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 303
Identifying Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 303
Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons by Using Coordinating Conjunctionsp. 307
Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons by Using Subordinating Conjunctionsp. 309
Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons by Using Semicolonsp. 311
Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons by Using Periodsp. 315
Chapter Quick Check: Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 318
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 319
Summary Exercise: Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 321
Recap Comma Splices and Run-on Sentencesp. 322
Understanding Subjects and Verbsp. 325
Subject-Verb Agreementp. 326
Overview: Understanding Subject-Verb Agreementp. 326
Avoiding Agreement Errors When the Subject Follows the Verbp. 327
Avoiding Agreement Errors When Words Come between the Subject and Verbp. 329
Avoiding Agreement Errors with Indefinite Pronounsp. 331
Avoiding Agreement Errors from Other Causesp. 334
When the Subject Is Compoundp. 334
When the Subject Is a Collective Noun or Is Introduced by a Cue Wordp. 334
When The Subject Is a Singular Word Ending in -s, a Word Referring to an Amount, or a Word That Has the Same Singular and Plural Formp. 335
Chapter Quick Check: Mastering Subject-Verb Agreementp. 338
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 339
Summary Exercise: Mastering Subject-Verb Agreementp. 341
Recap Subject-Verb Agreementp. 343
Basic Tenses for Regular Verbsp. 345
Overview: Understanding Tensep. 345
Using the Simple Present, Simple Future, and Simple Past Tensesp. 346
Using the Perfect Tensesp. 349
Chapter Quick Check: Working with Basic Verb Tensesp. 352
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 353
Summary Exercise: Working with Basic Verb Tensesp. 354
Recap Basic Tenses for Regular Verbsp. 356
Irregular Verbs and Frequently Confused Verbsp. 359
Overview: Understanding Irregular Verbs and Other Verb Problemsp. 359
Identifying Irregular Verbsp. 360
Working with Forms of To Bep. 366
Choosing between Can and Could and between Will and Wouldp. 369
Chapter Quick Check: Eliminating Problems with Irregular Verbs and Can and Could and Will and Wouldp. 372
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 373
Summary Exercise: Eliminating Problems with Irregular Verbs and Can and Could and Will and Wouldp. 374
Recap Irregular Verbs and Frequently Confused Verbsp. 376
Passive Voice, Additional Tenses, and Maintaining Consistency in Tensep. 378
Overview: Understanding Additional Elements of Verb Usep. 378
Forming the Passive and Active Voicep. 379
Using the Progressive and Perfect Progressive Tensesp. 381
The Progressive Tensesp. 381
The Perfect Progressive Tensesp. 382
Maintaining Consistency in Tensep. 384
Chapter Quick Check: Mastering Voice, Progressive and Perfect Progressive Tenses, and Consistency in Verb Tensep. 388
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 389
Summary Exercise: Mastering Voice, Progressive and Perfect Progressive Tenses, and Consistency in Verb Tensep. 390
Recap Passive Voice, Additional Tenses, and Maintaining Consistency in Tensep. 392
Keeping Your Writing Correctp. 395
Nouns: Working Effectively with Words That Namep. 396
Overview Understanding Nounsp. 396
Reviewing the Function and Form of Nounsp. 396
Considering Singular Nouns Ending in -s, Collective Nouns, and Cue Wordsp. 401
Chapter Quick Check: Working with Nounsp. 404
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 405
Summary Exercise: Working with Nounsp. 407
Recap Nouns: Working Effectively with Words That Namep. 409
Pronouns: Understanding Case, Clear Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement, and Nonsexist Pronoun Usagep. 410
Overview: Choosing the Correct Pronounp. 410
Examining Pronoun Typesp. 411
Understanding and Applying Pronoun Casep. 412
Maintaining Agreement in Numberp. 416
Maintaining Agreement with Indefinite Pronounsp. 417
Maintaining Agreement with Demonstrative and Reflexive or Intensive Pronounsp. 422
Maintaining Agreement with That, Who, and Which Clausesp. 425
Keeping the Relationship between Pronoun and Antecedent Clearp. 427
Avoiding Problems with Gender in Pronoun-Antecedent Agreementp. 431
Chapter Quick Check: Working with Pronounsp. 433
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 434
Summary Exercise: Working with Pronounsp. 436
Recap Pronouns: Understanding Case, Clear Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement, and Nonsexist Pronoun Usagep. 438
Adjectives, Adverbs, and Other Modifiers: Using Describing and Modifying Words Effectivelyp. 440
Overview: Understanding the Roles of Adjectives and Adverbsp. 440
Understanding Adjectives and Adverbsp. 441
Creating Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbsp. 442
Working with Confusing Pairs of Adjectives and Adverbsp. 445
Avoiding Dangling and Misplaced Modifiersp. 447
Avoiding Double Negativesp. 453
Chapter Quick Check: Working with Adjectives and Adverbsp. 456
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 457
Summary Exercise: Working with Adjectives and Adverbsp. 459
Recap Adjectives, Adverbs, and Other Modifiers: Using Describing and Modifying Words Effectivelyp. 460
Parallelism: Presenting Related Items in a Similar Formp. 463
Overview: Balancing Ideas in Your Writingp. 463
Maintaining Parallelism with Words in a Seriesp. 464
Maintaining Parallelism with Phrasesp. 466
Maintaining Parallelism When Using Correlative Conjunctionsp. 469
Chapter Quick Check: Maintaining Parallelismp. 471
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 473
Summary Exercise: Maintaining Parallelismp. 475
Recap Parallelism Presenting Related Items in a Similar Formp. 477
Spelling: Focusing on Correctnessp. 479
Overview: Understanding the Importance of Correct Spellingp. 479
Basic Rules for Forming Pluralsp. 480
Basic Rules for Prefixes and Suffixesp. 484
The Basic Rule for ie or eip. 487
Basic Rules for -sede, -ceed, and -cede, and Other Endings That Sound Alikep. 487
Dealing with Commonly Confused Wordsp. 490
Learning the Most Commonly Misspelled Wordsp. 496
Chapter Quick Check: Spelling Skillsp. 501
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 502
Summary Exercise: Spelling Skillsp. 504
Recap Spelling: Focusing on Correctnessp. 505
Commasp. 507
Overview: Understanding Comma Usep. 507
Using a Comma between Clauses Connected by Conjunctionsp. 508
Using Commas to Separate Items in a Seriesp. 509
Using a Comma to Set Off Introductory Materialp. 510
Using Commas to Set Off Elements That Interrupt Sentence Flowp. 512
Using Commas to Set Off Direct Quotationsp. 514
Recognizing Other Situations in Which Commas Are Neededp. 515
Chapter Quick Check: Comma Usep. 518
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 519
Summary Exercise: Comma Usep. 520
Recap Commasp. 522
Other Punctuation and Capitalizationp. 524
Overview: Maintaining Correctness and Clarity through Punctuation and Capitalizationp. 524
Using Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Pointsp. 525
Using Quotation Marksp. 526
Using Apostrophesp. 529
Using Other Marks of Punctuationp. 532
Colonsp. 532
Semicolonsp. 534
Parentheses and Dashesp. 535
Understanding Capitalizationp. 537
Chapter Quick Check: Punctuation and Capitalizationp. 541
Quick Study: Student Examplep. 542
Summary Exercise: Punctuation and Capitalizationp. 543
Recap Other Punctuation and Capitalizationp. 546
Connecting: Responding to Readingp. 549
Overview: Responding to Readingp. 550
Taking Notesp. 550
Active Reading Strategiesp. 550
Active Reading Illustratedp. 551
5:00 AM.: Writing as Ritualp. 553
Fish Cheeksp. 555
Intimacy and Independencep. 557
Nightwatchp. 559
Hit and Runp. 562
Words, Good or Bad, Can Echo through a Lifetimep. 564
Remote Control-How to Raise a Media Skepticp. 567
My Paradisep. 569
Pridep. 572
Exposed Toesp. 574
Childhood-Then and Nowp. 576
Fear Notp. 579
Two Peas in a Podp. 581
R-E-S-P-E-C-Tp. 583
Home Schoolingp. 586
Tips for ESL Writersp. 589
Exploring the Dictionaryp. 604
Rhetorical Indexp. 609
Creditsp. 614
Indexp. 615
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