Optical Diagnostics for Thin Film Processing

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1995-10-14
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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This volume describes the increasing role of in situ optical diagnostics in thin film processing for applications ranging from fundamental science studies to process development to control during manufacturing. The key advantage of optical diagnostics in these applications is that they are usually noninvasive and nonintrusive. Optical probes of the surface, film, wafer, and gas above the wafer are described for many processes, including plasma etching, MBE, MOCVD, and rapid thermal processing. For each optical technique, the underlying principles are presented, modes of experimental implementation are described, and applications of the diagnostic in thin film processing are analyzed, with examples drawn from microelectronics and optoelectronics. Special attention is paid to real-time probing of the surface, to the noninvasive measurement of temperature, and to the use of optical probes for process control. Optical Diagnostics for Thin Film Processing is unique. No other volume explores the real-time application of optical techniques in all modes of thin film processing. The text can be used by students and those new to the topic as an introduction and review of the subject. It also serves as a comprehensive resource for engineers, technicians, researchers, and scientists already working in the field. Key Features * The only volume that comprehensively explores in situ, real-time, optical probes for all types of thin film processing * Useful as an introduction to the subject or as a resource handbook * Covers a wide range of thin film processes including plasma etching, MBE, MOCVD, and rapid thermal processing * Examples emphasize applications in microelectronics and optoelectronics * Introductory chapter serves as a guide to all optical diagnostics and their applications * Each chapter presents the underlying principles, experimental implementation, and applications for a specific optical diagnostic

Table of Contents

Overview of Optical Diagnostics: Diagnostics vs
Sensors vs
Attributes of in Situ Optical Diagnostics
Performance Characteristics of Sensors
The Need for in Situ Diagnostics
Survey of OpticalProbes
Survey of Nonoptical Probes
Thin Film Processes and Their Diagnostics Needs
The Properties of Light: Propagation
Polarization Properties of Light
The Structure of Matter: Separation of Electronic and Nuclear Motion
EnergyLevels in Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Energy Levels in Solids.The Interactions of Light with Matter for Spectroscopy: Dipole Moments and Polarization
Quantum Mechanics of the Interaction of Light with Matter
Nonlinear Optical Interactions
Heating by the Probing Laser
Diagnostics Equipment and Methods: Optical Components
Signal Collection and Analysis
Optical Emission Spectroscopy: Mechanisms for Optical Excitation
Applications in Processing
Plasma Etching
Laser-Induced Fluorescence: Experimental Considerations
Transmission (Absorption): Experimental Considerations
Gas-Phase Absorption
Transmission through Adsorbates or Thin Films
Transmission through Substrates for Thermometry
Reflection: Optics of Reflection
Reflectometry, Ellipsometry, and Polarimetry
Optical Dielectric Functions
Reflection at an Interface with a Semi Infinite Medium
Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy
Differential Reflectometry
Surface Photoabsorption and Brewster Angle Reflectometry
Reflectance-Difference (Anisotropy) Spectroscopy
Interferometry and Photography: Interferometry
Photography, Imaging, and Microscopy
Elastic Scattering and Diffraction from Particles and Nonplanar Surfaces (Scatterometry): Detection of Particles
Diffraction from Surface Features
Speckle Photography and Interferometry
Raman Scattering: Kinematics and Dynamics of Spontaneous Raman Scattering
Thermometry and Density Measurements in Gases
Real-Time Raman Probing of Solids and Surfaces
Pyrometry: Theoretical and Experimental Considerations
Single-Wavelength Pyrometry
Dual-Wavelength Pyrometry
Pyrometric Interferometry
Thermal Radiation during Pulsed-Laser Deposition
Photoluminescence: Experimental Considerations
Probing Defects and Damage
Spectroscopies Employing Laser Heating: Laser-Induced Thermal Desorption
Thermal Wave Optical Spectroscopies
Nonlinear Optical Diagnostics: Coherent Anti stokes Raman Scattering
Surface Second-Harmonic Generation
Third-Harmonic Generation in Gases
Optical Electron/Ion Probes: Photoionization
Optogalvanic Spectroscopy
Optical Thermometry: The Need for Thermometry in Thin Film Processing
Nonoptical Probes of Temperature
The Physical Basis of Optical Thermometry
Comparison of Optical Thermometry Probes
Appendix: Representative Citations in Real-Time Optical Thermometry in Thin Film Processing
Reviews of Optical Thermometry
Citations for Optical Thermometry in Gases
Citations for Optical Thermometry of Wafers
Data Analysis and Process Control: Data Acquisition and Analysis
Process Modeling
Process Control
Subject Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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